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James Carson Breckinridge 
Library 




MARINE CORPS SCHOOLS 
QUANTICO, VIRGINIA 



A CRUISING COMPANION 

SHIPS AND THE SEA 



Second Edition revised 



A CRUISING COMPANION 

SHIPS AND THE SEA 

Compiled and Edited by 
Pay-Lieut. E. C. TALBOT-BOOTH, R.N.R. 

Editor of " Merchant Ships " 




D. APPLETON-CENTURY COMPANY 

INCORPORATED 

NEW YORK LONDON 

1936 



VK 
.T3 



JAMES CARSON BRECKINRIDGE UBRAftt 

PRINTED AND MADE IN GREAT BRITAIN 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

CHAPTER I 

Seamanship and Navigation . . 1 

Rule of the Road. Ships Meeting: Ships Crossing, etc. ... 2 

Navigation Lights .......... 4 

Charts . Signs and Abbreviations used on Charts .... 6 

Bearings ............ 7 

Tides . . .... . . . . . . 8 

Tidal Streams ........... 8 

Currents ........... 9 

Navigational Instruments ........ 9 

Compass : Sounding Machines : Logs : Wireless Direction Finder : 
Submarine Signals : Rangefinders : Helm Indicator : Engine- Room 
Telegraph : Navigational Lights : 

Winds and Beaufort Scale. Barometer: Weather ... 22 

: Clouds .... 24 

Douglas Sea and Swell Scale. . . ..... 25 

Fog Scale 27 

Measurements at Sea ......... 28 

Conversion of Knots into Miles per Hour . . . . . 28 

Time 29 

Division of the Circle ......... 31 

Ships' Bells ,32 

v 



Contents 

PAGE 

CHAPTER II 

Trinity House, Origin and Function . 36 

Pilotage ............ 38 

Buoys and Beacons .......... 44 

Lightships and Lighthouses ........ 49 

Important Lighthouses and Lightvessels round the British Isles 55 

Important European Lights ........ 86 

CHAPTER III 

Distance Tables 88 

Round British Coasts ......... 88 

Cross Channel Distances ......... 92 

London to Foreign Ports ........ 96 

Between Various Foreign Ports ....... 99 

CHAPTER IV 

Commercial Bunkering and Fuelling Stations oi the World . . . 101 

CHAPTER V 

Flags 108 

Ensigns, National Flags, their Use and Origin and Otker Important 

Flags, Naval and Commercial ....... 109 

CHAPTER VI 

Signals and Communications at Sea 123 

International Code of Signals and Code Letters . . . .124 

vi 



Contents 

PAGE 

Distant Signals .......... 129 

naval signals: gale warning: sound signals: submarine signal- 
ling: wireless signalling: night signals. 
Semaphore Telegraph Signalling . . . . . . .133 

The Morse Code 137 

CHAPTER VII 
Origin and Development of Ships . . . .. . . .139 

CHAPTER VIII 

Ship Construction 150 

Why a Ship Remains Afloat ........ 151 

Strains on Ship Construction . . . . . . . .153 

Methods or Hull Construction . . . . . 156 

CHAPTER IX 

The Birth of a Ship . . 158 

Conception, Plans, Design, Tests, Building, Launch and Fitting Out- 158 
List of Measured Miles in British Isles . . . . .166 

CHAPTER X 

Parts of a Ship 167 

General, Hull, etc., Fittings . . . . . . . .167 

Types of Bows .......... 167 



Contents 

PAGE 

Types of Sterns .......... 170 

Decks ............ 171 

Load Lines and Freeboard ........ 174 

CHAPTER XI 

Engine Room and Machinery 189 

Various Kinds of Machinery . . . . . . . .189 

Horse Power ........... 194 

Numbers of Vessels Using Various Kinds . . . . .197 

CHAPTER XII 
Tonnage 199 

CHAPTER XIII 
Ship's Papers . 203 

CHAPTER XIV 
Stores in an Atlantic Liner 205 

CHAPTER XV 

Classes o! Ships 207 

Liners 207 

Intermediate Liners . . . . . . . . .208 

Cargo Liners ........... 208 

viii 



Contents 



Tramp 

Tankers ...... 

Cable Ships . . . . 

Fruit Carriers ..... 

Cross -Channel and Coastal Liners . 
Pleasure Craft .... 

Train Ferries and Motor Car Ferries 
Tugs and Salvage Craft . 
Dredgers ...... 

Harbour Craft .... 



CHAPTER XVI 

Sailing Ships 

Parts of Sails ......... 

Sails of a Full Rigged Ship . . . . 

Masts and Yards of a Full Rigged Ship 

Types of Sailing Vessels ...... 

Best-known Sailing Vessels Afloat. .... 

Countries Owning Considerable Number of Sailing Ships 

CHAPTER XVII 
Yachts and Yachting 

" America's " Cup 

Sail Letters 

Some Large Steam Yachts 

Some Large Motor Yachts 

List of Principal British, Dominion and Foreign Yacht Clubs 



page 
209 
209 
210 
213 
213 
214 
215 
216 
219 
221 



223 
226 
232 
234 
236 
237 
239 



240 
241 

246 
247 

248 
248 



Contents 

PAGE 

CHAPTER XVIII 

Fishing Boats and the Fishing Industry . 255 

Distinguishing Marks of British Fishing Craft . . . .260 

Drifters ............ 260 

Trawlers 260 

Map of Herring Fishery ...... Facing page 258 

CHAPTER XIX 

Royal National Life-Boat Institution 263 

Its Formation, Work, Types of Craft and List of Stations Round 
British Coasts. 

CHAPTER XX 

Some Well-known Ship Canals 283 

Inland Waterways o! Great Britain 289 

CHAPTER XXI 
World's Greatest Seaports 290 

CHAPTER XXII 

Various Kinds of Docks 293 

Graving 293 

Floating ............ 294 

CHAPTER XXIII 
Outstanding Dates Connected: with Shipping 299 

X 



Contents 

PAGE 

CHAPTER XXIV 
Speeds of Ships throughout the Ages 302 

The Blue Riband of the Atlantic 304 

CHAPTER XXV 

The British Merchant Navy 306 

Its Growth and Present Position 

CHAPTER XXVI 
Merchant Navy Officers and Their Duties 312 

CHAPTER XXVTI 
British Merchant Navy Uniforms 318 

CHAPTER XXVIII 
His Majesty's Customs, Excise and Coastguard 320 

CHAPTER XXIX 

Number of Merchant Ships built in Great Britain and Other Countries during 

this Century 322 

CHAPTER XXX 
Merchant Fleets of the Principal Maritime Powers 324 



Contents 

TAOE 

CHAPTER XXXI 
Tonnage of Various Merchant Fleets in 1914 and 1934 .... 325 

CHAPTER XXX LI 
Merchant Ships of the World above 30,000 tons 320 

CHAPTER XXXIII 
Largest Merchant Ships owned by Principal Maritime Countries . . . 327 

CHAPTER XXXIV 
Fastest Vessels Owned by Various Countries . . . . .329 

CHAPTER XXXV 

Oil Tankers Owned by Principal Maritime Powers ..... 330 

CHAPTER XXXVI 

World Records 331 

Records Held by British Ships 332 

CHAPTER XXXVII 
Some Hints for Recognition of Liners 335 

CHAPTER XXXVIII 
Some Systems of Nomenclature Adopted by Shipping Companies . . .341 

CHAPTER XXXIX 
Illustrations of some Well-known Merchant Vessels of All Nations with 

Leading Details 350 



Contents 

PAGE 

CHAPTER XL 
Some Well-known Shipping Companies (with their fleets and services) . 412 

CHAPTER XLI 

Flags and Funnels of British and Foreign Companies in colour . . 560 

British Shipping Companies ........ 560 

Foreign Shipping Companies . . . . . . . .571 

Argentine, Belgium, Brazil, Chili, China, Denmark, Finland, France, 
Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, 
Spain, Sweden, U.S.A., Uruguay, Yugoslavia. 



NAVAL SECTION 

CHAPTER XLII 
The Royal Navy, Imperial Communications and Sea Power . . . 583 

CHAPTER XLIII 

Royal Marines and Naval Reserves 587 

Royal Fleet Reserve ......... 587 

Royal Marines ........... 587 

Royal Naval Reserve ......... 589 

Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve . . . . . . .590 

xiii 



Contents 

PAGE 

CHAPTER XLIV 
Naval Ranks and Ratings and their Duties . . . . . .591 

CHAPTER XLV 
Naval Uniforms 596 

CHAPTER XL VI 
Naval Traditions and Customs 599 

CHAPTER XL VII 
Ships' Badges and Naval Heraldry 605 

CHAPTER XL VIII 

Types of Warships and their functions . . . . . . .609 

Capital Ships: Battleships ........ 609 

: Battle -Cruisers . . . . . . .610 

Cruisers ............ 610 

Aircraft Carriers . . . . . . . . . .611 

Destroyers and Flotilla Leaders . . . . . . .612 

Submarines ........... 612 

Small Craft and Auxiliaries . . . . . . . .613 

CHAPTER XLIX 

British Naval Weapons . . . . . . . .614 

Guns, Torpedoes, Mines and Depth Charges . . . . .615 

xiv 



Contents 

PAGE 

CHAPTER L 

Royal Navy . . . .618 

Personnel of the Royal Navy . . . . . . .618 

Ships op the Royal Navy. (Compared with 1914) . . . 618 

The Royal Navy. (Distribution of Fleet and Colouring) , Naval Bases 619 

CHAPTER LI 

Representative Ships of the Royal Navy 622 

Complete List of Ships of the Royal Navy. (With Leading Dimen- 
sions, Armament, etc.) ........ 622 

CHAPTER LII 

Representative Ships of the Foreign Navies 658 

France ....... 658 

Germany ............... 666 

Italy ............ 671 

Japan 678 

United States . . . . . . . . . . . 689 

Index of all Ships, Naval and Mercantile . . . » . . .699 



SHIPS AND THE SEA 

CHAPTER I 

Seamanship and Navigation 

"NAVIGATION is the art of taking ships from one place to another out of siglit 
of land. 

It is an exacting science and although modern inventions may have helped in 
countless ways, the navigator, remember, must be master of these mechanical 
devices. 

The science can be learnt: seamanship cannot. The latter might almost be des- 
cribed as the art of putting navigation into operation; it consists of boat-work 
and of the practical side of the profession; either a man has a sea-sense or he has 
not, in the same way that some persons have a road-sense and others do not, although 
the latter may have as good a theoretical knowledge of the rules and regulations. 

Knowledge, skill, judgment, nerve and intuition all play a part in the seaman's 
make-up; watch a destroyer coming alongside a breakwater or pier at high speed, 
or watch a midshipman handling his picket-boat and it looks very simple; try it 

1 



Ships and the Sea 

yourself and see; if you are in a skiff, can you bring it alongside a pier with just 
enough way on it to fetch up at the exact spot you had in mind ? 

Seamanship is seen at its best in periods of crisis such as during the rescue of a 
crew in mid-ocean. Seamanship of a high standard was exhibited by the former 
Commodore of the Cunard fleet, the late Sir James Charles, when he took Aquitania 
out from Southampton and swung her under her own steam, during a tug strike; 
to handle a vessel of 47,000 tons in this way is beyond all praise. 

This is not the place to embark upon a navigational lecture, but a few governing 
rules may be of interest and even of value. 

Rule of the Road. 

As a general rule ships keep to the right of a fairway or channel. 

Ships Meeting. 

When two ships (other than sailing vessels) are meeting nearly end-on in such 
a manner as to involve risk of collision, each shall alter her course to starboard, so 
that each may pass on the port side of the other : — 

" Green to green or red to red, 

Perfect safety, go ahead." 
But — 
" If three lights you see ahead " (that is, mast-head and 

side-lights), 
" Starboard wheel and show your red." 
Ships Crossing. 

When two steam vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel 
whieh has the other on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way of the other. 

2 



Seamanship and Navigation 

* If to your starboard red appear, 

It is your duty to keep clear. 

To act as judgment says is proper, 

To port or starboard, back or stop her." 
" But if upon your port is seen 

A steamer's starboard light of green, 

There's not so much for you to do, 

For green to red keeps clear of you." 

In other words, Green keeps clear of Red. 

Power-driven ships always keep clear of sailing vessels. 

Vessels overtaking shall keep clear of the overtaken ones. 

All vessels shall keep out of the way of fishing boats with nets out or of vessels 
not under way or out of control. 

As on the road however, the fact that you may be in the right does not absolve 
you from responsibility in cases of collision; you must always stand by to take what- 
ever action may be necessary on account of the other fellow not following the rules ; 
again, circumstances may prevent the rigid application of these rules, 

A useful rule to remember is that ship's head, wheel and rudder all move in the same 
direction ; if you want to go to starboard, put your wheel over to starboard and all 
is well. 

The tiller ropes in a row-boat work in the same manner. 

The tiller in a ship not having a wheel, however, works in the opposite way; for 
example, if you want to go to starboard you bring your tiller to port. 

Until 1st January, 1933, all orders were " Helm (tiller) " orders, but since that 
date they have been direct " Steering " orders. This old custom was a survival 
from the days when all ships were steered by tillers, so that up to 1933 if a ship 

3 



Ships and the Sea 

was required to go to starboard the order would have been " Port," and vice-versa — 

in other words, the reverse order was given and then disobeyed by the helmsman. 

A vessel shall indicate her course if necessary by giving the following signals : — 

One short blast: "I am directing my course to starboard." 
Two short blasts: "I am directing my course to port." 
Three short blasts: "My engines are going full speed astern." 

The first official ruling regarding navigation lights was introduced by the Admiralty 
in 1848; until that time red lights were sometimes shown on the starboard and green 
on the port. 

The usual method of committing to memory which are the correct colours is to 
think of the port light as being of the colour of port wine or cherry brandy and the 
starboard light that of creme de menthe. 

At night the following are the rules governing lights to be carried by power-driven 
vessels : when not under way the side-lights are not carried. 

Navigation Lights. 

Under Way: Green light on starboard side and red light on port side (called 
side-lights, and visible 2 miles), white light at foremast (visible 5 miles). 

Additional white light usually carried on mainmast; must be at least 15 feet higher 
than that on foremast. 

Vessels Towing: Side-lights; two white lights on foremast not less than 6 feet 
apart, third white below or above, if tow is more than 600 feet in length. 

The vessel being towed shows only side-lights. 

Cable Vessels: Side-lights; one white light between two red lights on foremast. 

Trawlers : Side -lights; mast-head light and white below this. (May have coloured 
lantern combining masthead and sidelights.) 

4 



Lights 



Colours. 
O White. 
• Red. 
^ Green. 


o ° 
I- 




# • 

2. 


8 



® • 
3. 


J 

4. 


s 

5. 


•Of 

o 

6. 


t 

7. 9 • 


8. 8a. 



1. Steam vessel under way ; {port side). 

Bow Views: — 3. Vessel towing more than one ship. 
6. Steam fishing vessel. 7. Vessel not under command, 
at work ; safe to pass only on white side. - 



2. Same, bow view. 

4. Cable Layer. 5. Pilot Cutter. 
8. Dredger at work. 8a. Dredger 



Ships and the Sea 

Pilot Vessels: Side-lights; white mast-head light; red light below this (latter 
only if vessel is on station). 

Vessel not under Command: Side-lights; two red lights, vertical, visible all 
round. 

Most vessels also carry a stern light. 

A Dredger at Work: Exhibits three white lights in a triangle if it is safe to pass 
on either side ; three lights in a triangle, two white and one red if it is unsafe to pass 
on that side next the red. 

Special Lights Carried by H.M. Ships: In Harbour the following lights are 
exhibited in addition to the usual stay-lights : — 

Flagship of Admiral : Three stern lights and one top light. 
Flagship of Vice -Admiral: Two stern lights and one top light. 
Flagship of Rear- Admiral or Commodore: One stern light and one top 
light. 

Stern lights are carried on after side of shelter deck or after bridge ; top lights are 
carried on after part of main-top and are not visible before the beam; they are 
carried at sea by all ranks of Admiral. 

The rules of lights and the rule of the road are in general so simple that many sea- 
men wondered why they could not be introduced on land long before the present 
traffic lights were adopted. 

Charts. 

Charts are prepared by the Admiralty Hydrographic Department ; they are intensely 
interesting and contain a mass of information. 

The lines drawn from side to side across the chart are called parallels of Latitude ; 
those from top to bottom are called meridians of Longitude. 



Seamanship and Navigation 

The Equator is the parallel running round the centre of the globe and latitude is 
spoken of as being so many degrees North or South of this centre line. 

Greenwich is taken as the world's Meridian and longitude is spoken of as being so 
many degrees West or East of that point. 

In taking a vessel from one position on a chart to another a Course has to be set; 
a line is drawn joining the two places and the angle that this line makes with the 
North and South line is called the course. 

The position of a ship when in sight of land is checked on the chart by taking 
Bearings ; the direction of two or more prominent objects on the land is taken by 
compass, these angles are drawn on the chart, and where the lines meet is the position 
of the ship. 

The earth being nearly a sphere its surface is curved, but a chart or map has to 
be drawn upon a flat surface, and the problem of how best to do this was solved by 
a Dutch mathematician named Gerard Mercator, in 1580. While keeping the 
meridians of longitude parallel on his chart, he gradually increased the distances 
between the parallels of latitude so that the true ratio of the latitude to the longitude 
was maintained. 

This enables the navigator to lay off a straight line on a certain bearing to the 
north at one point, so that all other parts of that line will have the same bearing 
relative to that north and this is called the " rhumb line." 

All circles which bound the maximum circumference of the earth, or which, in 
other words, have their centres at the centre of the earth, are called Great Circles 
and the distance measured along the Great Circle, passing through any two points, 
is the shortest possible distance between those points — hence the Great Circle course 
is the shortest route between two ports. 

Out of sight of land in clear weather the position is fixed by observing the sun, 
stars or other heavenly bodies with a Sextant ; these observations are called Sights. 

7 



Ships and the Sea 
If the weather prevents this, the position must be found by calculation from the 
course and from the speed of the ship, obtained by patent Logs, since the last fix was 
made. 

In all these calculations the effect of wind, tide and currents has to be reckoned with. 

Tides. 

Tides are regular up and down movements of the sea, caused by the attraction of 
the moon and sun; the effect of the moon being much greater than that of the sun. 

The tide usually rises for 6£ hours and then falls for the same period; although 
the times taken vary considerably. 

Some places, such as Southampton, have double-tides, caused, in this instance, by 
the obstruction of the Isle of Wight breaking up the movement. 

High water is usually 50 minutes later every day and varies in height according 
to the state of the moon. 

The biggest high waters occur when sun and moon are directly opposite, or at new 
and full moon approximately, and are called Spring Tides. 

The lowest occur at first and last quarter, and are called Neap Tides. 

When a tide rises higher than usual it also falls lower. 

In some places the difference between high and low water is 20, 30 or even 40 feet, 
whilst at others it is only a few feet; the Mediterranean is known as the tideless sea, 
although actually the rise and fall is about six feet. 

Tidal Streams. 

These are horizontal movements of the surface caused by the rise and fall of tides, 
and in the open sea they usually run or flow in one direction for five or six hours, 
then become slack and fall or ebb in the opposite direction for a further five or six 
hours. 

8 



Seamanship and Navigation 
Currents. 

These are either regular movements of the sea, such as the Gulf Stream, or are 
periodical and are caused by prevailing winds and other causes. 

Some Navigational Instruments. 
Compass. 

The compass is the instrument which indicates direction, and the principle on which 
it works is that a magnet (or system of magnets placed parallel to each other and 
spoken of as compass needles) theoretically points to the North Pole and so gives 
one constant director. 

To this needle is fixed a circular card, termed a " Compass card," marked with 
points round its extremity, the opposite point on the card to that pointing to the 
North Pole, being called South; the extremities of the diameter at right angles to 
the North and South line are marked East and West, East being the right-hand when 
the helmsman is facing to the northward, and these four points are called Cardinal 
points. 

The circle is thus divided into four quadrants, and each quadrant is further divided 
into eight equal parts, called " points," giving a total of 32 points to the whole card, 
made up of 4 Cardinal points, 4 half-Cardinal, 8 intermediate or 3-letter points, and 
16 " by " points. 

Each point is further sub -divided into half and quarter points and each has a distinct 
name, but only the 32 full points are used nowadays, the remainder being read in 
degrees, in fact in the Royal Navy the compass is read in degrees only ; the complete 
circle having 360 degrees it follows that each point equals 11£ degrees. 

To " Box " the compass is to recite all the 32 points in order and may have derived 
from the idea of boxing or defeating the intricacies of the points. 

The card is mounted in a metal bowl, on a pivot so that it is free to swing in any 

9 



Compass Card 



4th quarter 

W 

WbyN 
WN W 

NWbyW 

NW 

N Wby N 

NN W 

Nby W 

N 



3rd quarter 

S 

Sby W 
S S W 

S Wby S 

s w 

S W by W 
WS W 
Wby S 
W 




1st quarter 

N 

Nby E 

NNE 
NE by N 
NE 

NE by E 
E NE 
E by N 
E 



2nd quarter 

E 

Eby S 
E S E 
S Eby E 
SE 

S E by S 
S S E 
Sby E 
S 



10 



Seamanship and Navigation 

direction, and the bowl is slung in gimbals in a receptacle called the binnacle (formerly 
bittackle or habittacle — tha^ is, a little house, in which it was secured). 

On the inside surface of the bowl is a black-painted line or pointer, termed the 
" Lubber's line," which is in a direct line with the ship's head, and in line with the 
keel. 

The binnacle being secured to, and part of the ship, it follows that the Lubber's 
line moves with every movement of the ship's head. The compass point as indicated 
on the card, which is in line with the point of the Lubber's line, indicates the ship's 
course and is called her " Compass course." 

It is said that the name Lubber's line originated as a term of contempt in those 
days when it was sufficient to steer your course to the nearest half-point, as a real 
seaman could do without it. 

The binnacle is generally made of wood with brass fittings, and inside it are placed 
horizontal and vertical magnets which are the correctors used in adjusting the 
compass. 

Outside the binnacle are two large soft iron balls, one on each side, and there is 
finally a brass cylindrical case in which a bar of soft iron can be placed: this is termed 
a " Flinder's bar." 

Variation and Deviation. 

A compass needle, however, only theoretically points to the True or Geographical 
North ; actually it points to the Magnetic North, and the difference between the two 
is termed " Variation." 

Owing to the amount of iron and steel in a ship's construction and on account 
of the hammering to which she is subjected in building, she turns herself into a magnet. 
If lying in the yard along a north and south fine she will be a magnet along the length 
of her keel, and if built east and west, the cross beams form a series of magnets. 

11 



Ships and the Sea 

For these reasons her compass rarely even points to the Magnetic North and the 
difference between this Magnetic North and the North as indicated by her compass, 
is called " Deviation.* ' 

To find this deviation, a ship on completion and before sailing, is " Swung " to 
every point of the compass by experts who register the amount of deviation which 
must be allowed for. 

The compass has been in use from very early days and some form was undoubtedly 
known to, and used by, the ancients. The North point is nearly always represented 
by a neur-de-lys. 

The compass in old France was termed the mariniere, hence the word-connection 
with marin and mariner and in 1248 it is reported that Norman ships had a design 
in the form of a neur-de-lys floating in the centre of their mariniere. 

Standard Compass. 

The principal magnetic compass in a ship is called the Standard or Master Compass, 
and is usually placed on the fore upper bridge; the compasses at different steering 
positions are called " Steering Compasses." 

The longer that a ship lives the less becomes her inherent magnetism owing to the 
counter-battering of the seas. Sudden shocks, such as collision, alter a ship's magnetism 
and gunfire often seriously throws compasses out of joint as was particularly noticed 
after the Falkland Islands battle when as much as 15 degrees of inaccuracy was 
reported. If the coastline along which a ship is steaming contains much iron the 
error is noticeable ; the heat from the funnels may seriously affect the compasses, and 
this is one of the reasons why warships have had their forward funnels trunked 
aft so as to clear the bridges which they used to render almost uninhabitable 
at high speed. 

12 



Seamanship and Navigation 

Gyro Compass. 

The principal difference between the Magnetic Compass and the Gyro Compass 
is, that whereas the former depends upon the magnetism of the earth, the latter operates 
by the rotation of the earth and the pull of gravity. 

Any body spinning about its own axis can be termed a gyro and a Gyro Compass 
is simply a wheel, so constructed, mounted and balanced, that when spinning at high 
speed it shows great steadiness and tends to keep its axis in a fixed direction, and this 
being made to coincide with the true North, enables it to be used as a compass. 

The modern Gyro Compass spins at a speed of about 8,600 revolutions per minute 
and repeaters are fitted in various parts of the ship, worked from a transmitter at 
the Master Compass. 

The principal advantage of this type of compass over the magnetic type is that 
it shows the true North, it is unaffected by magnetic disturbances, it immediately 
indicates any alteration of course and in warships it can be placed below the water- 
line and so is better protected. 

Against this must be set the fact that it depends entirely upon a supply of electricity, 
and it demands constant attention. 

Sounding Machines. 

In former days, all sounding to find out the depth of water under a ship was done 
by means of the hand-lead which had to be heaved overboard on the end of a line 
and which required a certain amount of skill, or otherwise the operator might neatly 
lasso himself into the bargain; the disadvantage of this method was that the ship 
had to be stopped on each occasion as otherwise the line trailed astern and so gave no 
indication of the depth of water. 

This method is still practised, especially in small craft or in small boat work, but 
it has long been superseded in large ships by a mechanical method. 

13 



Ships and the Sea 

The old hand line in use in the Royal Navy was 25 fathoms in length, had a 
10 to 14 pound lead weight on the end of it and was marked at various stages by strips 
of coloured cloth, leather, etc. 

Ships are fitted with small platforms, called " chains,*' one on each side of the ship, 
the leadsman stands on one of these (the one on the weather side), faces the ship's 
head, swings the lead once or twice like a pendulum and completes this part of the 
performance by twirling it round his head several times and then letting it slip into 
the sea. 

In the modern sounding machine, the lead is dropped from the end of a spar 
swung overboard and above the lead weight at the end of the wire line is a glass 
tube protected by a metal casing, and in this tube is a chemical which registers 
the depth of the water according to the pressure forced into the tube by the 
water. 

All deep-sea leads have a mixture of tallow or wax and white-lead inserted into a 
hole in the bottom of the lead for the purpose of collecting specimens of the sea- 
bed, and so acting as an additional check on a ship's position by checking the speci- 
mens so obtained with the constitution of the bottom of the sea as shown on the 
chart. 

Echo Sounding Gear. 

In recent years still another development has been introduced in the methods of 
sounding, and this is the echo sounding device, which enables a sounding to be taken 
without using any lead or sounding machine. 

Sound is known to travel through the sea at a speed of about 5,000 feet per second, 
so that by measuring the time a sound takes to reach the ship from the sea-bed, the 
depth of water below can be easily found; as sounds do not emanate as a regular 
sequence from the bottom of the sea, a sound must be made from the ship to the 

14 



TRANSMITTER 



3t 



?Z- 



HYDROPHONE 

* . — 



T 



f WATER LINE 



V 




Echo Sotjnding Device 
15 



Ships and the Sea 
sea-bed which will deflect it back to the ship and so the total time taken, halved, 
will give the desired information. 

By the same method of listening for sounds, the Royal Navy was enabled to ascer- 
tain the movements of enemy submarines. 

The transmitter is in the bottom of the ship to send out tho sound, the hydro- 
phone picks up the echo from the sea-bed and the receiver makes the echo audible, 
a knob and pointer automatically recording the time and therefore the depth. 

Logs. 

There are two kinds of logs in a ship, one is the authentic record of her career, in 
which is entered, as it takes place, every incident, such as change of weather, change 
of speed, date of leaving and arriving at ports and so on, and this is considered the 
most valuable of all ship's papers; to falsify a log is a criminal offence. 

The other kind of log is an instrument something like a speedometer for mechanically 
recording the speed of a ship. 

Those used to-day are of various patterns and known as Patent Logs, having a 
form of propeller inside a tube : the screw is turned by the inflow of water and the 
number of turns is registered on a dial which is usually attached to the taffrail of 
the ship. 

The successful working of a Patent Log largely depends upon its being used with 
sufficient length of line, this length varying according to the speed of the vessel 
and being about 40 fathoms when travelling at 10 knots, and 120 fathoms at 25 
knots. The log astern is connected to an indicator on the navigating bridge. 

A Tachometer indicates the number of revolutions turned by the ship's screw 
and thus her speed may be reckoned. It must always be remembered that both 
these devices indicate the ship's speed through the water, but if she is against a tidal 
stream or strong current she will not actually be covering this distance, in fact, 

16 



So ee Bridge _ (Instruments 




Range-finder 



Rangefinder field of vision, showing 
17 top part of mast out of alignment. 



Ships and the Sea 

theoretically a vessel might be travelling backwards although her revolutions indi- 
cated a considerable speed ahead. 

Another war-time device, since perfected and mentioned elsewhere in this book, 
is the Wireless Direction Finder, which will be found on the bridge or on the top of a 
special platform. 

When the enemy submarines used to come to the surface during the night for the 
purpose of raising their wireless masts and talking to their consorts far away, stations 
ashore intercepted the message, laid off cross-bearings and located the position of the 
sender. 

Submarine Signals are described in the chapter on Signals. 

On the bridge are also the Range-Finder and Helm-Indicator. 

The former has an eyepiece divided horizontally into two equal parts by a black 
line; by turning a knob at the side so as to bring the two parts of a distant object 
into alignment the range is found and read off a scale at the side. The helm-indicator 
shows whether the ship is keeping to her compass course or by how much she is 
deviating from it. 

The Engine-Room Telegraph is an instrument for communicating orders to the 
engine-room, as its name implies. 

Its dial is divided in the manner shown on the illustration on page 17. 

In twin-screw ships there are two levers, ordering the port and starboard engines 
respectively. 

There are several telegraphs on the bridge of a ship of any size, one to engine- 
room, one to docking-bridge aft and one to the after wheel-house. 

All orders are checked back by the engine-room. 

The few descriptions given above will give some idea of the principal navigational 
instruments in use to-day; new gadgets and improvements are constant! v being 
perfected so that there is plenty to keep the seaman busy. 

18 



Finding Ships' Position near Land 



NORTH. 
1* 




1. The direction finder gives the angle of shore station relative to the ship's head. 

2. The direction of the ship's head is known from compass. 

By adding 1 and 2, the " true " or " compass " bearing of the shore station 

is obtained. 

19 



Ships and the Sea 

CH SONOMETER. 

Ship's time is kept by very accurate clocks called chronometers, which are slung 
in gimbals and kept in a special box. There are usually at least three chronometers 
in a large ship or warship, and these are all corrected daily for error. 

Equally accurate watches are kept on the bridge and are called Deck or Hack watches. 

At a considerable number of British ports there are ball towers which can be 
seen from a long distance out at sea: at 12.55 the ball is raised to the top of the tower 
and it falls at 1 p.m. ; they are regulated from Greenwich and the navigator is able 
to correct his chronometers; but their place is being taken by the wireless time signal. 

B AEOMETEE. 

An instrument for recording and measuring Pressure of the atmosphere; if the 
pressure caused by varying temperatures at one place is greater than at another, the 
air has a tendency to move from the place where it is greater (it is more or less forced 
or pushed aside) to where it is less, and in this way Wind is caused. 

The greater the pushing about, the more unbalanced is the atmosphere and in 
consequence the barometer is jumpy and variable and indicates bad weather; if 
the air is steady, so is the glass. 

If the bottom of the glass falls out, or, in other words., if the drop is quick and 
sudden, heavy weather may be expected. 

Low temperature and low barometer indicates probability of snow. 

For all general purposes it is sufficient to remember that a high or a steadily rising 
glass indicates fair weather and a low or falling glass the reverse. 

In ships, the mercurial barometer is used and it is placed in an even temperature 
as near the centre of gravity of the ship as possible. 

Thermometers are instruments for registering and measuring the temperature, 
and are used at sea largely for testing the temperature of the sea-water. 

20 



Seamanship and Navigatioi 
Winds. 

The principal cause of winds is a difference of temperature ; as mentioned previously, 
this in turn causes a difference in pressure. The speed of the earth's rotation is 
about 1,000 miles an hour at the Equator and at the Poles it is nil ; the air from the 
higher latitudes flows as a general trend towards the lower latitudes and it is there 
deflected from east to west, in a direction opposite to the rotation of the earth; 
consequently Trade Winds blow approximately from N.E. and S.E. They are so 
called because they blow in one direction for many days at a time and so were sought 
after and favoured in the days of sail. 

The belt of calm between the Trade Winds is known as the Doldrums. 

The Roaring Forties is a term given to the strong westerly winds hi the neighbour- 
hood of 45 degrees south. 

Wind systems are either Cyclonic or Anti- cyclonic. Cyclonic systems generally 
travel quickly, they blow round an area of low pressure, in the form of a spiral, 
inwards, round the area, and are more often than not accompanied by bad 
weather. 

They blow against the hands of a watch in the northern hemisphere and with the 
hands hi the southern. 

Anti-cyclonic systems are the reverse of the above ; they generally travel slowly and 
blow round an area of high pressure, in the form of a spiral, outwards, round the area 
and are generally accompanied by fair weather. 

They blow with the hands of a watch in the northern hemisphere and against the 
hands in the southern. 

The following law is useful to remember if you wish to find out the direction of 
the area of low or high pressure : — 

Face the wind, and, in the northern hemisphere, the low pressure area will be on 
your right, and in the southern hemisphere it will be on your left. 

21 



Ships and the Sea 

Wind Veers if it moves with the hands of a watch and Backs if it moves against them. 

So much variation in recording strengths of winds took place, that Admiral Sir 
Francis Beaufort, who lived between 1774 and 1857, drew up a scale to fix definite 
values and this scale was generally adopted and has been in use ever since. 

In most weather reports given in the Press, sensationalism rather than accuracy 
is achieved and the wind rarely reaches the velocity with which it is accredited, at 
any rate in this country, although individual gusts or squalls may sometimes attain 
great force. 

The notations on the Beaufort Scale record pressure from pounds per square inch 
up to 16 and indicate conditions from a flat calm to one in which no canvas in a 
sailing ship could stand. 



Beaufort Scale. 








Nautical miles Force 


per hour 


0-1 .0 


2-6 






1 & 2 


7-10 






3 


11-16 






4l 


17-21 






5 J 


22-27 






6 \ 


28-33 






7 J 


34-40 






si 


41-47 






9J 


48-55 






10\ 


56-65 






11 J 


Above 65 






12 



Description 

Calm 
Light airs 
Light breeze 

Moderate breeze 

Strong wind 

Gale 

Storm 
Hurricane 



22 



Seamanship and Navigation 

The word hurricane reminds one of storms and unpleasant disturbances; most 
of the tropical storms are circular or revolving and are caused by deep depressions 
of the cyclonic system ; not only do these storms revolve but they travel in a forward 
direction as well, or to be more accurate, the vortex moves along a path that always 
curves the same way for any given locality; usually these storms travel at a ver^ T 
great speed and the centre is a veritable inferno with tremendous broken seas, and 
it is the navigator's one object to keep as clear as he possibly can of this centre of 
disturbance. 

One experience of passing through the centre of such a storm is sufficient for all 
time and if one is caught in a small craft such as a destroyer the chances of coming 
through must be left largely to Divine providence. 

The tropical storms are called cyclones in the Indian Ocean, hurricanes in the Pacific 
and the West Indies and typhoons in the China Seas. 

The Tornado is slightly different and applies particularly to the off-shore squalls 
of the West African coast. 

The Whirlwind of the United States is very destructive and it derives its name from 
the fact that the wind catches the cloud and whirls it round until it forms a funnel- 
like shape reaching to the ground; this whirl may be anything up to a quarter of 
a mile in diameter and leaves a belt of destruction in its path. 

When the whirlwind happens at sea it usually causes a column of water to rise 
and meet the funnel, hanging from the cloud; this is similar to a " Waterspout" 
which is a column of spray and moist air reaching up from the sea to the clouds. 

The regular flow of winds, as explained earlier on in the chapter, is sometimes broken 
up by land and other obstructions and the wind therefore changes and becomes local 
or seasonal ; local conditions are the cause of the Monsoon of India, the Levanter of 
Gibraltar, an unpleasant sticky mist which blots out everything, the Mistral in the 
Gulf of Lyons and the Sirocco of other parts of the Mediterranean. 

23 



Ships and the Sea 

Clouds. 

Winds and atmospheric conditions naturally affect the clouds and apart from the 
fact that the formation and appearance of them give a very good guide to the kind 
of weather to be expected, they form a delightful and ever-changing picture gallery. 
Clouds and sky are taken for granted by far too many people, but there is nothing 
conceived, designed or executed by man that can ever equal the grandeur, beauty or 
immensity of nature's panorama, and seen at sea it takes on an added glory beyond 
imagination. 

To witness a dawn from the foretop of a cruiser with the off-shore breeze adding 
the faint yet unmistakable scent of damp, heather-covered earth, or to stand at the 
taffrail of a vessel far out of sight of land and see the sun dip below the horizon from 
a sky illuminated by its departing splendour, is to experience a sight that almost 
hurts by its overwhelming and elusive beauty. 

There are four distinct main formations of cloud, as classified by the International 
Meteorological Committee in 1894: — 

Cirrus : which are feathery and white and are the highest formations of all, some- 
times called " mares' tails," and usually indicate a change or a rising wind. 

Cumulus : which are like great banks of cotton wool and are the most beautiful 
of all, especially when tinged with sunset glows; they usually indicate fine 
weather, except when congregating above a gloomy bank which often presages 
thunder. 

Nimbus : the rain clouds, more often than not accompanied by a combination such 
as cirro-stratus or by a few cumulus. 

Stratus : the long low-lying bank of cloud, such as a fog bank. 

There are combinations of most of these kinds and the best known is the combina- 
tion of cirrus and cumulus to form the " Mackerel-sky," one of the prettiest, but often 
a warning of change. 

24 



Seamanship and Navigation 

A sinister-looking yellow streak beneath a lowering black mass more often than 
not heralds a rising storm. 

In fine weather, visibility is good, but if visibility is too good with objects showing 
clear, well-defined edges or outlines, rain is probably on the way. 

Watery skies, which might best be described as blue, that have gradually faded to 
a transparent white, as their name implies, mean wet. Pale sunsets, such as yellow 
or green, indicate rain. 

Rosy sky in the morning usually means a good day but at night it is not too 
good, and a bright red sunrise with accompanying clouds may also be unfavour- 
able. 

Three days' fog is almost invariably followed by rain. 

Waves are often just as much miscalculated as winds and the Douglas Scale given 
below is the one generally in use in the Service. 



Douglas Sea and Swell Scale. 



station 



Sea 
Calm 


Swell 

No Swell 


Height of waves 
in feet 



1 

2 
3 
4 


Smooth \ . 
Slight / . 
Moderate \ . 
Rough f . 


Low Swell 
Moderate Swell 


1 
1-2 
2-3 
3-5 


5 
6 

7 
8 
9 


Very Rough 
High 1 
Very High }■ 
Precipitous J 
Confused 


Heavy Swell 
Confused Swell 


5-8 

8-12 
12-20 
20-40 
40 and above 



25 



Ships and the Sea 

No authentic figures exist regarding the height of waves and it is more than likely 
that the highest waves as a rule are about forty feet in the North Atlantic and about 
sixty feet in the waters south of the African continent, although it is on record that 
waves up to 100 feet have been met with. 

A storm wave in the Atlantic is stated to travel at 22 miles an hour, and the usual 
length of Atlantic waves is believed to be from about 150 to 300 feet. 

The depths of the sea are usually calculated in fathoms, a fathom being 6 feet. 

Close to the land, the bottom of the sea gradually shelves down to the 100 fathom 
line; this is known as the Continental- shelf. 

From this depth the slope usually increases and is known as the Continental- 
slope. 

Below the 2,000 fathom line is the abyss and below the 3,000 fathoms, the deeps. 

There are at present nearly sixty charted deeps in the oceans and the deepest of 
the lot is the Mindanao off the Philippines, which is 5,350 fathoms, or 32,100 feet 
or over six miles. The Porto Rico Trench in the Atlantic is very nearly the same 
depth. 

The average depth of the English Channel is about 55 fathoms (330 feet), that 
of the Atlantic about 2,000 fathoms or 12,000 feet, whilst the Baltic is only about 
twenty fathoms or 120 feet; the North Sea averages less than 300 feet and ships sent 
to the bottom during the War often used to have one end on the bottom and the 
other end sticking up into the air. The mean depth of the ocean floor of the world 
is 12,000 feet. 

Water at one mile deep has a pressure of about one ton to the square inch. 



26 



Seamanship and Navigation 



Fog Scale 












Notation 


Fog 


Visibility 







Dense . 


Less 


than 


50 yards 


1 


Thick . 


,, 




1 cable (200 yards) 


2 


Fog . 




, 




2 cables (400 yards) 


3 


Moderate Fog 




, 




\ mile 


4 


Thin Fog or Mist . 




, 




1 mile 


5 


Visibility poor 




, 




2 miles 


6 


Visibility moderate 




, 




5 


7 


Visibility good 




, 




10 


8 


Visibility very good 




, 




30 


9 


Visibility exceptional 


More than 30 ., 



Distance at sea is deceptive and so is size, principally because there is nothing 
with which to compare an object, and the usual tendency is to underestimate. 

As a very rough guide to the distance that can be seen it is worth remembering 
that it is equal in miles approximately to the square root of the height of your eye 
in feet above water level, plus one -seventh. 

In all navigational lists of lighthouses the distance of visibility is given as from 
a height of 15 feet above sea level; this being the mean height of high-water at 
Spring tides. 

If you know the height of an object at which you are looking you can estimate 
the distance you are from it, by adding the height of your eye to the height of the 
object, finding the square root and adding one-seventh; this is only a very approximate 
form of measurement. 

Don't forget to add the height of the deck upon which you are standing if you 
are in a ship. 

27 



Ships and the Sea 
Measurements at Sea. 

Cable: One tenth of a nautical mile; 100 fathoms or 200 yards. 

Degree : Degree of longitude is equal to 4 minutes of time, and is equal to 60 miles 
at 1 degree of latitude and miles at 90 degrees. 1 degree of latitude varies between 
68^ miles at the Equator and 69J miles at 90 degrees. 

Earth : Circumference at Equator is just under 25,000 miles. 

Fathom : Six feet ; all soundings are made in fathoms unless otherwise stated ; 
100 fathoms equal one cable. 

Latitude and Longitude : See under Degree. 

Nautical Mile : One sixtieth of a degree of latitude varying from 6,046 feet on 
Equator to 6,092 feet in latitude 60; for all practical purposes it is taken as 6,080 feet 
or 2,000 yards, 1-150 statute land miles or 1,853 metres. Three nautical miles 
equal one league. 

League : Three nautical miles. 

Knot : A measure of time and speed ; a nautical mile an hour and should never 
be used to express distance ; a ship either steams 20 nautical miles an hour, or 20 knots. 

A knot is so called from the knots that marked the log line, which, together with 
the sand glass, was employed in days gone by for finding the speed of a ship, the speed 
being recorded as the number of knots which ran out during the sand glass interval. 

Knots into Miles per hour, Feet per Second and Miles per Day. 

(Roughly 1 knot equals 1-1- land miles per hour) 
1 knot equals 1-151 miles per hour, 1-69 feet per second or 24 miles per day. 
10 knots equal 11-515 „ „ „ 16-89 „ „ „ 240 „ „ ,, 

15 „ „ 17-27 ., „ „ 25-33 „ „ „ 360 „ „ „ 

20 „ „ 23-03 „ „ „ 33-78 „ „ „ 480 „ „ „ 

25 „ „ 28-787 „ „ „ .... 600 „ „ „ 

28 



Seamanship and Navigation 

30 knots equal 34*53 miles per hour .... 720 miles per day. 

35 „ „ 40-287 „ „ . . . . 840 „ „ „ 

40 „ „ 46-04 „ „ .... 900 „ „ „ 

Time. 

In most navigational works time is described as being a " definite portion of 
duration." 

The earth, for all practical purposes, takes one day to rotate on her axis, and 
one year to revolve in her orbit. 

Greenwich time is the mean solar time of Greenwich, usually referred to as G.M.T., 
adopted by the world as the meridian apparently because we got in with the idea first. 

Local Time : The time reckoned at each particular place, usually from its own 
meridian; thus places are fast or slow of Greenwich time. 

The following table may be interesting (taken to nearest half hour) : — 



Aden 


3 hours 


fast 


Australia 


9J-10 „ 


,, 


British Columbia 


8 


slow 


Calcutta . 


6 


fast 


Canaries . 


1 


slow 


China 


7-8 „ 


fast 


Colombo . 


5* „ 


,, 


Gibraltar- 


same as 


Gree 


Hawaii 


101 „ 


slow 


India 


H » 


fast 


Jamaica . 


5 „ 


slow 


Japan 


9 


fast 


Madeira . 


1 


slow 



29 



Ships and the Sea 




Malta 


1 hour fast 


Newfoundland 


3J , 


slow 


New York 


5 , 


slow 


New Zealand . 


HI , 


fast 


Norway . 


1 


,, 


Russia (Baltic) 


3 , 


,, 


South Africa . 


2 


,, 


United States 


5-6 ,' 


slow 



To find the time from a given longitude, divide the degrees, minutes and seconds by 
fifteen and the answer will give the time in hours, minutes and seconds fast or 
slow of Greenwich. 

Ship time is the mean solar time at the place in which she happens to be. 

In eastern longitudes it is in advance of Greenwich and in western longitudes 
it is behind, every 15 degrees of longitude making a difference of one hour. 

Zone time : A method of keeping time which is always a whole number of hours fast 
or slow of Greenwich; to achieve this end the world is divided into twenty-four zones. 
Greenwich is in the centre of Zone 0. and each is divided into 15 degrees of longitude. 

The eleven zones east of Greenwich are numbered — 1 to — 11 and those to the 
west are numbered +1 to +11. 

Exactly opposite to Greenwich, on the other side of the world is a zone equally 
divided into — 12 and +12; this is called the International date line. 

Going east a ship advances towards the sun and shortens her day, but going west 
she travels with the sun and lengthens her day ; therefore if a ship goes half round 
the earth eastwards, hy the time that she gets to the Date Line she has to put back 
her clock twenty-four hours, which is the number of hours by which her day has 
shortened — in other words she has to repeat a day and thus arrives at the half-way 

30 



Seamanship and Navigation 

house on the due date and not a day in advance; similarly going west she has to 
put her clock on twenty-four hours, or miss a day out. 

For purposes of making this convenient the Zone time was introduced, by which 
method a ship puts on or puts back her clock once every twenty-four hours 
according to the zone in which she happens to be. 

Neglect to do this would involve endless complications and ships would arrive 
at places before they had started and would start from places a day before they 
had got there and other such absurdities. 

Division of the Circle. 

60 seconds 
60 minutes 
90 degrees 
2 right -angles 

4 right -angles (360 degrees) 
4 minutes of time 
15 degrees of longitude 
Time at sea for working purposes and for watch 
into watches as under. 

The day commences at Noon, or at Midnight. 



1 minute 

1 degree 

1 right -angle or quarter -circle 

1 semi -circle 

1 circle 

1 degree of 

1 hour- 



longitude 

-keeping purposes is divided 



Midnight to 4 a.m. or 


(0000 to 


0400) 


Middle Watch 


4 a.m. , 


8 a.m. ,, 


(0400 „ 


0800) . 


Morning Watch 


8 am. , 


, noon „ 


(0800 „ 


1200) 


Forenoon Watch 


Noon , 


4 p.m. ,, 


(1200 „ 


1600) 


Afternoon Watch 


4 p.m. 


6 p.m. ,, 


(1600 „ 


1800) . 


First Dog Watch 


6 p.m. , 


8 p.m. „ 


(1800 „ 


2000) . 


Second Dog Watch 


8 p.m. , 


midnight,, 


(2000 „ 
31 


0000) 


First Watch 



Ships and the Sea 

The purpose of the two dog watches is to make an odd number of watches in the 
twenty-four hours and thus enable the watchkeepers to have different watches daily. 

The origin of the term " dog " is not known; it is sometimes attributed to " docked " 
or shortened, and sometimes to the term " Dog days " in the Autumn, because 
Dog watches are in the evening or autumn of the day. The late Admiral Sir Christopher 
Cradock who was lost at Coronel, living up to his personal motto of " Keeping closer 
to the enemy," made the ingenious suggestion that it is because they are watches 
" CURtailed*" 

The ship's bell is struck at each half-hour, starting with one bell and going up to eight. 

In the dog watches, however, although 6 o'clock is 4 bells, 6.30 begins again at 
1 bell and this is said to have originated because during the mutinies of Spithead 
and the Nore in 1797, the signal for the rising at one port was to have been 5 bells 
in the dog watches; the officers got to hear of this and ordered 1 bell to be struck 
and so took the wind out of the sails of the rebellious seamen. 

Although 6.30 is 1 bell, however, at 8 p.m. eight bells and not four, are struck. 

The " 7 bells' boat " is the name given to the Officer's leave boat in the Royal 
Navy — that is to say 3.30 in the afternoon. 

The New Year is indicated in the Service by the junior midshipman striking 16 bells. 

The bells are always paired for striking where possible; for instance: — 



1 bell is 


struck- 


-Dong 






2 bells „ 


,, 


Dong, 


Dong 




3 bells „ 


,, 


Dong, 


Dong — Dong 




4 bells „ 


,, 


Dong, 


Dong — Dong, 


Dong 


5 bells ,, 


,, 


Dong, 


Dong — Dong, 


Dong — Dong 



At night every time that the bell is struck the look-out reports to the Officer 
of the Watch, " All's well, sir. Lights burning brightly." 

32 



Seamanship and Navigation 
Some Signs and Abbreviations used on Charts. 

These are just a few of the abbreviations used on charts and are given just as 
a matter of interest; to give a complete list would require a whole chapter. 

Relating to Colour. 

b . . blue blk . . black br . . brown 

green gy . . grey 

yellow spk . . speckled 



d 
w 


dark gn 
white y 


Relating to 
cl . 
crl 


Substance of Bottom. 
clay m 
coral r 


peb . 
shg . 
sh . 


pebbles s 
shingle g 
shells oz 


st 


stones wd 



Relating to Nature of Bottom. 
brk . . broken stf 

rot . . rotten grd 

f . . fine h 

General Abbreviations. 



mud 

rock 

sand 

gravel 

ooze 

weed 

stiff 

ground 

hard 



oys 
mrl 
rad 

gi 

for 
pt 

sft 
c 



Anchge. Anchorage E.D. Rock or shoal whose L.S.S. 

existence is doubtful Np 
F.S. . Flag Staff Rk 
Ho . House Sh 

H.W. . High Water Stn 
L.B. . Life Boat Vil 

33 



Bk 


Bank 


Baty . 


Battery 


Ch 


Church 


Chan 


Channel 



oysters 

marl 

radiolaria 

globigerina 

foraminifera 

pteropod 

soft 
coarse 



Life Saving Station 

Neaps 

Rock 

Shoal 

Station 

Village 







Ships and the Sea 








Colouring 


of Buoys. 








B. . 


Black 








Cheq. 


Chequered 








H.S.. 


Horizontal Stripes 








R. . 


Red 








V.S. . 


Vertical Stripes 








w. . 


White 






Single dots . 




. 


1 fathom 


line 


Dots in pairs 






2 


lines 


Dots in threes 




... ... ... 


3 


,, 


Dots in fours 






4 


,, 


Dots in fives 






5 


,, 


Dots in sixes 






6 


,, 


Lines and. dots 






10 
20 




Lines and pairs 


of dots 






Lines and 3 dot 


s — . . 




30 


>> 


Continuous dots 






100 


j» 



160 480 indicates that there is no bottom at depth stated below the line. 
Anchorages. 



Anchorage for large vessels is shown by an anchor with two flukes, thus: 
Anchorage for small vessels is shown by an anchor with one fluke or by 
a kedge anchor, thus 



«^p 



1*4* 



34 



Seamanship and Navigation 

Miscellaneous. 

An arrow with feathers on both sides denotes a current ^|| j »> ^ 

An arrow with feathers on one side denotes flood tidal stream 



A plain arrow with no feathers denotes ebb tidal stream 



The periods of a tide are four in number ; they are 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Quarters 
(abbreviated as Qr.). 

The symbol Awts ^ signifies that the flood tidal stream is running 

at 2h knots at the first quarter. 

1st Qr. 2hkn. 

Sometimes instead of using the quarters, the state of the tide is denoted|in hours 

and so >^^ ^ indicates that the velocity of the tide is 3 knots, two 

hours "^ after the flood has made. 

2hr 3kn. 

Finally, the hours of the tide may be denoted by dots on the arrow. 

• • • > 



35 



CHAPTER II 

Trinity House 

pERHAPS the oldest Institution in the land and certainly the oldest that has 

not only retained its original importance but which has also secured an 
ever increasing one. 

In the twelfth century the then Archbishop of Canterbury, Stephen Langton, 
gathered round himself a body of " Godly disposed men " in the name of the 
" Master and Founders of Trinity Guild," for the purposes of preventing the deliber- 
ate wrecking of vessels which was prevalent at that period and for the purpose of 
providing lights and sea-marks for the mariners. 

It may be regarded as the cradle of the Royal Navy and was granted a Royal 
Charter of incorporation as " The Guild, Fraternity or Brotherhood of the Most 
Glorious and Undivided Trinity, and of St. Clement in the Parish of Deptford Strond 
(Strand) " by King Henry VIII. 

This sea-minded monarch entrusted the Corporation with the construction of 
the Royal Dockyard which he caused to be made at Deptford and with the designing 
and building of the King's ships; later this was extended to include the arming, 
equipping, manning and provisioning of every fleet that left England; this 
naturally included the providing of the Pilots. 

Elizabeth granted a coat of arms in 1573 and official authority to erect beacons 
and other marks. 

36 



Trinity House 

In 1604 a very select elan or inner body was formed called the Elder Brethren, 
the remaining members forming the Younger Brethren and five years later a new 
charter was obtained which gave entire management to the Elder Brethren. 

In 1647 it was dissolved by the Commonwealth Parliament but it was re-established 
with full powers at the Restoration in 1660. 

In 1797 during the Nore mutiny, the Elder Brethren, at considerable risk, journeyed 
down the river and removed all beacons and buoys that might prove useful to the 
mutineers. 

Unfortunately many of the early records were destroyed by fire in 1714 and in 
1798 the headquarters were removed from Deptford to Trinity House, Tower Hill, 
London. 

Since 1853 all dues paid to Trinity House by shipping have been transferred to 
the Board of Trade and this latter department provides the sum necessary for the 
Corporation to carry on and develop its work ; it must be clearly recognised however 
that Trinity House is in no way a Government department. 

The direct connection with the Royal Navy ceased with the decline of the Stuarts 
when warships and trading ships began to develop along different lines, but the 
body still acts in close co-operation with the Admiralty, particularly with the hydro - 
graphic department which deals with charts. 

The work of Trinity House will be appreciated by reference to the article on 
Lights, Lighthouses, Lightships, Buoys, Beacons and such like matters, all of which 
are under the care and maintenance of this august body which is very progressive 
in spite of its traditions being rooted so deeply in the past. It is represented on 
the boards of the Port of London Authority and on other port or harbour councils. 

There are 300 Younger Brothers, each of whom must hold the rank of a master 
mariner in the Merchant Navy or Lieutenant -Commander in the Royal Navy and 
they, like the Elder Brethren, are exempt from serving on any juries. 

37 



Ships and the Sea 

Trinity House vessels wear their own distinctive ensign in place of the Red Ensign 
and by virtue of the ancient privilege of providing pilots, the Elder Brethren act 
as Royal Pilots whenever his Majesty is afloat in pilotage waters of the United 
Kingdom on State occasions; thus the Trinity House yacht always precedes the 
Royal Yacht at Naval Reviews. 

For purposes of control and administration the coastline of England and Wales 
is divided into seven districts. The North-Eastern sector, from Scottish border 
to Flamborough Head, has no regular depot or sea-going tender on account of there 
being comparatively few lights and buoys offshore which require attention. 

Each of the remaining six districts has its depot and tenders; Blackwall, the 
chief station, and its sub -station at Harwich, have four tenders on account of the 
enormous number of shoals, sandbanks, etc., in the Thames estuary and surrounding 
waters. 

Two new vessels, Reculver and Strathearn, have just been built to replace two 
famous old ships aged thirty-three and thirty-seven years respectively. These Trinity 
House vessels steam on an average 100,000 miles during the course of the year. 

From time to time a few eminent persons are elected Honorary Elder Brethren, 
an honour not always appreciated at its full significance. 

There are actually eight other bodies which control the coastwise lights of these 
islands, such as the Commissioners of Northern Lights and Irish Lighthouse Board 
but Trinity House has an overwhelmingly preponderating responsibility and at the 
present time has charge of about 100 lighthouses, nearly fifty lightships, 150 lights 
and 450 unlighted buoys on 2,400 miles of coastline. 

Pilotage. 

Pilotage is the art of taking ships from one place to another when land or naviga- 
tional marks are in sight. 

38 



Trinity House 

4- 




Trinity House Vessels 
Beculver and Stralhearn 



This is done by the help of Charts, which are nothing more nor less than maps, 
showing coast line and sea depths as already described. 

As already mentioned the privilege of providing pilots for most British waters 
has been in the hands of Trinity House since very early days and the Corporation 
still exercises its right to precede the Royal Yacht on ceremonial occasions. 

It is impossible to expect seamen to have knowledge of all local waters so, although 
the Commander is responsible for the navigation of his vessel out of sight of land, he 
has by law to take pilots when approaching or leaving land and during the time 
that the latter is in his ship he should accept his advice. 

39 



Ships and the Sea 

This is an interesting state of affairs because the master is still in charge of, and 
responsible for, the safety of his ship, even with a pilot on his bridge but he accepts 
his judgment as technical adviser, knowing that he has all latest information regard- 
ing lighting and buoying; if mishap should overtake the vessel, both master and 
pilot share the responsibility although the subsequent court of inquiry may vindicate 
the conduct of either or both. 

It is a heavy responsibility for the Commander who has, as his first duty, the 
security of his ship ; over and above this he knows that he must not run his company 
into expense that might have been avoided; as an example: some considerable 
time ago a large liner ran aground in broad daylight on a dangerous part of the 
Goodwin Sands, off the coast of Kent. The pilot advised the immediate use of tugs; 
the Commander hoped that the rising tide would lift his ship clear and save his 
owners the heavy salvage charges, and so decided to wait; the tide rose and the 
ship did not move, in fact she sank deeper and deeper and she is still there to this 
day. 

Right up to the war, many sailing craft were in use by pilots and this originated 
the term " Pilot Cutter " a name still ubiquitous, although in practically every 
case steam or motor has ousted the old sailer. 

The principal pilotage of the United Kingdom, then, is in the hands of Trinity 
House, whose authority extends to nearly forty ports including London, Southampton, 
Plymouth and Falmouth. 

In addition to the Trinity Pilots, however, there are about sixty other districts 
where the pilotage is in the hands of the local authorities, such as Bristol Channel, 
Humber, Mersey, Tees and Tyne. 

Pilots serving the greatest port of all, London, are a very select body of men, 
chosen by the Elder Brethren of Trinity House; they are re-examined yearly and 
have to pass very strict tests indeed, for sight and hearing. Conditions vary slightly, 

40 



Trinity House 




Trinity House Badge worn on Fly of Red Ensign. Pilot Cuttee. 



but nearly all must hold certificates as masters of foreign-going ships or must have 
been at sea for at least seven years; none must be over thirty-five years of age at 
the time of receiving his license from the Corporation. 

In the London district all vessels except His Majesty's ships, fishing vessels, 
private yachts and small, non-passenger carrying craft, must take pilots. 

There are five classes of pilots in the London district: — 

Exempt River Pilots. — These are for craft not subject to compulsory pilotage 
as above, but who may for some reason or another wish for their advice, and they 
operate between London Bridge and Gravesend. 

Compulsory River Pilots. — Operate in same area as above but for all ships 
compelled to take pilots; their jurisdiction naturally operates in the reverse direction 
as well. 

41 



Ships and the Sea 

North Channel Pilots. — From Gravesend to Sunk Lightship and vice versa 
for ships going into or coming from the North Sea. 

Channel Pilots. — From Gravesend to Dungeness or to Dover or Selsey. 

Cinque Port Pilots. — Reverse of above. 

There are over 300 licensed Trinity Pilots for the London district and nearly 
250 for the out-ports. 

For London and Southampton the Corporation maintains a fleet of about a dozen 
cutters, small craft on board which the pilots live whilst waiting their turn for an 
incoming or outgoing ship; in the days gone by there were numerous Pilot Stations 
round the coast, such as at Deal where the pilots lived, but with the rapid develop- 
ment and with the general speeding up of affairs, the modern cutter takes a full 
complement of pilots and waits at sea for her ships and one may be seen on any 
day near Dover or Dungeness, off Harwich or in the vicinity of the Isle of Wight. 

The cutters have large white lettering along their sides such as Pilot-London 
No. 3 and they fly a horizontally striped flag, top white, bottom red. 

All ships which have a pilot on board fly this flag and if a vessel is seen with this 
under her Ensign it indicates that her master is qualified to pilot his own ship; it 
is more often seen in small pleasure craft such as the down-river excursion steamers 
and the coastal paddle-boats. 

Some steamship companies always wish for the same pilot at certain ports and 
these men are known as " Appropriated Pilots "; those who serve any vessels are 
" Rotary Pilots." 

By night, pilot cutters on their stations show, in addition to the ordinary side- 
lights, a bright white light at foremast and 8 feet below this, a red light visible 
all round the horizon; they also exhibit flares at intervals of not more than ten 
minutes. 

A ship requiring a pilot shall hoist any of the following signs: — 

42 



Trinity House 

1. The Pilot Jack, a small Union flag with a white border. 

2. The International Signal P.T. 

3. The International flag G. with or without the Code Flag above. 

4. The distant signal — two balls above a cone (point upwards). 

By night she shall burn a blue light every fifteen minutes or flash a white light 
at short intervals just above the bulwarks. 

These are International signs, but the regulations may vary at each port; for 
example, a ship bound for Antwerp or Flushing and requiring a pilot shall exhibit 
one red over two white lights and shall give five blasts on her syren or show five 
flashes. 

Bound for London she shall show one white light over one red but for Amsterdam 
she will reverse this and show the red over the white. 

The work of a pilot is dangerous and sometimes he has to be carried many miles 
before the weather moderates sufficiently to allow him to be landed. 

On your next voyage from London, when you come on deck after dinner and 
expect to find Dover on your beam, do not immediately go below because in disgust 
you find your vision obscured by blinding rain or because the ship is stopped and 
rolling unpleasantly; wait a bit and presently you will see an oilskinned figure come 
down from the bridge, and make his way to the gangway. Look over the side; 
don't curse the gusts which may disarrange your toilet and you will be privileged 
to witness a scene that is being enacted at every large port round our coasts, day 
and night, summer and winter; bobbing at the bottom of the gangway ladder is 
a small boat in constant danger of being smashed against the liner's heaving wet 
side; between plunges, the oil-skin clad figure leaps from one to the other — the 
boat pushes off, the engine room telegraph rings and you are under way once more. 

Business men have been known to chafe at this slight delay; if they have ever 

43 



Ships and the Sea 

taken the trouble to witness the spectacle described, they have probably done so 
on a windless summer day; as I have said, it is carried on unceasingly whatever 
the weather may be; the safety of everyone in a ship depends upon the wisdom, 
skill and judgment of the pilot; give him a thought sometimes. 

Sky Pilot is the seaman's term for a padre, in whose hands lies the spiritual 
direction of their lives. 

Buoys and Beacons. 

Buoys are used to mark channels, sandbanks, shoals and all danger spots and 
their position is marked on all charts. 

Most of the buoys round the British coasts are in the charge of Trinity House and 
at Deptford on the Thames is a wharf and yard where they are periodically brought 
for painting and overhaul. 

Starboard -Hand Buoys mark that side of the channel which is on the right- 
hand when entering a harbour from seaward or when going with the main stream 
or flood; they are always conical in shape and always painted all one colour. 

Port-Hand Btjoys mark the left-hand side of channels under the same conditions 
as above; they are always can-shaped (that is, flat topped) and are either painted 
in a different colour from the starboard-hand, or more often than not are parti- 
coloured with chequers or stripes. 

Middle Ground Buoys are placed to mark a sandbank or obstruction in the 
middle of a fairway; they are always spherical and are striped horizontally. Buoys 
at the outer end of middle grounds are always surmounted by staff and diamond 
and at the inner end by a staff and triangle. 

Buoys of the same class are distinguished from each other by different painting 
and different topmarks; for example, number one starboard-hand buoy might be 
painted red, number two black and so on, or they may be numbered. 

44 



Trinity House 

If topmarks are used, starboard-hand buoys have a staff and globe and port -hand 
buoys a staff and cage. 

In addition to these general purpose buoys, there are many special buoys 
such as Spar Buoys, Pillar Buoys and so on and these are all shown on the 
accompanying drawing; most of these are used to mark local obstructions and 
dangers. 

Wreck Buoys are always green, usually with the word " Wreck " painted in 
white; when a boat is used to mark a wreck two green balls are hoisted on a yard if 
to be passed on mariner's port side and three if to be passed on mariner's starboard 
side and two on either yard-arm if to be passed on either side, at night their place 
is taken by three green lights. 

Spar buoys mark small rivers or streams, sometimes branches of trees being used 
for this purpose; Pillar buoys have a tall structure on a broad base. 

Any buoy may have a light on top for purposes of identification but this must 
never be a fixed light; it is usually lit by gas and, in old-fashioned ones, is alight 
day and night. Modern buoys are often automatic and are fitted with an apparatus 
which automatically lights it at sunset or if darkness comes on, and puts it out at 
daybreak. 

Fog Buoys have a fog-horn, whistle or bell attached, which is worked by the 
rise and fall of the buoy in the waves; this naturally ceases to function if there 
is a calm, as so often happens during fog, although the bow waves of ships 
often set them off. Modern whistling buoys however have long tubes projecting 
from the bottom to a depth unaffected by rise and fall and the sea acts as a 
piston. 

Mooring Buoys are familiar sights in an anchorage or river and it is a magnificent 
sight to see a squadron of warships coming to its positions, each ship coming practic- 
ally right up to her buoy; this is a manoeuvre often not appreciated by folks ashore 

45 




A 




12 



Some Types of Buoys 
1, 2, 3 and 4. Port Hand Buoys. 5 and 6. Starboard Han 

7. Outer end of Middle Ground. 8 

9. Wreck Buoy. 10. Spar Buoy. 

12. Bell Buoy.' 13. Gas Buoy. 

46 



Inner end of Middle Ground. 
11. Pillar Buoy. 
14. Mooring Buoy. 



Trinity House 

because it looks so simple but try to realise that the judgment required is consider- 
able; a ship weighing anything up to 40,000 tons weight has to be slowed, her engines 
stopped and enough momentum allowed, tides and currents have to be reckoned 
with and she must not overshoot a tiny buoy. 

Buoys of all kinds do look tiny as seen from the navigating bridge of a ship and 
in fact, comparatively, they are mere specks, but if one happens to be in a small 
boat and one comes too close, they look unpleasantly monstrous; they seem to 
have an unpleasant leer as they rise and fall and they blink, shriek or bellow at 
you according to their moods, but there is a very definite fascination about them 
nevertheless. 

Buoys are held in position by anchors, weights and cables, and sometimes they 
break station and become a menace to shipping if not quickly taken in charge. 

They vary in weight from anything between five hundredweight to ten tons and 
although the largest are usually overhauled and re -painted while still on their 
stations, all the others are brought in to Blackwall or another Trinity House depot 
once every year. 

The large gas buoys carry sufficient fuel to last for twelve months, although in 
actual practice they are replenished at much more frequent intervals, and it is worth 
noting that a light flashing once every second, will do so 31,500,000 times without 
receiving attention. 

The various marking of buoys mentioned here applies only to those round our 
own coasts and the seaman's knowledge has to extend farther afield; it is impossible 
to give any but a few of the foreign systems but the following may prove of interest. 

America. — Starboard-hand buoys are red-painted and have even numbers. 

Port-hand buoys are black with odd numbers. 

Mid- channel buoys are painted with white and black perpendicular stripes. 

Belgium. — Starboard-hand buoys are white and port-hand are black. 

47 



Ships and the Sea 

Canada. — Same as United States of America. 

Denmark. — In entering a harbour from North or East, starboard-hand buoys 
are surmounted by red or black poles and port-hand buoys with white poles. 

In entering from South or West, the reverse method holds good. 

Curious brooms are attached to buoys in the waters of this country, the broom 
being turned downwards on the east side of a channel and upwards on the west 
side. 

France. — Starboard-hand buoys are red with a white band near top and port- 
hand are black, whilst those which may be passed on either side are red with black 
horizontal bands. 

Germany. — Germany has a very complicated system and all buoys surmounted 
by top -marks, and all bell-buoys, gas buoys and automatic signal buoys are termed 
beacons. 

Starboard-hand buoys are spar buoys painted red. 

Port-hand buoys are conical and are painted black. 

Beacons may also take the place of these buoys. 

Hoi/land. — Same system as Belgium. 

Beacons. 

Beacons are posts erected on shore with different tops like the marks on buoys 
and they are used as leading marks principally; that is to say, that two beacons 
in line or a beacon in line with another object such as a church steeple, lead one up 
the centre of a channel. 

Smaller beacons, called Perches, are used in shallow estuaries and are principally 
for the benefit of local fishermen and not for deep-sea craft. 

Beacons must never have a light on them and are therefore the opposite of the 
land beacon which has a flare or fire such as a brazier set on a pole. 

48 



Trinity House 
Lightships and Lighthouses. 

One of the Seven Wonders of the World was the Pharos or lighthouse at Alexandria, 
said to have been 400 feet high and built 331 years before the Christian era: another 
was the Colossus at Rhodes. 




Direction Finding Beacons 

These were not the first recorded lights but they achieved great fame; there are 
remains of an old lighthouse at Gibraltar and at Dover those of one that was built 
during the Roman occupation. 

No doubt these early lighthouses burnt wood and were more in the form of braziers, 
or beacons; later on, in 1812, coal replaced wood, or wicks soaked in oil or fat (which 



Ships and the Sea 

was first used in 1730); later still, gas was adopted and to-day, oil or electricity- 
holds sway. 

Lighthouse building on engineering principles did not begin much until the 
eighteenth century and many disasters took place before the secrets of successful 
construction were obtained. 

Each tower has its own local problems; for instance, it may be built on a rock 
many miles out to sea and facing an ocean, it may be on a rock-bound coast or on 
a shoal, it may be at the foot of a steep cliff or it may be perched on the top of a 
cliff; finally it may be a light tower which does not present many difficulties, such as 
on the end of a harbour pier or breakwater. 

The first towers to hold their own against the elements were British, the Eddystone 
being the earliest, and was built by Smeaton after an earlier one had been burnt 
and a still earlier wooden structure had been carried away one stormy night with 
its inventor inside it. 

The first really successful modern lights in the towers were French and in the 
middle of last century the United States sent a commission on a tour of England 
and France to report on the best methods to adopt. 

The modern tapering tower-lighthouse is built on a solid foundation, sometimes 
sunk very deep into the rock upon which it stands; this foundation in the case of 
lighthouses such as Beachy Head is constructed inside a watertight caisson or steel 
tube which is first sunk into place. Rothersand Light at the mouth of the Weser 
has a foundation sunk 80 feet into the sand. 

For purposes of recognition, lighthouses take various shapes; some are slender, 
tapering towers; others are square and others again are castellated or plain circular 
towers. For the same purpose they are given varying colours; some are plain 
grey or white, some have black or red bands and others have coloured galleries or 
lanterns. 

50 




Landmarks and Seamarks 

1. Beacons or Perches. Globe, Triangle, Diamond and Barrel. 

2. Spit Fort, Spithead, one of the famous chequer seamarks. 

3. Nab Tower and Light, in Channel off E. end of Isle of Wight. 

4. Ball Tower Time Signal. 

51 



Ships and the Sea 

Light is thrown out by three principal systems: — 

By direct reflection through mirrors or metal reflectors, known as Catoptbic. 
By refracted light — the direct rays being sent through spherical lenses and 

surrounded by various parabolic prisms, and known as Dioptric. 
Or by combination of both these systems, called Catadioptric. 

The various lights exhibited at present are as follows: — 

Fixed Lights. — Which need no explanation; they may be varied by being coloured 
or grouped horizontally or vertically. 

Flashing. — Showing a single flash which may be instantaneous or may last ten 
seconds but period of light must always be less than period of darkness. 

Group Flashing. — Groups of flashes separated by periods of eclipse ; these flashes 
may vary in colour; if only consisting of two or three flashes they are referred to 
on charts etc. as double -flash or triple -flash. 

Fixed and Flashing. — Permanent light, varied by single flash which may be 
preceded or followed by short eclipse. 

Fixed and Group Flashing. — Same as above but with groups of flashes. 

Revolving. — Self-explanatory and in clear weather the whole course may be 
observed as a continuous light. 

Occulting. — Continuous light with one sudden and total eclipse; the period of 
darkness must always be greater than period of light. 

Group Occulting. — Continuous light with groups of sudden and total eclipse ; if only 
two or three occultations take place they are referred to as double or triple occulting. 

Alternating. — Lights of different colours alternating without eclipse. 

There are many variations such as a light which shows a flashing sector and a 
fixed sector; the well known Needles light in the Isle of Wight throws white, green 
and red arcs according to the direction from which it is seen. 

52 



Trinity House 

The most powerful light round the British coast is the Skerries (on the Anglesey 
coast), which has a light of 4,000,000 candle power; the Lizard light has one of 
3,000,000 candle power; Pendeen on the Cornish coast, one of 2,000,000 and the South 
Foreland Light at St. Margaret's Bay, near Dover, has one of 1,000,000 candle 
power which throws a light that is visible 26 miles distant. 

Off Selsey is a circular tower called the Nab Tower which took the place of a 
lightship of that name and which was one of the so-called wartime " mystery " 
towers, designed to be sunk in the Channel to form part of the anti-submarine defence 
and also probably to mount guns with which to bombard the Belgian coast. 

The Statue of Liberty at New York is one of the world's best known sea-marks 
and was presented to the United States by the French Republic in 1884. 

The Bell or Inchcape Rock Lighthouse is one of the largest round British Coasts : 
it measures over 40 feet wide at the base and stands 150 feet high. 

Cape Gris-Nez, on the French coast opposite Folkestone, is one of the brightest 
and best known lights in this neighbourhood. 

Whilst it is impossible not to duplicate lights, it is naturally the main idea to 
have as large a variety as possible within a given area so as to enable one to have 
a reasonable idea of one's whereabouts ; on a bright clear night a narrow waterway, 
such as the English Channel near Dover, looks like Piccadilly Circus and lights seem 
to wink and flash from all points of the compass at the same time. 

Some lighthouses in estuaries are built on piles and look like giant cameras perched 
on tripods. 

Rock lighthouses are normally relieved every month but the men remain on station 
for two month stretches, followed by one month ashore, although during this month 
they are not on leave but are stationed at one of the shore depots. 

On shifting sands or when the danger from which it is intended to warn vessels 
is far out at sea, lighthouses .are replaced by Lightships. 

53 



Ships and the Sea 

The earliest lightships were built on the design of the Dutch galliots and their 
lines are not by any means dissimilar to-day, with their bluff curving bows which 
give the impression of being able to ride out the dirtiest weather. 

Their massive sides are bound with iron. 

One of the oldest is the famous Nore, off Sheerness in the Thames Estuary, which 
has been in service since 1839 and which took the place of a vessel placed there 
about a century before that. 

There are various types of modern lightvessels ; some have thick tower-like masts, 
some have thin masts topped by cages or globes for recognition purposes, some are 
self-propelling and a few are automatic and have no crews. 

The lantern is usually lowered to the deck in the day-time. 

The system of lights is the same as for lighthouses but the visibility of their lights 
is much less. 

Although the life of both lighthouse and lightship crews has been made much 
more bearable during the last few years by such comforts as wireless and gramophone 
it remains sufficiently trying to make most of us shrink from the idea. Imagine 
being cooped up in a stone tower against which the ful] fury of an Atlantic storm 
may be hurled for days or weeks at a time ; imagine the loneliness, which, to say 
the least, must be trying to the most hardened nerves; picture yourself during a 
winter gale or during a severe electric storm in a light such as Beachy, cowering 
beneath high cliffs which must present an awe-inspiring spectacle. 

The Wolf Rock takes its name from the hollow barking sound of the reef when 
pounded by heavy seas. 

Can you realise the motion of a lightship, stuck out in the sea or ocean lanes, 
riding out the heaviest weather when ships are running for shelter; the bobbing up 
and down is not soothing even in a flat calm but when the wind freshens, it is dis- 
tinctly unpleasant ; add to this the knowledge that as you are right in the steamship 

54 



Trinity House 

routes you stand an extremely good chance of being run down, particularly in a 
fog, and life would not seem too rosy; such a disaster occurred quite recently when 
the American Nantucket light was rammed and sunk by the Olympic. 

All British lightships are painted bright red and have their name in large white- 
lettering along the side ; Irish lightships are coloured black. A lightvessel on station 
exhibits a white light at night from the forestay to show in which direction she is 
riding: if out of station, she shows a red light at either end and red and white flares 
every 15 minutes. 

For these reasons the crew are all picked men, chosen for their steadiness and nerve. 

The comforting sweep of a lighthouse beam may be supplanted by wireless 
directional beacons, but there will be a gap when it is, and I hope the day is far 
distant when the Mouse, Tongue, Girdler, and Nore lights shall be no more. 

The old " sea cows," particularly such seamarks as the Nore, are regarded affection- 
ately by countless thousands; many have felt that they have embarked on a new 
career opening up endless possibilities when they have left her " hull-down " for 
the first time, and many have been comforted and their hearts have rejoiced and 
quickened when they crept past her inward on a misty morning, or dropped anchor 
within sound of her fog-horn waiting for a morning tide. 

SOME IMPORTANT LIGHTHOUSES AND LIGHTVESSELS ROUND 
BRITISH ISLES 

SCILLY ISLES 
Visibility is reckoned as seen from a height of not less than 15 feet, the average 
height of normal high water. C.P. — Candle Power. 

1. Bishop Rock. Granite tower on S.W. part of island. 2 flashes every 15 
seconds. Visible 15 miles. 622,000 C.P, 

55 



Ships and the Sea 

2. St. Mary's. Tower 200 yards from S. end of Pendinnis Head. 1 flash every 

20 seconds. Visible 16 miles. 100,000 C.P. 

3. Round Island. White tower on N. side of Scillys. 1 red flash every 30 seconds. 

Visible 20 miles. 415,000 C.P. 

ENGLISH CHANNEL 

4. Seven Stones Lightvessel. 3 flashes every minute. Visible 11 miles. 

12,000 C.P. 

5. Longships (Land's End). Granite tower on rock. Occulting, with red sectors, 

every minute. Visible 16 miles. 35,000 C.P. 

6. Wolf Rock. Granite tower, with black lantern, on rock. Group flashing, 

alternating white and red, every 15 seconds. Visible 16 miles. 70,000 C.P. 

7. Lizard. White octagonal tower. 1 flash every 3 seconds. Visible 21 miles. 

3,000,000 C.P. 

8. Falmouth (St. Anthony's). White octagonal tower. Occulting, with red 

sector, every 20 seconds. Visible 14 miles. 20,000 C.P. 

9. Fowey. White octagonal tower on St. Catherine's point. Occulting white 

and red. Visible 15 miles. 

10. Eddystone. Granite tower, lantern and gallery red. 2 flashes every 17 

seconds. Visible 17 miles. Low fixed light visible 15 miles. 292,000 C.P. 

11. Plymouth Breakwater. Granite tower on west end. Occulting every 

30 seconds. Visible 13 miles. Low fixed light visible 11 miles. 

12. Start Point. White tower. 1 flash every 20 seconds. Visible 20 miles. 

also Low fixed light visible 20 miles. 274,000 C.P. 

56 



Lighthouses and Lightvessels 

13. Dartmouth. Tower on E. side of harbour. Fixed, with white, red and green 

arcs. Visible 11 miles. 

14. Berry Head (Tor Bay). White house. 2 flashes every 15 seconds. Visible 

20 miles. 45,000 C.P. 

15. Portland Bill. White tower with red band. 4 flashes every 20 seconds. 

Visible 18 miles. Also fixed red light visible 13 miles. 256,000 C.P. 

16. Portland Breakwatee. S.E. end of detached breakwater. 1 flash every 

10 seconds. Visible 14 miles. 

17. Shambles Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. 2 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 11 miles. 8,000 C.P. 

CHANNEL ISLANDS 

18. Casquets. White tower. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 17 miles. 

184,000 C.P. 

19. Alderney. White tower with black band. 4 flashes every 15 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. 400,000 C.P. 

20. Sark. White octagonal tower. 1 flash every 15 seconds. Visible 21 miles. 

92,000 C.P. 

21. Les Hanois. Granite tower with black lantern. 1 flash every 45 seconds. 

Visible 16 miles. 74,000 C.P. 

22. La Corbiere. Granite tower. Fixed light. Visible 17 miles. 29,000 C.P. 



57 



Ships and the Sea 

ENGLISH CHANNEL— contd. 

23. Anvil Point. White tower. 1 flash every 10 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

74,000 C.P. 

24. Needles. Granite tower with black band and lantern. On rock at W. 

extremity of Isle of Wight. Double occulting every 20 seconds with white, 
green and red arcs. Visible 14 miles. 35,000 C.P. 

25. Htjhst. 2 circular towers on beach 200 yards apart. 1 high occulting every 

15 seconds. Visible 14 miles. 1 low occulting, with white and red arcs, 
every 4 seconds. Visible 12 miles. 

26. Calshot Lightvessel. E. side of channel, Southampton Water. Ball at 

masthead. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 10 miles. 

27. Warner Lightvessel. Red ball at masthead. Revolving; 1 flash every 10 

seconds. Visible 10 miles. 

28. Nab Tower. Circular tower. 1 flash every 10 seconds. Visible 16 miles. 

12,000 C.P. 

29. St. Catherine. Octagonal white castellated tower. On cliff at S.E. extremity 

of Isle of Wight. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 1 fixed red, 
visible 17 miles. 

30. Owers Lightvessel. Revolving. Alternate white and red every minute. 

Visible 11 miles. 8,000 C.P. " 

31. Be achy Head. Granite tower with black band, gallery and lantern. At foot 

of cliffs near Eastbourne. 2 flashes every 20 seconds. Visible 16 miles. 
274,000 C.P. 

58 







Types of Lighthouses Round the British Coast 

1. Pile Lighthouse ^Thames Estuary 2 North Foreland, 3. South Foreland. 

4. End of Admiralty Pier, Dover. 5. Beachy Head. 

59 



Ships and the Sea 

32. Royal Sovereign Lightvessel. Small globe over large, at masthead. Off 
Eastbourne. 3 flashes every 45 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 750,000 C.P. 
33/34. Dungeness. On beach. Blue tower with broad white band. White flash 
every 10 seconds. Visible 17 miles. 1 low light fixed with red and green 
arcs. Visible 13 miles. 164,000 C.P. 
White tower on beach 500 yards from above. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 
11 miles. 11,000 C.P. 

35. Varne Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. Revolving. 1 red flash every 

20 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 5,000 C.P. 

36. Folkestone. Tower on extremity of pier. 2 flashes every 10 seconds. Visible 

11 miles. 

37/39. Dover. White tower on end of Admiralty Pier. 1 flash every 7| seconds. Visible 

14 miles. 100,000 C.P. 
Tower on W. end of detached mole. Red occulting every 30 seconds. Visible 

14 miles. 
Granite tower on end of Prince of Wales's Pier. Green flash every 5 seconds. 

Visible 12 miles. 

40. South Foreland. White square castellated tower (disused tower visible 

lower) on cliff near Dover. 1 flash every 2| seconds. Visible 26 miles. 
1,000,000 C.P. 

41. South Goodwin Lightvessel {formerly South Sand Head). S. end of Goodwin 

Sands. 2 flashes (short, long) every 30 seconds. Visible 11 miles. Light- 
tower amidships. 8,000 C.P. 

42. East Goodwin Lightvessel. 1| miles E. of Goodwin Sands. Light-tower 

amidships. 1 flash every 10 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 20,000 C.P. 

60 



Lighthouses and Light vessels 
Brake Light vessel (replaced former Gull Light). 2 cones at masthead. 

1 red flash every 20 seconds. Visible 10 miles. 
North Goodwin Lightvessel. N. end of Goodwin Sands. Triangle at 

masthead. 3 flashes every minute. Visible 11 miles. 12,000 C.P. 
North Foreland. White octagonal tower on cliffs near Margate. 5 white 

flashes every 20 seconds (red arc). Visible 20 miles. 35,000 C.P. 

THAMES ESTUARY 

Tongue Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. 2 flashes (alternating red and 

white) every 30 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 8,000 C.P. 
Edinburgh Channel Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships. 1 flash every 

5 seconds. Visible 10 miles. 2,500 C.P. 
Barrow Deep Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships. 1 flash every 15 

seconds. Visible 9 miles. 
Girdler Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships. 1 flash every 30 seconds. 

Visible 10 miles. 275,000 C.P. 
Nore Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. Revolving. 1 flash every 30 seconds. 

Visible 10 miles. 2,000 C.P. 
Chapman. Pile lighthouse. Group occulting. 2 eclipses every 30 seconds 

(red arc). Visible 11 miles. 
Mid -Barrow Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships. 2 flashes, alternating 

red and white, every 30 seconds. Visible 9 miles. 
Mouse Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships. 1 red flash every 20 seconds. 

Visible 10 miles. 

61 



Ships and the Sea 

54. Swin Middle Lightvessel. Lantern at top of lattice structure. 3 flashes 

every 15 seconds. Visible 10 miles. 

55. Gunfleet. Red pile lighthouse. 1 red flash every 15 seconds. Visible 11 

miles. 

56. Sunk Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships. 2 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 11 miles. 

57. Kentish Knock Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships ; 2 masts. 3 red flashes 

every 15 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

58. Galloper Lightvessel. 2 cones on mainmast. 1 flash every 30 seconds. 

Visible 11 miles. 

EAST COAST 

59. Cork Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. Revolving. 1 flash every 30 seconds. 

Visible 10 miles. 

60. Shipwash Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 11 miles. 

61. OPvFOPvDNESS. Tower. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 16 miles. Low fixed 

light (red and green arcs), visible 12 miles. 

62. Outer Gabbard Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships ; two masts. 4 flashes 

every 15 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

63. Southwold. White tower in centre of town. Double occulting (white and 

red arcs) every 20 seconds. Visible 17 miles. 

64. Lowestoft. White tower on cliffs. Revolving. 1 flash every 30 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. Lower fixed light, visible 15 miles. 

62 



EXPLOSIVE FQCt 
SIGNAL 



SERVICE RCQM-v 

LMING ROOM -> 

BEDROOM — ] 

LIVING ROOM -> 

OIL ROQtA — * 
OIL ROOM 

STORE ROOM 



.LAN TERM 




63 



Ships and the Sea 

65. Corton Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. 1 red flash every 20 seconds. Visible 

11 miles. 

66. Cross Sand Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships. 2 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 11 miles. 

67. St. Nicholas Lightvessel. 2 flashes (alternating white and red) every 40 

seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

68. Cockle Lightvessel. Revolving light. 1 flash every minute. Visible 10 miles. 

69. Newaep Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships; two masts. 1 flash every 

10 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

70. Smith's Knoll Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships; two masts. 2 flashes 

(alternating red and white) every 20 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

71. Hasborough. White tower with 3 red bands. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. 

72. Hasborough Lightvessel. Globe at masthead. 4 flashes every 20 seconds. 

Visible 11 miles. 

73. Cromer. White octagonal tower near cliff. Revolving. Maximum light every 

minute. Visible 23 miles. 

74. Lynn W t ell Lightvessel. 1 flash every 10 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

75. East Dudgeon Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. 3 flashes every minute. 

Visible 10 miles. 

76. Inner Dowsing Lightvessel. Half-globe at masthead. 1 flash every 5 

seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

77. Cromer Knoll Lightvessel. Triangle at masthead. 3 flashes (white, red, 

white) every 45 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

64 



Lighthouses and Lightvessels 
78. Outer Dowsing Lightvessel. Light-tower amidships; 2 masts. 2 flashes 
every 10 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

79. Humber Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. 1 flash every minute. Visible 

11 miles. 

80. Spurn Point. Black tower with white band, on cliff. 1 flash every 20 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. Fixed light (red arc) visible 13 miles. Lower fixed 
light, visible 12 miles. 

81. Bull Lightvessel. Lantern on steel tower. 2 flashes (white and red) 

every 20 seconds. Visible 10 miles. 

82. Withernsea. White tower. Triple occulting every minute. Visible 17 

miles. 

83. Flamborough Head. White tower on headland. 4 flashes every 15 seconds. 

Visible 21 miles. 

84. Scarborough. On mast at elbow of pier. Fixed red light, not shown when 

water below 12 feet. Visible 13 miles. 

85. Whitby. White, octagonal tower on Ling Hill. Occulting white (with red 

arc) every 30 seconds. Visible 22 miles. 

86. Tees. White tower on end of S. Gare breakwater. 1 flash, with red arc, every 

12 seconds. Visible 10 miles. 

87. Hartlepool. White tower. 2 flashes every 10 seconds. Visible 13 miles. 

88. Seaham. Tower on N. pier. 1 flash every 10 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

89. Sunderland. Tower on N. pier. High fixed white light. Low fixed green 

light. Visible 5 miles. 
Tower on end of Roker Pier. 1 flash eveiy 5 seconds. Visible 15 miles. 

65 



Ships and the Sea 

90. Souter Point. White tower with 1 red band, on point. 1 red flash every 

5 seconds. Visible 18 miles. Lower fixed light (red arc), visible 17 
miles. 

91. Tyne. Stone tower on X. pier. 3 flashes every 10 seconds. Visible 15 

miles. 

92. North Shields. 1 fixed light, visible 16 miles. 1 low light, visible 13 

miles. 

93. St. Mary's. White cylindrical tower on islet. 2 flashes every 20 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. 

94. Blyth. 2 white towers; rear one round, showing fixed light, visible 15 miles. 

Front one, square, showing fixed light, visible 7 miles. 

95. Coquet. Square tower on S.W. part of island. Occulting (white and red 

arcs) every 30 seconds. Visible 14 miles. Fixed light (red arc), visible 
13 miles. 

96. Bamburgh. Double occulting (white and red arcs) every 15 seconds. Visible 

12 miles. 

97. Farn. White tower near S.W T . point of island. Occulting (red arc) every 

10 seconds. Visible 15 miles. 

98. Longstone. Red tower with 1 white band, on W. side of islet. 1 flash every 

30 seconds. Visible 14 miles. 

99. Berwick. Stone tower with red top and base. 1 fixed light. Visible 12 miles. 

1 fixed red light visible 8 miles; only shown when 10 feet or more of water 
on bar. 



66 



Lighthouses and Lightvessels 

SCOTLAND (East Coast) 

100. St. Abb's Head. White tower on headland. 1 flash every 10 seconds. Visible 

21 miles. 

101. Barns Ness. White tower on ness near Dunbar. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. 

102. Bass Rock (Firth of Forth). White tower on S. side of rock. 6 flashes every 

30 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

103. Fidra Island. Red brick tower near summit. 2 flashes every 15 seconds. 

Visible 16 miles. 

104. Inchkeith. White tower near summit of island. Revolving. 1 flash every 

30 seconds. Visible 21 miles. 

105. May Island. Square tower on summit. 1 flash every 20 seconds. Visible 

21 miles. 

106. North Carr Lightvessel. 2 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

107. Bell Rock. White tower near N.E. end of reef. 2 flashes (white and red) 

every minute. Visible 15 miles. 

108. Abertay (River Tay) Lightvessel. 2 masts. 1 flash every 10 seconds. 

Visible 8 miles. 

109. Btjddonness (leading lights). 2 white towers 400 yards apart on low ness. 

Rear tower shows two fixed lights visible 16 and 14 miles respectively. 
Front tower 1 fixed light visible 13 miles. 

110. Montrose (Scyrdyness). White tower on ness. Occulting every minute. 

Visible 17 miles. 

67 



Ships and the Sea 

111. Tod Head. White tower on head. 6 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 17 

miles. 

112. Girdleness. Stone tower on ness. 2 flashes every 20 seconds. Visible 

19 miles. 

113. Buchan Ness. Stone tower on the ness. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 

17 miles. 

114. Peterhead. Stone tower, S. Harbour. Fixed light (red arc). Visible 10 

miles. 

115. Rattray Head. White tower on Ron Rock. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 15 miles. 

116. Kinnaird Head. White tower on headland. 1 flash every 15 seconds. Visible 

17 miles. 

117. Covesea Skerries. Stone tower on Craig Head. Revolving. 1 flash 

with red arc every 30 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

118. Cromarty. Stone tower on point. Green occulting every 10 seconds. Visible 

13 miles. 

119. Tarbet Ness. White tower near end of point. 6 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 18 miles. 

120. Clythe Ness. Granite tower with red band. 2 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 18 miles. 

121. Noss Head. Stone tower on head. Revolving. 1 flash (red arc) every 

30 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

122. Duncansby Head. 1 flash every 6 seconds. Visible 20 miles. 

68 



^WJrft 


jCTI^v/yx e 




mr"""" 


-~~ "r^—^ _ c ~~ _ — 




6. TAe Needles (Isle of Wight.) 
8. Tfce Lizard (S. Cornwall). 



8 9 

7. £tar? Pom£ (£. Devon). 
9. Long ships (Lands End). 



69 



Ships and the Sea 

123. Pentland Skerries. Stone tower on island. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 19 miles. 

124. Stroma. White tower on point. 6 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 16 

miles. 

125. Dunnet Head. Stone tower on headland. 4 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 

25 miles. 

126. Holburn. White tower on headland. 1 flash every 10 seconds. Visible 

14 miles. 

ORKNEYS 

127. Cantick Head. White tower on headland. Revolving every minute. Visible 

16 miles. 

128. Copinsay. Tower. 5 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 22 miles. 

129. Hoy Sound. 2 towers a mile apart. High light (white and red arcs) on N.E. 

point of Grensa. Visible 16 miles. Low light on N.W. point. Visible 
12 miles. 

130. Auskerry. White tower on S.E. point of island in Stromsa Firth. Fixed 

light. Visible 16 miles. 

131. North Ronaldsay. Red brick tower with two white bands near top. 1 

flash every 10 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

132. Fair Isee. White tower on the Skroo. 2 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 

23 miles. 

133. Noup Head. White tower on N.W. edge of cliff. 5 flashes every minute. 

Visible 22 miles, 

70 



Lighthouses and Light vessels 

SHETLANDS 

Sumbuegh Head. Stone tower on S.W. point of Shetlands. 3 flashes every 

30 seconds. Visible 24 miles. 
Bressay. White tower on E. side of entrance to Lerwick. Revolving 

(alternate white and red) every minute. Visible 16 miles. 
Out Skerries. White tower on Bound Skerry. Revolving. 1 flash every 

minute. Visible 18 miles. 
North XJist. White tower on Muckle Flugga. 2 flashes (red arc) every 20 

seconds. Visible 21 miles. 
Fugla Ness. W. Coast of Burra Island, entrance to Scalloway. Fixed white 

and red. Visible 12 miles. 
Skule Skerry. White tower on S.E. part. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 

17 miles. 

SCOTLAND 

Cape Wrath. White tower on S.E. part. 2 flashes (alternate white and red) 

every minute. Visible 27 miles. 
Ru Stoer. White tower on head. Occulting every 45 seconds. Visible 20 miles. 
Rudh're. N.W. extremity of head. 6 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 

17 miles. 
South Rona. White tower on S.E. point of island. 1 flash every 12 seconds. 

Visible 21 miles. 
Eilean Trodda. Beacon on summit of island, Skye. 2 flashes (white, red 

and green sectors) every 10 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

71 



Ships and the Sea 

HEBRIDES 

14.5. Butt of Lewis. Red brick tower on N. point. 1 flash every 21 seconds. 
Visible 19 miles. 

146. Tiumpan Head. White circular tower. 2 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 

19 miles. 

147. Stornoway. White tower on Arnish Point. Revolving. 1 flash every 30 

seconds. Visible 13 miles. 

148. Glas Island. Tower with red and white bands on S.E. end of Scalpay Island. 

3 flashes every 20 seconds. Visible 17 miles. 

149. Skeirinoe Lightvessel. Unwatched. 1 flash every 6 seconds. Visible 

10 miles. 

150. Ushinish. White tower E. side of S. Uist. 1 flash (8 seconds) every 24 

minutes. Visible 18 miles. 

151. Barra Head. Stone tower on summit of Berbera Island. Occulting every 

minute. Visible 33 miles. 

152. Monach. White tower on W. end of Shillay. 1 flash every 10 seconds. Visible 

18 miles. 

153. Flannan Islands. Tower on Eilean Mor. 2 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 

24 miles. 

154. Hyskier Rocks. White tower S. end of rocks. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. 

155. Skerryvore. Stone tower on rock. 1 flash every 20 seconds. Visible 18 

miles- 

72 




10 Hartiand Point (X. Devon). 11 The Mumbles (S. Wales). 12 Belfast Lough. 

13 Fastnet (Irish Coast). 14 Bound Island (Scillies). 

73 



Ships and the Sea 

156. Ardnamttrchan. Stone tower with black lantern, on point. 2 flashes every 

30 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

157. Neist Point. White tower W. coast of Skye. 2 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 18 miles. 

158. Lismore. Grey tower on Musdile Islet. Fixed light. Visible 16 miles. 

159. Rudha Mhail. White tower with black band, N. point of Islay Island. 

Fixed white and red. Visible 18 miles. 

160. MacArthtjr Head. White tower S.E. end of Sound of Islay. Fixed white 

and red. Visible 18 miles. 

161. Rhynns of Islay. White tower on Oversay Island off S.W. point of Islay. 

1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 233,000 C.P. 

162. Otter Rock Lightvessel. Unattended. 2 flashes every 15 seconds. Visible 

10 miles. 

163. Mull of Cantyre. White tower on S.W. headland of Cantyre. 2 flashes 

every 30 seconds. Visible 24 miles. 281,000 C.P. 

164. Sand a. Stone tower on Ship Rock. 1 flash (red arc) every 24 seconds. Visible 

18 miles. 61,000 C.P. 

165. Davarr. Stone tower (black dome) on N.E. point. Revolving. 1 flash every 

30 seconds. Visible 17 miles. 

166. Pladda. White tower on island. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 17 miles. 

1,000,000 C.P. 

167. Holy Island (Firth of Clyde). White square tower on Pillar Rock. 1 flash 

every 15 seconds (alternating red and white). Visible 17 miles. 392,000 C.P. 

168. Cttmbrae. White tower W. side of Little Cumbrae Island. 2 flashes every 

30 seconds. Visible 16 miles. 158,000 C.P. 

74 



Lighthouses and Lightvessels 

169. Toward. White tower on point. 1 flash every 10 seconds. Visible 14 

miles. 

170. Cloch. White tower S. side of entrance to Clyde. 1 flash every 5 seconds. 

Visible 14 miles. 

171. Ardrossan. White tower on S. breakwater. Occulting every 4 seconds 

(red arc). Visible 10 miles. 

172. Lady Isle. High tower on approach to Troon. 4 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 12 miles. 

173. Ails a Craig. Tower on gravel spit. 6 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 

13 miles. 40,000 C.P. 

174. Turnberry. White tower. 1 flash every 12 seconds. Visible 15 miles. 

6,000 C.P. 

175. Corsewall. White tower on W. side of entrance to Lock Ryan. 1 flash 

every 12 seconds. Visible 15 miles. 95,000 C.P. 

176. Killantringan. White cylindrical tower in vicinity of Black Head. 2 

flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 19 miles. 840,000 C.P. 

177. Mtjll of Galloway. Stone lighthouse on S.E. point. Occulting every 22^ 

seconds. Visible 25 miles. 29,000 C.P. 

178. Little Ross. White tower. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

WEST COAST OF ENGLAND AND WALES 

179. St. Bees. White tower on head. Double occulting every 30 seconds. Visible 

25 miles. 

75 



Ships and the Sea 

ISLE OF MAN 

180. Ayre Point. White tower with 2 red bands. Alternate flashes (8 seconds 

each), white and red, every minute. Visible 16 miles. 66,000 C.P. 
At end of point. Fixed white light, visible 10 miles. 

181. Chicken Rock. Granite tower near S. end of Calf. Revolving. 1 flash every 

30 seconds. Visible 16 miles. 173,000 C.P. 

182. Langness. Tower on S.E. part of point. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 

14 miles. 9,000 C.P. 

183. Douglas Head. White stone tower on head. 6 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 14 miles. 



W T EST COAST OF ENGLAND AND WALES— contd. 

184. Morecambe Bay Lightvessel. Black ball. 2 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 11 miles. 

185. North West Light Lightvessel (Mersey). Unwatched. Revolving. 1 

flash every 30 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

186. Bar Lightvessel. Red tower. Two masts, on each of which is a red ball. 

3 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 10 miles. 4,000 C.P. 

187. Formby Lightvessel. Two masts, red ball on foremast. Red flash every 

5 seconds. Visible 8 miles. 4,000 C.P. 

188. Crosby Lightvessel. Two masts, red lantern on foremast. 1 flash every 10 

seconds. Visible 10 miles. 4,000 C.P. 

76 



Lighthouses and Lightvessels 
Rock. White tower, W. side entrance to Mersey. 1 flash every 20 seconds. 

Visible 13 miles. 8,000 C.P. 
Great Orme Head. Square building on cliff. 4 flashes every 30 seconds 

(red arc). Visible 24 miles. 13,000 C.P. 
Menai. White tower with 3 black bands. 1 flash every 5| seconds. Visible 

13 miles. 
Lyntjs. White building on point. Occulting every 10 seconds. Visible 

16 miles. 10,000 C.P. 
Skerries. White tower with one red band. 2 flashes every 10 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. Fixed red, visible 15 miles. 4,000,000 C.P. 
Holyhead. Square tower on breakwater. 1 red flash every 1\ seconds. 

Visible 14 miles. 31,000 C.P. 

South Stack. White tower. 1 flash every 10 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

274,000 C.P. 
Carnarvon Bay Lightvessel. Small ball over large masthead. Revolving. 

Flashes 2 white and 1 red every 20 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

Bardsey. Square tower with two red bands. 5 flashes every 15 seconds. 
Visible 17 miles. 270,000 C.P. 

St. Tudwal. White tower on W. Island. 1 flash (white and red arcs) every 
20 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 12,000 C.P. 

Strxjmble. On Strumble Head. 4 flashes every 15 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

400,000 C.P. 
South Bishop. White tower on rock. Revolving. 1 flash every 20 seconds. 

Visible 18 miles. 129,000 C.P. 

77 



Ships and the Sea 

201. Smalls. Granite tower with red and white bands, on rock. 3 flashes every 

15 seconds. Visible 17 miles. Fixed red light, visible 16 miles. 
477,000 C.P. 

202. Skokham Islands (Bristol Channel). Tower at S.W. end. Red flash every 

10 seconds. Visible 20 miles. 

203. St. Ann's Head. Tower. Occulting (red arc) every 30 seconds. Visible 

18 miles. 

204. Milford Haven. 2 square white towers with black vertical stripe on each- 

Upper light occults every 12 seconds. Visible 16 miles. Lower light 
flashes every 2 seconds, visible 14 miles. 

205. St. Govens Shoal Lightvessel. Diamond at masthead. 1 flash every 15 

seconds. Visible 10 miles. 

206. Caldy Island. White tower on S. part of island. 3 flashes (red arc) every 

20 seconds. Visible 20 miles. 

207. Helwick Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. 1 flash every 30 seconds. Visible 

11 miles. 

208. Mumbles. White tower on outer islet. Double occulting every 20 seconds. 

Visible 15 miles. 

209. Scakweather Lightvessel. Half-ball over ball at masthead. 1 flash every 

5 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

210. Nash Point. High tower, black and white bands. Occulting every 30 

seconds (red and white arcs). Visible 19 miles. 

211. Breaksea Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. Revolving. 1 flash every 15 

seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

78 






In Thames Estuary 



In Mersey 



In Thames Estuary 



^ffimali 





In Thames Estuary E. Coast Persian Gulf 

Some Representative British Light vessels. 



79 



Ships and the Sea 

212. Flatholm. White tower on S. point. Double occulting every 30 seconds 

(red and white arcs). Visible 18 miles. 

213. English and Welsh Grounds Lightvessel. Ball at masthead. Revolving. 

I flash every 30 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

214. Blacknore. White tower on point. 2 flashes every 10 seconds. Visible 

II miles. 

215. Burnham. White tower with red stripe. Double occulting every minute. 

Visible 15 miles. 

216. The Foreland (Lynmouth). White tower on cliff. 4 flashes every 15 minutes. 

Visible 21 miles. 

217. Bull Point. White tower on cliff. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 

18 miles. Fixed red light, visible 17 miles. 

218. Lundy Island, North. White tower near N.E. end. 2 flashes every 20 

seconds. Visible 19 miles. 374,000 C.P. 

219. Lundy Island, South. White tower. 1 flash every 30 seconds. Visible 

19 miles. 206,000 C.P. 

220. Hartland Point. White tower on point. 6 flashes every 15 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. 1,250,000 C.P. 

221. Trevose Head. White tower on cliff. 1 red flash every 5 seconds. Visible 

20 miles. 248,000 C.P. 

222. Godrevy Island. Unattended. Stone tower on island. 1 flash (red arc) 

every 10 seconds. Visible 17 miles. 68,000 C.P. 

223. Pendeen. Circular white tower. 4 flashes every 15 seconds. Visible 20 miles. 

2,000,000 C.P. 

80 



Lighthouses and Lightvessels 

IRELAND 

(Irish lightvessels are painted black) 

224. Fastnet. Granite tower on rock. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 19 miles. 

750,000 C.P. 

225. Galley Head. White tower on cliff. 5 flashes every 20 seconds. Visible 

19 miles. 300,000JC.P. 

226. Kinsale Head. White tower with 2 red bands, on Old Head. 2 flashes every 

10 seconds. Visible 21 miles. 460,000 C.P. 

227. Daunt Rock Lightvessel. 2 masts, lantern on mainmast, black globe on 

jigger. Red flash every 30 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 28,000 C.P. 

228. Roche Point. White tower on E. side of entrance to Cork Harbour. Occult- 

ing (red arcs) every 20 seconds. Visible 15 miles. Fixed low light, 
visible 13 miles. 

229. Rallycotton. Black stone tower on island. 1 flash every 10 seconds. 

Visible 20 miles. 160,000 C.P. 

230. Mine Head. Tower on headland. 4 flashes every 20 seconds. Visible 23 

miles. 230,000 C.P. 

231. Hook Point (Waterford). Tower with three red belts, on E. side of entrance. 

1 flash every 3 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 279,000 C.P. 

232. Coninbeg Lightvessel. 3 masts, lantern on foremast, black globe at main- 

mast. 3 flashes every minute. Visible 10 miles. 90,000 C.P. 

233. Barrels Rock Lightvessel. 2 masts, lantern on mainmast, barrel on jigger. 

2 red flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 28,000 C.P. 
D 81 



Ships and the Sea 

234. Tuskak Rock. White tower. Alternating white and red flashes every 2 

minutes. Visible 16 miles. 340,000 C.P. 

235. Lucifer Bank Lightvessel. 2 masts, lantern on mainmast. 1 red flash 

every 45 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

236. Blackwater Bank Lightvessel. 2 masts, lantern on mainmast. 1 flash 

every 15 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

237. Arklow Lightvessel. 2 masts, lantern on mainmast, half- globe over globe 

at jigger masthead. 1 flash every 45 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 

238. Wicklow Head. White tower. 3 flashes every 15 seconds. Visible 17 

miles. 

239. Codling Bank Lightvessel. 2 masts, lantern on mainmast,- globe over 

half-globe at jigger masthead. Revolving. 1 red flash every 20 seconds. 
Visible 11 miles. 

240. Kish Lightvessel. 2 masts, lantern on mainmast, globe at jigger masthead. 

Revolving. 1 flash every minute. Visible 11 miles. 

241. Kingstown. Granite tower on E. pierhead. 2 flashes every 15 seconds. 

Visible 12 miles. 

242. Rockabill. Grey tower. 1 flash (red arc) every 12 seconds. Visible 18 

miles. 

243. Haulbowline Rock. White tower at entrance to Loch Carlingford. Triple - 

occulting every 10 seconds. Visible 16 miles. Fixed red. 

244. St. John's Point. Tower with black and white bands, on E. side of Dundrum 

Bay. 2 flashes every 7 J seconds. Visible 16 miles. 460,000 C.P. 
Fixed light (red arc), visible 10 miles. 

82 



Lighthouses and Light vessels 

245. South Rocks Lightvessel. 2 masts, lantern on mainmast, black globe at 

mainmast-head. 2 flashes every 45 seconds. Visible 11 miles. 12,000 
C.P. 

246. Skulmartin Lightvessel. 2 masts, lantern on mainmast, 2 black half-globes 

at jigger masthead. 1 red flash every minute. Visible 11 miles. 28,000 
C.P. 

247. Mew Island. Black tower on E. point. 4 flashes every minute. Visible 

17 miles. 177,000 C.P. 

248. Black Head. Red tower on N. side entrance to Belfast Bay. 1 flash every 

3 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 169,000 C.P. 

249. Lotjgh Larne. White tower on E. side of entrance. Fixed light. Visible 

11 miles. Red arc, visible 9 miles. 1,000 C.P. 

250. Maidens. White tower with red central band, on rock. 3 flashes every 20 

seconds. Visible 15 miles. 1 red flash every 3 seconds, visible 12 miles. 
270,000 C.P. 

251. East Rathlin. White tower with red band. 4 flashes (red arc) every 20 

seconds. Visible 22 miles. 230,000 C.P. 

252. West Rathlin. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visibility 20 miles. 250,000 C.P. 

253. Inistrahull. White tower on N.E. part of island. Revolving. 1 flash 

every 30 seconds. Visible 18 miles. 200,000 C.P. 

254. Fan ad Head (Lough Swilly). White tower. 6 flashes every 15 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. Fixed light, visible 13 miles. 57,000 C.P. 

255. Tory Island. Black tower on N.W. part of island. 4 flashes every 30 seconds. 

Visible 17 miles. 1,500,000 C.P. 

83 



Ships and the Sea 

256. Aran Island. White tower on N.W. point. Revolving. Alternate white 

and red flashes every 40 seconds. Visible 22 miles. 

257. Rathlin O'Birne. White tower with red dome, on W. side of island. 1 flash 

(red arc) every 15 seconds. Visible 16 miles. 

258. Sligo Bay. White tower on Black Rock. 2 fixed red and white. Visible 

13 miles. 

259. Black Rock. White tower on W. extremity. 2 flashes every 5 seconds. 

Visible 22 miles. 

260. Clare Island. White tower on N. point of island. 1 flash every 5 seconds. 

Visible 25 miles. 

261. Slyne Head. Black tower on island. Fixed light (red arc). Visible 16 

miles. 

262. Arran Islands, Earagh Island. White tower with 2 red bands. Revolving 

1 flash every minute. Visible 16 miles. 

263. Loop Head. White tower. 4 flashes every 20 seconds. Visible 22 miles. 

264. Kilcradan Head (Shannon). White tower. Fixed red and white. Visible 

16 miles. 

265. Tearaght. Tower on W. end of Blasket Islands. 2 flashes every minute. 

Visible 23 miles. 

266. Skelligs. Tower on highest rock 7J miles off shore. 3 flashes every 10 

seconds. Visible 18 miles. 

267. Bull Rock. Tower on side of rock. 1 flash every 15 seconds. Visible 23 

miles. 

84 






Some Well Known Foreign Lightvessels 

1. " Ambrose Channel " in approaches to New York {self-propelled). 

2. " Elbe 3 " in the Elbe, Germany. 

3. " Sydostbrotten " off the Swedish Coast. 

85 



Ships and the Sea 
ome Important European Lights. 

GRIS-NEZ TO GIBRALTAR. 

A. Gris-Nez. Tower. Lightning flash every 5 seconds. Visible 22 miles. 

B. Boulogne. Turret on jetty. Fixed green. Visible 6 miles. 

C. Fecamp. Turret on jetty. 2 flashes every 10 seconds. Visible 12 miles. 

D. Cape D'Antifer. Tower on cliff. 1 flash every 20 seconds. Visible 27 

miles. 

E. Cape La Heve. Tower on cliff. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 27 miles. 

F. Cape Barfleur. Tower on the cliff. 2 flashes every 10 seconds. Visible 

22 miles. 

G. Cape La Hague. Tower on rock. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 20 

miles. 
H. Ouessant (Ushant). Two towers joined, on N.E. end of island. 3 flashes, 

white, white, red, every minute. Visible 23 miles. 

Tower on N.W. point. 2 flashes every 10 seconds. Visible 21 miles. 
I. Port Navalo (Quiberon Bay). 1 fixed light. Visible 10 miles. 1 fixed light, 

visible 15 miles. 
J. Cape Machichaco. Tower near old lighthouse. 1 flash every 45 seconds. 

Visible 35 miles. 
K. Cape Penas. Tower on the cliff. Fixed light. Visible 16 miles. 1 flash 

every 30 seconds, visible 21 miles 
L. Cape Busto. Tower. 1 fixed. Visible 18 miles. 1 red flash every 2 minutes, 

visible 20 miles. 

86 



Lighthouses and Lightvessels 
M. Estaca Point. Tower on cliff. 1 flash every minute. Visible 23 miles. 
N. Caoe Prior. House with tower. Group -occulting every 16 seconds. Visible 

19 miles. 
O. Cortjna. Tower. 1 flash every 3 minutes. Visible 19 miles. 
P. Cape Finisterre. Granite tower. Fixed. Visible 26 miles. 1 flash every 

30 seconds, visible 16 miles. 
Q. Cape Mondego. Tower. 1 flash every 1\ minutes. Visible 24 miles. 
R. Burlings. Tower on Great Burling. 3 flashes every 30 seconds. Visible 

26 miles. 
S. Cape Boca. Tower on cliff. 1 flash every 4 seconds. Visible 30 miles. 
T. Cape St. Vincent. Pyramidal structure. 1 flash every 5 seconds. Visible 

22 miles. 
U. Cape Trafalgar. Tower on cliff. Revolving. 1 flash every 30 seconds, 

showing fixed within 12 miles. Visible 19 miles. 
V. Tarifa. Tower at S. end of peninsula. 3 flashes (red arcs) every 15 seconds. 

Visible 18 miles. 
W. Gibraltar (Europa Point). Tower. Double occulting (red arcs) every 30 

seconds. Visible 18 miles. 



87 



CHAPTER III 



Distance Tables 



London (Gravesend) to 



Coasting. 



Aberdeen 


410 miles 


Bristol 


. 530 , 




Cardiff 


. 510 , 




Dover 


75 , 




Dundee 


. 400 , 




Glasgow 


. 760 , 




Hull 


. 215 , 




Leith 


. 390 , 




Liverpool 


. 040 , 




Mancheste] 


. 680 , 




Middlesbro 


ugh . 280 




Plymouth 


. 300 , 




Queenstow 


n . 500 , 




Southampt 


on . 200 




Swansea 


. 480 , 




Sunderlanc 


I . 300 , 





88 



Distance Tables 

LONDON (London Bridge) to GIBRALTAR. 

The famous Tower Bridge at London raises its bascules to let ships through on the 
average about 5,000 times in the year, and the average delay to traffic is 4J minutes 
each time; since the bridge was opened the roadway has been raised nearly 270,000 
times. 

Distances from London Bridge down the Channel are as follows: — 



London Bridge to Woolwich 

Woolwich to Gravesend . 

Gravesend to Nore Light 

Nore to North Foreland . 

North Foreland to Dover 

Dover to Dungeness 

Dungeness to Beachy Head 

Beachy Head to St. Catherine's Point 

St. Catherine's to Portland 

Portland to Start Point . 

Start Point to Prawle Point 

Prawle Point to Eddystone Light 

Eddystone to Lizard 

Lizard to Longships 

Longships to Ushant 

Ushant to Finisterre 

Finisterre to Cape St. Vincent 

St. Vincent to Gibraltar . 



9 miles 

15 

20 

30 

19 

18 

30 

60 

46 

50 
4 

20 

40 

24 

60 
400 
350 
170 



89 



Ships and the Sea 



LONDON— LIZARD via E. COAST. 



Nore to Mouse 
Mouse to Gunfleet . 
Gunfleet to Sunk 
Sunk to Shipwash . 
Shipwash to Orfordness . 
Orfordness to North Foreland 
Orfordness to Lowestoft . 
Lowestoft to Yarmouth . 
Yarmouth to Cromer Knoll 
Cromer Knoll to East Dudgeon 
East Dudgeon to Spurn Head . 
Spurn Head to Flamborough Head 
Flamborough Head to Scarborough 
Scarborough to Whitby . 
Whitby to Hartlepool 
Hartlepool to Sunderland 
Sunderland to Tynemouth 
Tynemouth to Berwick . 
Berwick to St. Abb's Head 
St. Abb's Head to Bass Rock 
Bass Rock to May Island 
May Island to Buddonness 
Buddonness to Girdleness 
Girdleness to Buchanness 
Buchanness to Peterhead 
Peterhead to Kinnaird Head 

90 



4 miles 
23 
12 
10 

5i 

44 
25 

8 
30 
24 
33 
25 
15 
13 
26 
15 

7 
54 
10 
20 

8 
60 
49 
22 

3 
20 



Distance Tables 
Kinnaird Head to Duncansby Head 
Duncansby Head to Dunnett Head 
Dunnett Head to Cape Wrath 
Cape Wrath to Butt of Lewis 
Butt of Lewis to Barra Head 
Barra Head to Skerryvore 
Skerryvore to Rhyns of Islay 
Rhyns of Islay to Mull of Cantj 
Mull of Cantyre to Sanda 
Sanda to Pladda 
Pladda to Cumbrae 
Cumbrae to Toward 
Toward to Cloch . 
Pladda to Ailsa Craig 
Ailsa Craig to Corsewall 
Corsewall to Mull of Galloway 
Mull of Galloway to Ayre Point 
Ayre Point to Liverpool Bar 
Liverpool to Skerries 
Skerries to South Stack 
South Stack to Smalls 
Smalls to Longships 
Longships to Lizard 



65 miles 

12 „ 

50 „ 

40 „ 
120 

35 „ 
44 
33 

8 „ 
18 „ 
18 „ 

9 „ 
5 

10 „ 

15 „ 

30 „ 

21 

67 

40 „ 

8 „ 

100 „ 
100 

24 „ 



91 



Ships and the Sea 



Cross Channel and Short Voyages. 



Dover to Calais 


22 miles 


„ to Dunkirk 


40 „ 


,, to Ostend 


63 „ 


Fishguard to Cork . 


140 „ 


„ to Rosslare 


55 „ 


Fleetwood to Douglas 


56 „ 


Folkestone to Boulogne 


26 „ 


Glasgow to Belfast . 


112 „ 


Gravesend to Rotterdam . 


160 „ 


Grimsby to Hamburg 


370 „ 


Harwich to Antwerp 


140 „ 


,, to Esbjerg . 


340 „ 


,, to Flushing 


95 „ 


,, to Hook 


no „ 


,, to Zeebrugge 


90 „ 


Heysham to Belfast . 


120 


„ to Douglas 


60 


Holyhead to Kingstown 


56 „ 


Liverpool to Belfast . 


135 


,, to Douglas 


70 „ 


Liverpool to Dublin 


120 


Newcastle to Bergen 


.400 


Newhaven to Dieppe 


67 „ 


Southampton to Caen 


. 120 



92 



Cross-Channel Connections 



Tglasgow 



-re 



w 



o& 



NEWCASTLE 



&: 



Jll 



\UV£BPOOL 

GRtMS8? 



ic°&^ 


^j^ftSMCUARO 


Harwich o^r .•■':'.■'•:•!.! i 2J y 
^ London? nT^ T'o ,?*' 








/ y \ ~*&D/EPP£ 




/ WEYMOUTH 


uy**"V 







93 



Ships and the Sea 



oss Channel to 




Southampton to Cherbourg 


85 mi 


,, to Guernsey 


100 


,, to Havre 


105 „ 


to St. Malo 


150 „ 


Stranraer to Larue . 


35 „ 


Weymouth to Guernsey 


70 „ 



Irish Coast. 



Inistrahull to Tory Island 
Tory Island to Aran Island 
Aran Island to Slyne Head 
Slyne Head to Loop Head 
Loop Head to Tearaght . 
Tearaght to Skellig 
Skellig to Fastnet 
Fastnet to Kinsale Head . 
Kinsale Head to Ballycotton 
Ballycotton to Hook Point 
Hook Point to Tuskar 
Tuskar to South Stack 



47 miles 
20 
126 
50 
40 
18 
44 
40 
7 
44 
30 
88 



94 



Mediterranean 




Ships and the Sea 



London — Overseas Ports. 



All distances are approximate and do not go into odd figures; routes and distances 
vary according to season and to the track taken. 



London to 










Adelaide 10,900 miles 


Aden 








4,700 


Amsterdam 








200 


Alexandria 








3,100 


Antwerp . 








180 


Ascension 








3,900 „ 


Athens (Piraeus) 






2,800 „ 


Auckland (via Suez) 




12,600 „ 


Auckland (via Panama) 




11,300 „ 


Azores 




1,500 „ 


Bahia 








4,500 


Bombay . 








6,400 „ 


Bordeaux 








1,100 „ 


Boston . 








3,000 „ 


Brisbane 








12,000 „ 


Buenos Aires . 








6,300 „ 


Calcutta . 








8,300 „ 


Cape Finisterre 






800 „ 


Cape St. Vincent 






1,150 „ 


Cape Town 




Of 




6,100 „ 





Distance Tables 


s T to 


Colombo 6,800 


Constantinople 






3,200 


Copenhagen 






800 


Danzig 








1,100 


Durban . 








6,900 


Finisterre 








800 


Freetown 








3,000 


Fremantle 








9,800 


Gibraltar 








1,300 


Halifax, N.S. 








2,700 


Hamburg 








400 


Havre 








200 


Hobart . 








12,000 


Hong Kong 








9,900 


Honolulu (via £ 


>uez) 






14,000 


Jamaica 








4,200 


Karachi . 








6,100 


Lagos 








4,100 


Las Palmas 








1,700 


Lisbon 








1,100 


Magellan 








7,400 


Madeira . 








1,500 


Malta 








2,300 


Marseilles 








2,100 


Melbourne 








11,400 


Messina . 








2,400 



miles 



97 





Ships and the Sea 


London 


to 






Mombassa 


6,600 mi 




Montevideo 




6,400 „ 




Naples 




2,300 „ 




New York 




3,500 „ 




Oslo 




700 




Panama 




4,800 „ 




Pernambuco 




4,100 




Piraeus . 




2,800 




Port Said 




3,200 „ 




Quebec . 




3,100 „ 




Rangoon 




7,900 „ 




Rio de Janeiro 




5,200 „ 




Rotterdam 




180 




St. Helena 




4,600 „ 




St. Vincent 




1,150 „ 




San Francisco (via Suez) . 


. 13,600 „ 




San Francisco (via Panamt 


i) . 7,950 „ 




Shanghai 


. 10,700 „ 




Singapore 




8,300 „ 




Southampton . 




200 




Stockholm 




1,200 „ 




Sydney . 




. 12,000 „ 




Ushant . 




400 




Valparaiso (via Panama) . 


8,900 „ 




Vladivostock . 


11,400 




Wellington (via Suez, 


. 


. 12,600 „ 



Distance Tables 



London to 



Cape Town 



Wellington (via Panama) 
Yokohama 

to 
Buenos Aires . 
Fremantle 
New York 
Rio de Janeiro 



Fremantle to 



Adelaide . 
Brisbane 
Colombo . 
Melbourne 
Sydney . 



Hong Kong to 



Liverpool to 



Vancouver 

o 

Buenos Aires 
Georgetown 
Jamaica 
Magellan 
Montreal 
New York 
Panama . 
Port Churchill 



11,300 miles 


11,900 „ 


3,800 miles 


4,700 „ 


6,800 „ 


3,300 „ 


1,300 miles 


3,000 „ 


3,100 „ 


1,900 „ 


2,400 „ 


6,000 miles 


6,400 miles 


4,000 , 




4,100 , 




7,200 




2,800 




3,100 , 




4,700 , 




3,000 , 





99 



Ships and the Sea 

Liverpool to 

Rio de Janeiro . . . 5.200 miles 

Sydney (via Panama) . . 12.600 

Wellington (via Panama) . . 11,200 

Sydney to 

Panama ..... 7,900 mi 
San Francisco .... 6,600 
Vancouver .... 6,900 

Wellington to 

Panama ..... 6,500 mi! 
Valparaiso .... 5,000 

Yokohama to 

London 11,900 mi] 

San Francisco .... 4,500 
Valparaiso . . . .9,300 

Vancouver .... 4,200 



100 



CHAPTER IV 

Bunkering and Fuelling Stations of the World 
(Commercial) 

'"pHOSE places in dark type are either British possessions or are under British 
protection and some idea is indicated of the immensity of the defence problem 
with which the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force have to contend. 





Stations at which Coal Only 


is Available. 


Albany 




CORCTTBION 
CORONEL 


Barbados 






Beira 




Dartmouth 


Bona 




Diego Stjarez 


Bowen 




Dieppe 


Brest 




Dundee 


Bunbury 




Durban 


Cairns 




East London 


Cardiff 




Emden 


Chingwangtao 




Comoz 




Freetown 



101 



Ships and the Sea 



Stations at which Coal Only is Available — contd. 



Gdynia 

Ghent 

Hakodate 
Hartlepools 

Hook of Holland 
Huelva 

Immingham 
Ipswich 

Karatsu 

Keelung 

Lagos 
La Plata 

Laurum 

LOANDA 
LOBITO 

Lourenco Marques 

Lota 

Lyttleton 

Madeira 

Mariupol 

Mauritius 

Messina 

Methill 



Middlesbrough 

MlIKE 

Moji 
Mormugoa 

MURORAN 

Nanaimo 

Newcastle on Tyne 
Newport 

Newport News 
Nicolaieff 

Odessa 
Oporto 
Otaru 

Padang 
Papeete 
Plymouth 
Port Harcourt 
Port Kembla 
Port Pirie 
Punta Arenas 

Rosario 

St. Johns (N.F.L.) 
St. Lucia 



102 



Bunkering and Fuelling Stations of the World (Commercial) 



Stations at which Coal Only is Available — contd. 
St. Michaels Tsingtao 

Savona Vladivostok 

Sfax 

Sydney (N.S.W.) Walvis Bay 

Syra Yawata 



Tjilatjap 
Townsville 



Zanzibar 
Zea 



Stations at which Oil Only is Available. 



Aalborg 

Abadan 

AlMERIA 

Ango-Ango 
Aruba 

Batik Pap an 

Baton Rouge 

Batotjm 

Baytown 

Beirut 

Beaumont 

Bumpyo 

Canton 
Cebu 



Cochin 
Cuxhaven 

Dunedin 

Ilo Ilo 

Ketchikan 
Key West 
Kyle of Lochalsh 

Macassar 
Miri 

Palembang 
Port Texas 



103 



Ships and the Sea 

Stations at which Oil Only is Available — contd. 

Salonica Tarakan 

San Pedro Tuapse 

™ Tuxpan 
Talara 

Taltal Vedo 

Tampa Vera Cruz 

Tampico 



Stations at which Coal or Oil is Available. 

Aalsund Bangkok 

Aberdeen Batavia 

Adelaide Belfast 

Aden Bergen 

Alexandria Bermuda 

Algiers Bilbao 

Amsterdam Bombay 

Antofagasta Bordeaux 

Antwerp Boston 

Auckland Boulogne 

Azores Bremen 

Bremerhaven 

Balboa Brisbane 

Bahia Blanca Brixham 

Baltimore Buenos Aires 
104 



Bunkering and Fuelling Stations of the World (Commercial) 



Stations at which Coal or Oil is Available — contd. 



Calais 

Calcutta 

Callao 

Cape Town 

Casablanca 

Ceuta 

Charleston 

Colombo 

Colon 

Constanza 

Copenhagen 

COPvTTNNA 

Curacao 

Dairen 

Dakar 

Danzig 

Dover 

Dublin 

Dunkirk 

Durban 

Falmouth 
Fremantle 

Galveston 
Genoa 



Gibraltar 
Glasgow 
Gothenburg 
Grangemouth 
Gulf Port 

Haifa 

Halifax 

Hamburg 

Havana 

Havre 

Hong Kong 

Honolulu 

Houston 

Hull 

Iquque 
Istanbul 

Jacksonville 

Karachi 

Kiel 

Kingston 

Kobe 

Las Palmas 
Leghorn 



105 



Ships and the Sea 



Stations at which Coal or Oil 

Leith 

Lisbon 
Liverpool 
Lobito 
London 

Madras 

Malmo 

Malta 

Manchester 

Manila 

Marseilles 

Melbourne 

Mobile 

Mombasa 

Montevideo 

Montreal 

Nagasaki 

Naples 

Newcastle 

New Orleans 
New York 
Norfolk (Va.) 

NORDENHAM 
NOVOROSSISK 

106 



is Available — contd. 
Oran 
Osaka 
Oslo 

Palembang 

Palermo 

Para 

Penang 

Pensacola 

Perim 

Pernambuco 

Philadelphia 

Piraeus 

Port Arthur (Texas) 

Port Said 

Port Sudan 

Portland (Maine) 

Providence 

Quebec 

Rangoon 
Reikjavik 
Rio de Janeiro 
Rotterdam 
Rouen 



Bunkering and Fuelling Stations of the World (Commercial) 



Stations at which Coal or Oil is Available — contd. 



Sabang 

Saigon 

St. Johns (N.S.) 

St. Nazaike 

St. Thomas 

St. Vincent 

San Francisco 

Santos 

Savannah 

Seattle 

Shanghai 

Singapore 

SOURABAYA 

Southampton 

Stavanger 
Stettin 
Stockholm 
Suez 



Sunderland 
Suva 
Swansea 
Sydney 

Tacoma 

Tenerife 

Trieste 

Trinidad 

Tromso 

Trondhjem 

Tunis 

Valparaiso 
Vancouver 

Venice 

Wellington 

Yokohama 



107 



CHAPTER V 

Flags 

"pLAGS are used at sea either to denote the nationality of vessels, to denote 

their ownership, to indicate the rank of their commander or maybe of an 

important visitor or passenger, or as signal flags, hoisted separately or in groups. 

Signal and code flags are dealt with under the chapter on Signals at Sea and so 
we will talk about the others here. 

The study of flags is one of absorbing interest as most of them are the outcome 
of a combination or sequence of interesting historical and political events and 
changes. Heraldic lore also plays a prominent part in the design of all flags. 

Flags or banners seem to have been in use at sea from the very earliest days and 
at the time of the Tudors the idea seemed to have been for ships to vie with each 
other in the splendour and number of their banners; what amazes seamen is this 
multiplicity of flags and it is almost impossible to understand where they could 
possibly have been stowed in such small vessels already overcrowded to an unbeliev- 
able extent, and it is difficult to understand how they were kept clear of rigging 
and sails. 

Passing from very early times when strips of coloured cloth were used to make 
a brave display of colour, it is easy to see that, a little later on, perhaps the commander 
or owner of a vessel conceived the idea of hoisting his own personal emblem in 
addition. As men formed themselves into communities for protection and as they 

108 



Flags 

began to venture further from home it became necessary to take this identification 
one step beyond and so the head of a particular community or nation gave orders 
that his standard of sovereignty should be worn by all ships owing allegiance to 
him in addition to the other personal flags. 

This is like the modern House flag of shipping companies to represent the owner 
and the Ensign to indicate the country or community to which they belong. 

The Oldest Ensign in use to-day is probably the Turkish, which dates back 
to 339 B.C., in which year Byzantium was being besieged by the Christian Emperor, 
Philip of Macedon and tradition relates that a night attack on the city was frustrated 
by the sudden appearance in the Heavens of a bright light which revealed the 
attackers; in gratitude the Byzantines adopted the device of a crescent and star. 

Although of much more recent origin, the square Danish ensign dates back 
unchanged to the thirteenth century. 

English ships wore the cross of St. George long, long ago but not always con- 
sistently and sometimes it was combined with other devices such as during the 
Tudors, when the green and white horizontal stripes of this House often appeared 
in the flag as well. 

In 1606, some years that is after the accession to the English throne of James, 
a flag made up of the English cross of St. George and the Scottish saltire of St. Andrew, 
became the national emblem, but English vessels continued to use their own flag 
as well as did the Scottish, wearing the combined flag at the mainmast head. 

In 1634 the combined flag was authorised to be used by the ships of the navy 
only and in 1674 its use by merchant ships was made a punishable offence. 

It was not actually until 1707, when the political union between England and 
Scotland took place, that any very definite instructions appear to have been promul- 
gated however. 

During the period of the Commonwealth this Union flag was not used but in 

109 



Ships and the Sea 



Alphabetical 


List 


of Countries whose Merchant Flags are 




Represented on Facing Page. 




NO. OF ILLUS. 


NO. OF ILLUS. 


America, United States of 


21 


Holland (Netherlands) (Royal (Neth 




Argentina . 




20 


erlands) Naval Reserve) 


18 


Australia, Commonwealth of 




3 


Iceland .... 


28 


Belgium 




24 


India .... 


5 


Brazil 






10 


Irish Free State 


26 


Canada, Dominion of 






6 


Italy 


27 


Chili . 






11 


Japan . . ... 


13 


China 






7 


Netherlands 


17 


Denmark . 






30 


„ (Royal (Netherlands) 




Finland 






32 


Naval Reserve) 


18 


France 






25 


New Zealand, Dominion of 


4 


Germany 






8 


Norway ..... 


31 


Great Britain 






2 


Poland ..... 


12 


„ ,, (Royal Naval Re 


serve 




Portugal ..... 


9 


worn by Merchant Ships com 




Spain ...... 


19 


manded by an officer of R.N.R 




Sweden 


29 


and having a specified number Oj 


f 


United States of America 


21 


R.N.R. ratings) 


1 


Uruguay ..... 


23 


Greece 


22 


Yugoslavia .... 


16 


Holland (Netherlands) 






17 







110 



I 



^plaru 
utline 



MERCHANT FLAGS 



I. Great Britain 

(Blue Ensign of Royal Naval 



2. Great Britain 

(Red Ensign of Merchant Navy j 



|Tjr]Pr~ 





16 Yugo-Slavia 



p* 3 1 

3. Commonwealth of 





7 Netherlands 









6 Dominion of Canada 





j! "I 



21. United States of 



P 



P 




26. Irish Free State 




■-S 



F= 





Flags 

its place was worn the plain flag of St. George once more, until after Cromwell's 
conquest of Ireland, when the Irish yellow harp on blue ground was added to the 
flag. 

In 1801 after the Union with Ireland, the red cross of St. Patrick was added to 
the Union flag of 1707 and it has remained thus to the present day. 

The Union Flag is often referred to incorrectly as the Union Jack; the word 
"jack" is a maritime diminutive and it crops up in such terms as "jack-stay," 
"jack-yard" and so on; in the same way a "Jack" is a small flag worn at the bows 
of ships at a "jack-staff" — the Union Jack being a small Union flag worn as a jack. 

How the word came to acquire its meaning is obscure but it is a fairly commonly 
accepted belief that it was a nickname given to the small Union flag originated by 
James (Jacques or Jack) and hence it gradually became adopted to express any- 
thing small. 

Be that as it may the Union flag to-day is not an Ensign in the usual sense of 
the term and strictly should not be hoisted by individuals but should be reserved 
exclusively for the Royal Navy for use as a Jack, for Admirals of the Fleet as their 
personal flag, and for Government buildings and for any official representative of 
the country. 

The Merchant Jack is a small Union flag with a white border and may be worn 
at the jack-staff of British merchant vessels; its wear should be encouraged as it 
is a privilege not shared by many countries. Although its use is sometimes questioned, 
whatever the legal position may be it is a custom so old that it will hold its 
own. The same flag hoisted at the foremast is a sign that the vessel exhibiting it 
requires a pilot; it is known as the Pilot Jack and was authorized in 1823. 

The reason for there being three British Ensigns is interesting but as a lengthy 
explanation is impossible here we must just content ourselves with the following 
outline. 

Ill 



Ships and the Sea 

At the time of the Restoration, the Ensign consisted of a red flag with St. George's 
flag in the top corner next to the staff; in 1707 when the Union with Scotland 
came about as above mentioned, this St. George's flag was replaced by the Union 
flag. 

Later on when the fleet was divided into three squadrons, the senior division took 
the red ensign, the next senior (the Van division), took a blue ensign of same design 
and the junior (Rear division), a white; to this latter was later on added a large 
cross of St. George, over all, in order to distinguish it from the French Ensign of 
that period, which was white. 

This cumbersome method proved rather confusing, especially in action and several 
commanders fought actions under one colour only and Nelson fought Trafalgar 
under the White Ensign, he at that time being a Vice-Admiral of the White Squadron. 
This practice spread and by 1846 practically the whole of the fleet used the white 
until in 1864 it was officially laid down that henceforth the White Ensign was to 
be the only Ensign worn by ships of the Royal Navy. 

Consequent upon this change, the Red Ensign, as being the senior colour, was 
adopted as the national Ensign of Great Britain and therefore taken as the merchant 
flag, and the Blue Ensign was given to the Royal Naval Reserve. 

So much for historical details. 

To-day flags are generally either rectangular (square or oblong), pennants (usually 
spelt pendants in the Royal Navy but pronounced in the same way) and burgees 
and the shapes of all these can be seen in the accompanying drawings. 

There are variations of these shapes; for instance a pendant may be swallow- 
tailed or a burgee may have three tails instead of two. 

Yacht club flags are termed burgees although they are shaped like pendants. 

The edge of a flag nearest the staff is called the Hoist and that furthest away, 
or the outer edge, the Fly and a flag is usually spoken of as being divided into 

112 



Flags 

Cantons or sections, the bottom canton at the fly sometimes being spoken of as 
the Tack. 

Vessels are said to Wear ensigns not to Fly them, but it is not incorrect to 
speak of flying signal flags. 

The size of British flags is referred to in terms of " Breadths," a breadth being 
9 inches, although bunting is actually supplied in widths of 18 inches. All British 
ensigns, Royal Standards and the Union flag are twice as long as they are broad and 
so when one of them is spoken of as being of " 16 breadths " it means that it is 
sixteen times 9 inches broad, that is 12 feet, and as it is twice as long as it is broad, 
it is a flag 24 feet long. 

Some foreign ensigns are square and others are long and narrow; the etiquette is 
worth studying. 

The custom of half-masting an ensign appears to have been in regular use in the 
British fleet as far back as the seventeenth century, but it has only recently 
been universally adopted. Half-masting actually means that the top of the flag 
is one-third below the truck. Colours are half-masted as a mark of respect 
during funerals of prominent persons, or by vessels carrying the body of such a 
person. 

House flags of companies are also half-masted together with the ensign. 

Colours are always run up to the truck before half-masting and are similarly 
raised before lowering in the evening, 

Ensigns are dipped in salute by passing vessels; nowadays this is a courteous 
custom, being a survival of the times when nations claimed sovereignty over por- 
tions of the oceans and demanded the lowering of flags, striking of topmasts or backing 
of topsails as an acknowledgment of their claims. 

British warships never dip to foreign warships first, and no warship of any nation- 
ality dips to a merchantman except to acknowledge the latter 's salute. 
e 113 




Ships and the Sea 

British warships and mail vessels 

only dip their ensigns in greeting 

once, but there is no limit to the 

rtanauldr number of times for other vessels. 

- / * When colours are half-masted they 

''^j are always mast-headed before and 

after dipping. 

On special occasions, such as Royal 
birthdays, Accession, Coronation or 
Dominion days, ships are "Dressed." 
This may take the form of " Dress- 
ing Overall " or " Dressing Up 
and Down," the principal difference 
being that in " Overall " the line of 
flags starts from the jack-staff in 
the bows and goes to the fore-truck, 
then aft to the main truck and 
finally down to the taffrail, whilst in 
" Up and Down " the flags are taken 
from the trucks of the masts straight 
down to deck level. Care must be taken to see that the flags, which are usually 
those of the International Code of Signals detailed in the section called "Signals," 
do not spell out a message. 

The flags worn by British merchant ships to-day are the following: — 
Red Ensign. — Affectionately known as the " Red Duster." Originally granted 
in 1674 but not enforced in its present form until 1864; this being the National 
Ensign, it may be hoisted by any British subject. 

114 



* Burgae. 



Pendant" 



Flags 

It is worn at the ensign staff in the stern or at the peak when at sea by vessels 
having a gaff, but was formerly hoisted at the yard-arm. 

It is hoisted in home waters at 8 a.m. from March 24th to September 20th inclusive, 
and at 9 a.m. from September 21st to March 24th inclusive, and is kept flying until 
sunset, except in most docks in this country, however, when it is struck at 5 p.m. 

Colours are always displayed, irrespective of time of day, provided that there is 
sufficient light for them to be seen, whenever a ship is getting under way or is coming 
to her anchorage. 

Blue Ensign. — The flag of the Royal Naval Reserve, and may be worn in the same 
way as the above in any ship commanded by an officer of the Royal Naval Reserve 
or by a retired officer of the Royal Navy, provided that, in addition, at least ten other 
officers and ratings of the ship are also members of the Reserve.. 

Penalty for improper use renders the master liable to heavy fines, and the flag is 
confiscated : the officer to whom the certificate has been granted must be in the ship 
at the time. 

Other vessels whilst on Admiralty service may wear the Blue Ensign, as may 
certain Royal Yacht Clubs. 

Merchant Jack. — A small Union flag within a white border; may be flown from 
the jack-staff in the bows. 

House Flag. — The House flag is the private distinguishing emblem of a shipping 
firm in the same way that a crest is the sign of an individual, and it may be of any 
shape or may consist of one flag above another. It is worn by a merchant vessel 
only when in port, or when entering or leaving port, at the mainmast head, except 
that of T. & Jno. Brocklebank, which is at the foremast. 

Sometimes a House flag is worn at both mast-heads and this usually indicates 
that a merger has taken place; for instance, vessels of the Houston and Scottish 
Shire Lines wear their own House flag at the mainmast with the addition of the 

115 



Ships and the Sea 
Clan Line flag at the f< i both these oompaniea are owned by 1 1 1< x latter 

Brm. 

\ [ n at deal of hid I many of them are com- 

binations of two OX inert- concerns, such M the Union niul Castle Linos. 

The Shaw Bavill flag la the national flag of New Zealand, and 

this perpetuates the early connection! between the Dominion and the .Mother Country 
maintained by this line. 

The liar; of the Peninsular and ( )rimial contains the colours of Spain and Portugal, 
tho two countries with which the vessels of this line originally traded; similarly, 
that of MacAndrews shows the Spanish colours at top and hot torn. 

Sometimes a miniature HoUBG flag il worn at the jack-staff in tho bows. 

National Flag.- — Tho ensign of the country to which a merchant vessel is pro- 
ceeding is usually hoisted at the fo 

Royal Mail Flag. — A white pendanl with a Royal Crown above a post horn 
and the lettering RoYAX MAIL, all in red, is hoisted at the port yard-arm by all 
British vessels authorised to carry His Majesty's mails. 

Pilot Flag. — Horizontally divided, top half white, bottom half red; hoisted where 
best seen, but usually in the neighbourhood of the bridge, and indicates that the 
vessel is in charge of a qualified pilot. Sometimes hoisted beneath the ensign, 
especially in river or pleasure craft, and this indicates that the captain is qualified 
to pilot his own vessel. 

These are the principal flags to be seen in British merchant vessels, but others will 
be found under the chapter on " Signals/' 

Naval Flags. — British warships may wear any of the following flags: — 

Royal Standard. — The personal standard of the reigning sovereign, and may only 
be hoisted in a ship when the sovereign is actually present, and it is kept flying day 

116 



Some Flags Worn by British Merchant Ships 



Blue 
White 
Red 
|:-:v:-.v:-::':'. i Yellow 
Green 




Merchant^ and 
Pilot Jack 




Petrol or 
Spirit 



Powder Flags in use on the Thames (Gold Crowns), 
117 



Ships and the Sea 
and night; in 1345 it was apparently worn by the li LoBO Admiral" also. It 
is hoisted at the mainmast head. 

White Ensign, — Worn as an ensign in the same manner ami at the samo times as 

the Red Ensign by merchant ships, exoept t lint abroad the linn- may !»•* varied as 
directed by the Commander-in-Chief, and that it may be worn at sea whilst there is 
sufficient light for it to be seen. 

It is also used by the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve and by the Royal Yacht 
Squadron; until 1847 certain other yacht olubfl used it, defaced by a badge, but this 
was disallowed in that year. 

Also worn at mastheads on occasions when ships are " dressed " and if not 
flying a Flag Officer's flag. 

Union Flag. — Worn at the main by an Admiral of the Fleet. 

Union Jack. — Worn at the jack-Staff in the bows but only when in harbour, and 
not in dry dock nor when the ship is overhauling. 

Until about 1700 the Union Jack was worn at the bows w T hen at sea but the intro- 
duction of fore and aft head sails, at about this period, rendered it impracticable 
on account of fouling. Dominion vessels wear their own distinctive emblems in 
place of the Jack. 

Admiralty Flag. — A yellow foul anchor on a red field worn by a ship carrying the 
Lord High Admiral or the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

Australian Naval Board have a similar flag but the field is horizontally divided, 
blue and red. 

Admirals' Flags. — The mainmast is the point of honour in a ship, the foremast 
coming next and the mizzen third. 

When the fleet was divided into three squadrons, called Red, Blue and White, in 
this order, there were, therefore, nine distinct ranks of admirals, namely, Admiral, 
Vice -Admiral and Rear -Admiral of the Red, Blue and W 7 hite. 

118 



Flags 

Thus in the Red Squadron the Admiral flew a red flag at the main, the Vice- 
Admiral the same flag at the fore, and the Rear-Admiral the same flag again at the 
mizzen. 

In 1625 the Union flag appears to have been worn at respective masts. 

In 1653 the order of seniority was changed from Red, Blue and White to Red, 
White and Blue, although the reason appears to be rather obscure. 

In 1702 the White Ensign was surcharged with the red Cross of St. George, doubt- 
less to avoid confusion with the white flag of France as described earlier. 

In 1898 the present forms were adopted, which are: — 

Admiral of Fleet. — Union flag at mainmast. 

Admiral. — St. George's flag at mainmast. 

Vice- Admiral. — Same with one red ball in upper canton at hoist; worn at 
foremast if vessel has two masts. Ball was originally at bottom. 

Rear-Admiral. — Same flag with additional red ball in bottom canton next 
the hoist; worn at foremast if two-masted vessel, or mizzen if a three-masted 
vessel. Both balls were originally at bottom. 

Commodore of the 1st Class. — Wears a broad white pendant with Cross of St. 
George thereon. 

Commodore of the 2nd Class. — Wears same as above with addition of one red 
ball in the upper canton at the hoist. 

Commodore's Flag. — The Commodore in the Merchant Navy is the senior officer in 
the company's service, and many lines grant their Commodore the privilege of a 
personal flag, and this usually consists of the company's House flag in the shape of a 
burgee, or in the case of it being already so shaped, as in the British India Line, by 
the addition of a red ball in one of the cantons. 

119 



Ships and the Sea 

Senior Officer* t Pendant* — When two or more of ELM. ships arc together in a port 
or roadstead! a small pendant similar to Commodore's pendanl is worn at the star- 
board yard-arm by the senior officer's ship. 

Church Pendant, Flown in Bhips during Divine Service; a very old flag although 
not always having been used to convey this meaning. 

Quard Pendant. Flown by the vessel which provides the guards and pioquets 
for the day. 

Boats of the /'d it wear ensigns when ships are dn Bsed for ceremonial occasions; in 
all foreign ports between dawn and dusk; when visiting foreign men-of-war, day or 
night, and the Union flag is worn al the hows if an Admiral of tho Fleet or official 
representative of the country is on hoard. 

Court Martial Jack. — The Union flag is worn al the peak of the ship in which the 
Court is sitting. 

Royal Yachts. — Tho etiquette for flags in Royal Yachts is a study in itself, and it 
depends upon whether His Majesty is on board, whether the vessel is under way 
and so on. When the King is on board and in his official capacity, the Union flag 
is worn at the jack-staff, the only occasion for a ship under way, the Admiralty flag 
is at the foremast, the Royal Standard at the main, the Union flag as Admiral of 
the Fleet at the mizzen (displaced from the main by the Royal Standard — the 
principal flag of all), and the White Ensign at the ensign staff aft. 

All of His Majesty's ships when in full commission and when not wearing a Flag 
Officer's flag, wear a very long pendant at the mainmast head. 

Bed Ensign. — A warship with the Red Ensign at the foremast indicates that she 
wishes to communicate with a British merchant ship. 

Enough has been said to show that the study of flags is, or can be, intensely inter- 
esting; there is really no excuse for hoisting the Union flag upside down, as is some- 

120 



Some Flags Worn by Ships of the Royal Navy (Colour Key as page 117) 




S.N.O. 

Admiral Vice- Admiral Rear-Admiral (Senior Xavcl Officer) Commodore 




Commissioning Pendant 



Fishery Protection Church Pendant 



Examination Ship 




Mine (In Vicinity) 
121 



fiuard Pendant 



Ships and the Ssa 
times done, and the penalties for wearing a flag to which the individual is not entitled 
should bo more rigidly enforced, as it is at the least a breach of good manners. 

It is permissible by International Law for a vessel to wear false colours for the 
purpose of deceiving an enemy vessel or for purposes of avoiding capture, but her 
real colours must be hoisted beforo any hostile action is attempted by her or before 
she opens fire. 

The national colours hoisted upside down is an entirely unofficial signal of distress. 

Although ships are provided with very full lockers, containing most flags that 
might be wanted, there sometimes come occasions when difficulties are encountered, 
such as when some obscure oriental potentate may appear or when a revolution 
takes place and the national flag is altered. One such occasion took place during 
the war, when a British warship in the Dover Patrol was suddenly ordered to take a 
distinguished gathering to witness the bombardment of the Belgian coast by the 
guns of our monitors. 

Among the glittering gathering was an American Admiral and an American 
Admiral's flag was one of those not supplied to the ship; however, a piece of blue 
bunting was obtained and white stars were sewn on and all were happy. 

Everything went well until the concussion from the heavy gunfire caused one of 
the stars to fall out of the flag and to tumble on to the deck: fortunately this was 
not observed by the principal person concerned and so whilst the dignitaries were at 
lunch, the flag was quietly hauled down, the star fixed on once again and all was 
well. 



122 



CHAPTER VI 

Signals and Communications at Sea 

TT is one thing to have a communication of any kind to send to another person 

but quite another matter to transmit that message safely and intelligibly; this 
fact is driven home very much to spies or intelligence workers who may have vital 
information in their possession but who are quite unable to pass that information on 
to the right quarters. 

The same difficulty has had to be overcome at sea, when messages have to be 
transmitted from ship to ship or from shore to ship. 

In very early times Commanders of fleets or squadrons often used to decide upon 
a few simple signals which it might be necessary to send to the vessels under their 
command, before joining battle. With the general perversity of things in this 
imperfect world, however, it usually transpired that at a critical juncture of the 
fight, when a signal that would be understood by all vessels might have been sent out 
from the flagship and perhaps would have altered the whole course of the engagement, 
it was realised that no such signal existed. On several occasions when some such 
effort was made by utilizing what signals did exist, worse confusion ensued, as much 
depended upon the capacity of the officers receiving the message to engage in a game 
of mental gymnastics ; perhaps one or more might have grasped a vague outline of 
their Commander's intentions whilst others did not, and so chaos resulted. 

No doubt this accounted for so many unsuccessful engagements in the olden days, 
when the enemy ships were allowed to gather sail and draw off because no signal was 

123 



International Code of Signals. 

A. I am undergoing speed trials. 

B. I am taking in (or discharging) explosives. 

C. Yes. (Affirmative.) 

D. Keep clear of me — I am manoeuvring with difficulty. 

E. I am altering courso to starboard. 

F. I am disabled — communicate with me. 

G. I require a pilot. 

H. I have a pilot on board. 

I. I am altering course to port. 

J. I am going to send a message by semaphore. 

K. You should stop your vessel immediately. 

L. You should stop — I have something important to communicate. 

M. I have a doctor on board. 

N. No. (Negative.) 

0. Man overboard. 

P. In Harbour (Blue Peter): Vessel to proceed to sea shortly. 

At Sea: Your lights are out (or burning badly). 

Q. My vessel is healthy. 

R. The way is off my ship ; you may feel your way past me. 

S. My engines are going full speed astern. 

T. Do not pass ahead of me. 

U. You are standing into danger. 

V. I require assistance. 

W. I require medical assistance. 

X. Stop carrying out your intentions and watch for my signals. 

Y. I am carrying mails. 

Z. To be used to address or call shore stations. 

124 



[i ft |a |p |p is 



PPU 



PflP 



PPPP 



Ms 



WW 



[Face page 124 



Signals and Communications at Sea 
made that would fit in with the changing phases of the combat. One of Nelson's 
greatest gifts was his quick intuitive grasp of changing conditions and his ability 
and courage to act without definite instructions from his superior officer; to heave 
out of line of battle as he did at Cape St. Vincent demanded a high degree of moral 
courage, because if, by such an action, misfortune occurred, an officer knew that he 
would be broken for acting without orders. 

In later days, lack of information from one or more causes enabled the German 
fleet to escape from the trap of steel which Earl Jellicoe had placed between them and 
their bases. 

So it began to dawn upon seamen that some form or another of visual signalling 
was essential both in peace and in war. 

In 1817 Captain Marry at introduced his code, which came into widespread use 
and which continued to be used until 1879, in spite of an international code introduced 
in 1857. 

This first International Code of Signals only consisted of eighteen flags and proved 
inadequate and so in 1901 an entirely new one came into force which had one flag 
for every letter of the roman alphabet, and so in the event of the code not functioning 
through the code book being lost or through some other catastrophe, words could 
be sent out in full with the sure knowledge that they would be received without 
misunderstanding. 

This code remained in force until January 1st, 1934, when the present revised 
edition took effect. 

In this, the five pendants, C, D, E, F and G were replaced by rectangular flags 
and they now represent the numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 — five new pendants being 
added to form the numerals 6, 7, 8, 9, 0. 

Most of the single letter and two-letter signals were altered and the three -letter 
and four-letter signals were revised and brought up to date. 

125 



Ships and the Sea 
The code is illustrated facing pages 124 and 120 and those single flag! which, 
hoisted alone, have some special significance, are indicated. 

Code Letters. 

Every merchant vcsbi 1, above a certain tonnage, is allotted a group of four letters 
from the International Code, and this indicates her name for purposes of reporting 
her movements to shore signal stations and to passing ships; thus the Orient liner 
Orama is allotted the letters G, F, R, Q, and if you see a vessel with these flags hoisted 
in the neighbourhood of the bridgo and you happen to have a codo book in your 
possession, it is a simple matter to turn op these Letters and satisfy your curiosity. 

This method obviously saves much time compared with the laborious method 
of spelling out words, letter by letter, especially in the case of some foreign vessels 
who would be well out of sight before completing their lengthy names if the latter 
method was adopted. 

When a ship hoists these flags she is said to be making her number, and gradually 
these are to be made to conform to the wireless call signs, if any. 

When a ship wishes to make a signal, she hoists her ensign above the Code Flag, 
which is shown on the plate of code flags, and when this has been acknowledged by 
the receiving: ship or station, she proceeds with her message. 

A ship taking in a message hoists the Answering Pennant (actually the same 
flag as the Code Flag), to say that she is ready to receive, and again hoists it upon 
reading the signal correctly. 

Ships passing, usually make the following signals: — 

National Flag or Ensign. (If not already wearing it.) 
Signal letters. (Name.) 
Port from which sailed. 

126 



|| CODE FLAG & ANSWERING PENDANT. 



NUMERALS. 



t^^r^-^F* 




SUBSTITUTES 



IB FIRST I SECOND 




THIRD 



[Face page 126 



Signals and Communications at Sea 
Destination. 

Number of days out. (Especially in case of sailing ships.) 
Longitude. 

Signals are always hoisted where best seen in prevailing weather conditions. 

Most flags are " broken " after hoisting — that is to say they are " bent " on the 
halyard, run up to the truck in the form of a ball and by a pull of the halyard are 
then broken free; the ensign is never hoisted in this manner. 

As has been mentioned, the single flags constituting a signal over and above their 
alphabetical signification are noted on the sheet accompanying this article, but 
mention must be made of the best known of all, to shore-going folk, and that is 
the letter " P," or " Blue Peter " as it is called. 

This, hoisted at the foremast on sailing day, is a reminder to all concerned to 
repair on board and it is kept flying until the ship is under way when it is replaced 
by the national ensign of the country to which she is bound. 

Sometimes it is worn at the signal yard-arm. 

In addition to the twenty-six flags forming the alphabet, are flags called first, 
second and third substitutes, and their purpose is to enable the same letter to be 
used more than once in the same hoist ; for instance, if one wanted to spell out the 
word " Ethel," the second " E " would be made by using the first substitute. 

The principal two-letter hoists are: — 

N.C. Distress or send immediate assistance. 

P.T. I require a pilot. 

Q.L. My vessel is infected. 

Q.Q. My ship is suspect (of infection). 

The above gives a brief idea of the value of this International Code and probably 
covers most of the single flags or hoists most generally in use. 

127 



Ships and the Sea 

Over and above the code flags, certain flags are generally universally recognised 
as having a oertain significance but these may be varied slightly in different localities; 
for example — a plain red flag indicates that the vessel wearing it is either taking 
in or discharging explosi oe explosive material such as petroleum! but in 

the Thames a white ball or a gold crown may be added. 

A plain green flag indicates a wreck in tin* vicinity of Hi" vessel exhibiting it. 

A plain black flag, or a black flag emblazoned with a white skull or some such 
gruesome emblem, indicates piracy, although in the hey-day of this profitable 
occupation, such a flag hoisted by a | 1 usually indicated that quarter 

would be granted to the vanquished, whereas the more common form was the plain 
blood-red banner. 

Other universal signals are given in illustrations. 

Various local signals applying to harbours and ports cannot be dealt with hero; 
these are principally to indicate the state of the tide and so on; at most ports, 
particularly where there is a regular cross-channel service, a signal is made for the 
benefit of the incoming ship, and this is usually hoisted beneath the House flag of 

the company to which the vessel beloi 

Quoting my own phrase used earlier on, '"With the usual perversity,* 1 T have 
probablj discussed ever} 3a oi I >pt the one that you will first meet withatsea. 

Naval Signals. 

The need for a standardised system of communication for warships was mentioned 
at the beginning of this chapter, and it is surprising to realise what a long time it 
took people to discover this fact. 

Had a signal book been in use during the War of Independence, it is more than 
likely that Admiral Graves would have prevented the break-away of the American 
colonies, which was made possible by the support of the French navy. 

128 



Some Distant Signals 



7 <=P 



In Distress 




Not under Anchored 
command 



Pilot 




North Cone 

Gale from 

between S.E. & 

N.W. thro' N. 

129 



Ai.W. 



W- 



N 



^ 



I SE 



South Cone 
Gale from 
between S.E. & 
X.W. thro' S. 



Ships and the Sea 

In 177^ Lieutenant Sir Charles Knowlea produced a signal book, but tin's was 
not in general 

Kempenfelt and Howe devoted much attention to perfecting a nuval code, and 
Sir Eome Popham waa responsible for thai in use at Trafalgar; this was a fairly 

comprehensive tome and one Of the lew words of importance that was omitted 

appears to have been " Confide," because we are told that nt Trafalgar, Lord Nelson 
originally wished to begin bis memorable Bignal with '* England Confides •' but 
that he was unable to ^\^ bo on account oi' there being no signal for this word. 
The rode in force to-day in the Royal Navy in peace-time is not a secret code 

in any way, but serves the same purpose as the International Code does for merchant 

vessels, except that it applies to British warships alone. 

As in the mercantile code, there is a flag for each letter of the alphabet, substitutes 

and numerals and a Large number of special tlau r signals, sonic of which are illustrated. 

The oldest is probably the Church Pendant, which first appeared in about 1G61, 
although it was then much Longer and had the fly slit : it was then called the Union 
Pendant and later became the " Ordinary or Common " Pendant, going out of 
use as such with the three-coloured squadrons in 1864. 

A warship wishing to communicate with a merchant ship hoists the Red Ensign 
at the masthead. 

In recent years the Admiralty has given much encouragement to the excellent 
practice of signal exercises whenever practicable between British merchant vessels 
and warships and quarterly lists of successful exercises are published. 

Before leaving flag signals it is well to place on record three signals, two of which 
will probably become as historic as that of Trafalgar. 

Before going into action at the battle of the Tsushima Straits in May, 1905, 
Admiral Togo signalled, " The rise or fall of the Empire depends upon the result 
of this engagement; do your utmost, every one of you "; a slightly clumsy wording 

130 



Signals and Communications at Sea 

but a message calculated to rouse the same enthusiasm in the seamen of Japan as 
that of 1805 did in the British Fleet. 

When approaching the Belgian coast on that memorable St. George's eve in 1917, 
the Commander-in-Chief signalled to the British blockading squadron, " St. George 
for England," and the reply was: "And may he give the dragon's tail a damned 
good twist." 

During a raid by British light forces on the German coast during the Great War, 
a German zeppelin airship was brought down by gunfire from the British fleet and 
the Officer Commanding, signalled " See hymn 224, verse 7," or words to that effect; 
if you are not familiar with your hymn book (Ancient and Modern), or do not take 
the trouble to look it up, you must go on guessing. 

When the distance between two ships or between ship and shore is too great for 
the colours of flags to be picked out or when atmospheric conditions render it 
impracticable, signals are carried out by what are termed 

Distant Signals. 

These consist of shapes in the form of Balls (or squares), Drums and Cones or as 
an alternative, Balls, Whefts and Cones, a wheft being a pennant with its fly fixed 
down to the halyard. 

There is one set of signs for each letter of the alphabet, but the chief combinations 
which are most likely to be met with are those illustrated on page 129, namely: — 

Distress. — Ball above or below a drum, or alternatively, 

Ball above or below a cone. 
" I want a pilot." — Two balls above a cone. 

Large cones are hoisted at shore stations to indicate expected gales 

131 



Ships and the Sea 
(,\u; Warnings. 

The NOBTH COMBi that is to say a cone with its point upwards, 18 hoisted if the 

gale is expected from between South- Kast. through North to North-West* 

Tho South Cone, that is to say a oone with its point downwards, is hoisted if 
the pale is expected from anywhere between South-East through South to North- 
WVst . 

These warnings indicate the probability of a gale within an area of 50 miles and 
they are hoisted at daybreak and lowered at dusk for a period of forty-oight hours 
from receipt of the warning. 

At night their place is taken by three lightfl in tho form of a triangle, the point 
being up or down accordingly. 

Semaphore. 

On the bridge of all warships, and of a very large number of merchant vessels, 
is a post with t ,-o arms like a railway signal, usually painted black with a vertical 
white stripe in the centre; this is a semaphore, by which means messages can be 
sent over very long distances with great rapidity, in fact the speed is usually so 
great that no one but a practised signaller can possibly hope to read them. 

In place of the fixed semaphore, signals may be made by hand, the signaller 
taking the place of the fixed post, and flags, usually of two colours, being used to 
make the signs. 

In case you may aspire to become a Yeoman of Signals, or some such exalted 
personage, the semaphore alphabet is illustrated. 

Before the days of wireless or telegraphy, all messages from the Admiralty to 
ships in the dockyards were sent by this semaphore system by means of a chain 
of stations placed on prominent hilltops and the famous " Telegraph Inn," on 
Putney Common, takes its name from the days w T hen this was one of the stations 

132 



r i 

T" t 
T 1 



Semaphore Telegraph Signatxi 
1 C 1 D 

1 • 1 • 


NG 


r i 


V I" 


A K 

A (n.)0 


-f 


^* (ALPHABETICAL) 

Vr 


f 


T" 


T" V 


•, w 


r 


r r 







133 



Ships and the Sea 
between Whitehall and Portsmouth, " Semaphore Telegraph " being the full name 
of this apparatus. 

Morse. 

At night, when only lights can be seen, signalling is carried out by means of 
flashing lights, a series of dots and dashes representing each letter of the alphabet; 
this again takes some learning and the best method is to learn a few letters at a 
time, although some people prefer the system of learning in groups of opposites; 
for example, the letter " A " is represented by a dot and a dash, that is, a short 
flash and a longer one, whereas the letter " X " is the opposite, or a flash followed 
by a dash; I personally used this method, but I am told that it requires a curious 
mentality and often leads to confusion. 

This Morse system may also be used in the day-time by means of electric flashing 
lamps, or by heliographic instruments if in sunny climes. 

It is distinct^ useful to learn because obviously a conversation may be carried 
out in this method by tapping and although there is nothing secret about it 
it remains a mystery to those who have not learnt it. There is a story that at 
some diplomatic or official reception of some kind at an outpost of Empire, the 
host, a charming man of somewhat eccentric habits, appeared at table without his 
dress tie; this was quickly spotted by a young guest, who rapped on the table for 
the benefit of his friend across the table, " Look at old so and so — he's forgotten 
his tie "; much to his discomfiture the distinguished host, who understood Morse, 
rapped out, " Look at young so and so, he's forgotten his manners." 

There is no more fascinating sight than to be in a ship which is one of a large 
fleet lying at its anchorage in the evening, when the mast-head .lights begin to 
twinkle and flash their invitations to dine or to make plans for the following day; 
perhaps the flagship wants to communicate something of importance to the rest 

134 



Signals and Communications at Sea 

of the fleet and a light blinks from her masthead or yard-arm and is repeated by 
every ship, an unforgettable sight. The night often seems to have become demented 
with lights flashing from every direction and the miracle is how a signalman con- 
centrates on the message intended for him and that he is not diverted by the will- 
o'-the-wisps all round him — truly is the naval signalman a god among men. 

Sound Signals. 

Ships in congested waters of a river or fairway, or if approaching each other, 

indicate their course, if necessary, by blasts on their syrens: — 

One short blast indicates, " I am directing my course to starboard." 
Two short blasts indicate, " I am directing my course to port." 
Three short blasts, " My engines are going full speed astern." 

This latter signal does not necessarily mean that the ship is going astern, as 
allowance has to be made for her forward way to be checked first. 

Sound Signals in Fog. 

In a fog, a steam or motor vessel under way sounds one prolonged blast on her 
syren or whistle every two minutes. 

A sailing vessel under way blows on her fog horn, one blast if on the starboard 
tack ; two blasts if on the port tack and three blasts every minute if the wind is abaft 
the beam. 

All vessels at anchor ring their bells loudly at intervals of not more than one minute. 

Submarine Signalling. . 

Water is an excellent conductor of sound; in fog, signals sent through the air 
become distorted and as fog is patchy, a fog horn may be heard quite distinctly 
by a vessel a considerable distance away and yet be inaudible to a vessel nearby. 

135 



Ships and the Sea 

Most Lightships and Lighthouses, therefon . send "in bell signals through the wnlor 
during fogs; the greater the « 1 « * ( * 1 1 l submerged, the greater tin- distance heard, and 
distances «>i >i\ miles are often reported. 

The bell is suspended from the bottom of s lightship or n buoy, and is sounded 
eithei by an electric ourrenl or by compressed air, the name ami position of the 
sending Btation being transmitted by rnorse. 

The messages are r ved, by th< titted with this system, in instruments, 

similar to the ordinary telephone receiver, fitted on either bo* ; these are connected 
to the bridge indicators and th<> navigating officer is able to tell bis position. 

Bell buoys are naturally unattended and th»< action of their bobbing about or 
rising and falling in the wav< s bell to sound; this is received by the ship 

and the navigator can obtain his bearing by waiting until the sound is equally loud 
in either receiver, when he knows that he is steering in the direction from which 
the sound comes. 

Wireless Signalling. 

The advantages of wireless and wireless telephony need no stressing, but it is 
strange to reflect that it was as recent as 1903 that the first wireless message was 
sent across the Atlantic by a ship, the Cunard Luca?iia. 

Wireless messages are sent by the Morse system and the distress signal is conveyed 
by the letters SOS, that is, three dots, three dashes and three dots. 

By means of directional finders, the value of which were proved by the Admiralty 
during the war, bearings can be taken in the same manner as the bearings from 
bell buoys, mentioned above. 

Every British ship of 1,600 tons and above must by law be fitted with wireless 
and with wireless directional finders. 

From the drawing in an earlier chapter it will be seen that the latter usually 

136 



A B C D E F 

G H I J K L 

M N O P Q R 

S T U V W X 

Y Z 



137 



Ships and the Sea 
take the form of two hoops placed at right undo*, for the Bame reason thai a portable 
wireless set only catches the waves when turned in the direction from which they 
are coming. 

Wireless is of the greatesi value fox the broadcasting of weather bulletins and 
approaching L r ales. 

The forn Ql can twice daily from British stations and the hitter when 

iary. 

Wireless is not used when visual signalling would be equally effective, as it would 
be rather like bellowing at the top of one's voice to a person sitting next to one. 

Its greatest value is undoubtedly in peace-time, as during hostilities it may be 
jammed or intercepted by the enemy, and as new developments arc taking place 
so frequently it is next to impossible to say what might happen in the unhappy 
event of future wars. 

Night Signals. 

The signal at night for a vessel requiring a pilot is: — 
A Blue pyrotechnic light every fifteen minutes or, 
A White light shown or flashed every minute just above the bulwarks. 

In distress and requiring assistance a vessel does any or all of the following: — 
Fires a gun or explosive signal every minute. 
Shows a flare, continuous if possible. 

Throws a rocket, exhibiting stars of any colour, at short intervals. 
Sounds her fog horn or syren continuously. 

Many companies in the past had their own night signals by which their vessels 
could make their identity known and some still do ; these consist of rockets throwing 
distinctive balls and stars. 

138 



CHAPTER VII 

Origin and Development of Ships 

/ ~PHAT some form or other of ship has existed almost since time began, is known, 
but records of any authentic value which can tell us anything much about their 
construction or form are scarce. 

Many of the drawings which have survived were obviously made by artists 
thinking more of impressionistic effect than of accuracy of detail or even of general 
correctness of outline and dimensions. 

The ancient Egyptians were fortunately an exception to this rule, and if their 
drawings and records of boats and ships are as accurate as those of buildings and 
animals, we may accept them as being fairly correct in all essentials. 

No doubt also, the Egyptian practice of recording on papyrus, one of the most 
imperishable of materials, has helped us. 

However this may be, it is an undoubted fact that shipbuilding is one of the oldest 
industries, and there is every evidence to believe that a nourishing maritime commerce 
existed in the Mediterranean long before the Pyramids were built. 

Although the Phoenicians were the greatest maritime power in the Middle Sea, 
practically nothing is known of their vessels. 

Not much more is known of the ancient Grecian craft although many pictures 
have been found on vases and pottery. Many of the drawings of Roman galleys 
were made years and years after the ships represented had gone out of existence. 

139 



Ships and the Sea 

For the first eight centuries of the Christian era, records were very unreliable 
and few and far between, although fairly definite evidence has been found regarding 
the ships of the Norsemen, which type was probably very general in Northern and 
Western European waters until about the twelfth century. 

From the Norman conquest until the reign of Homy VIII, only occasional notes 
were left, but from this time onward information about warships is much more 
abundant, although, unfortunately, little is known of tho merchant vessels of the 
Tudor, Stuart and early Hanoverian times. 

CD O O Q O O & O 

oooooo OO 
o o o ooooo 

Possible arrangement of oar-ports in an octoreme. 

It is easy to imagine that the first boats were merely logs of wood pushed out 
into the stream, because this is still the favourite pastime of many boys and older 
people, and if one can be found large enough to bear a person's weight, so much 
the better. 

As time went on logs were lashed together and became rafts, and they were 
probably controlled in a crude fashion by a long pole or sweep, something on the 
lines of our dumb barges of the present time. 

By degrees someone would no doubt discover that, by hollowing out the tree 
trunk, more goods could be carried, because the wood lost much qf its weight but 
still remained afloat. 

140 




SAXON '" LONGBOAT 



141 




! COG " OF THE CINQUE PORTS NAVY 

142 




ENGLISH WARSHIP OF THE TUDOR PERIOD: " GOLDEN HIND : 

143 




17th century "east fNDIAMAl 



144 




ROMAN MERCHANT SHIP 

**The Roman trading community was not as anxious to keep all its operations secret as the 
Phoenicians were and tolerably good impressions have been found of the merchant ships of 
the day, with the raffee topsails which did not come into use in the North of Europe until 
many Vears afterwards, the lanyard rigging, bowsprit and several other refinements which 
proved* the care with which they studied maritime problems. The high stern shown in the 
picture is typical of the Mediterranean seafarer's dread of being pooped by a following sea and 
is confirmation of St. Paul's narrative of casting four anchors over the stern, for the ship would 
obviously ride most comfortably in that way. 




TWELFTH CENTUBY CBUSADERS' SHIP 

The two-masted ship of burden which followed the Normans' ships, which were only an 
adaptation of those of the Vikings is a type about which there is very little authentic information. 
It was fuller bodied than its predecessors, capable of carrying a considerable cargo and having 
a sufficiently high side for a long voyage. Its sail area was bigger but it was still very primitive 
in its design. The foretmd after castles for the fighting men were shipped when they were 
wanted and a merchant ship was very easily converted into a man-of-war in that way, while the 
fighting tops were used both as stations in action and as crow's nests for the lookouts. 




«-«-%-, 



- VIKING SHIP OF THE SMALLER TYPE 

Not all the Viking chieftains who raided the British coast were able to afford the wonderful 
"long ships" described in the sagas but all their fighting ships were constructed on the same 
general principles and their "round ships" used for merchandise were only an adaptation, 
with the single square sail used for running only and the long sweeps pulled by free men with 
their shields and arms beside them. The manner in which the Norsemen grasped the essentials 
of ship design for seaworthiness, and the long voyages that they made in their open vessels, 
are among the wonders of shipping history. 




ATLANTIC PACKET SHIP 

Although the packet class was ultimately to include some of the finest clippers afloat, the 
earliest examples, which were commissioned soon after the end of the Napoleonic Wars, were 
anything but clippers but heavily built full-lined ships of moderate size whose hulls were 
designed primarily for the purpose of carrying a large number of emigrants with the fresh water 
which was always a great problem and also a reasonable amount of cargo. It was not until 
the early steam liners were taking the cream of their business that the American designers 
evolved extreme clippers for the packet trade, but they were not nearly as comfortable as their 
frigate-built predecessors although they cut down the voyage considerably. 




LINE-OF-BATTLE-SHLPS OF TRAFALGAR PERIOD; H.M.S. VICTORY 

145 



Ships and the Sea 

Many so-called uncivilized people, such as. the islanders of the Southern Seas 
nnd the fcri ,u-.tl Africa, still produce beautiful specimens of the hollowed-out 

canoe. 

The earliest type of built-up boat, as distinct from the dug-out oanoe, was probably 

made by stretching skins of animals 0V6T framed and bhifl type BUTVived until a 

few years ago in quite large number! on tl □ coast of [reland. 

The most complete details of any craft of antiquity available are those concerning 
the Ark of Noah, described with such detail in the Bible, and which, if the dale 
usually assigned to its cons tru c ti on ifl built in about 2840 B.C. and 

although Egyptian records have disclosed tip' existence of vessels immensely older 

than this, none of them is sufficiently detailed or accurate to merit much attention. 

The Ark was undoubtedly a built-up ship of very considerable size, and proves 
that the knowledge of shipbuilding possessed in those days was very well advanced. 

According to the biblical version, which there 18 no reason to doubt, its dimensions 

were: 450 feet long, 75 feel broad and 45 fi 

It is impossible to say when the first decked-vessel was introduced, but the 
Egyptians, Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans undoubtedly possessed large numbers 
of them. 

Phoenicians were probably the first to build galleys essentially for war purposes 
in about 900 B.C., and the Greeks brought this type to perfection by introducing 
biremes and triremes, that is to say galleys propelled by oars banked in tiers rising 
one above the other. Many tales are told of some of these rising to huge size, and 
later still the Romans are reported in about 200 B.C. to have used galleys with 
sixteen banks, but there is much doubt as to what this term always meant, it being 
impossible to construct a ship in which sixteen banks or decks of rowers were 
placed because the height of the top row above the water would make it absolutely 
ridiculous. 

146 



Origin and Development of Ships 

About one hundred years ago, however, a valuable discovery, throwing light on 
this point, was made at tke Piraeus, when a drain was found to be constructed with 
slabs which bore inscriptions proving to be inventories of the ancient Athenian 
dockyard; these slabs were dated between 373 B.C. and 323 B.C. and they show that 
a typical Grecian trireme of that period measured about 140 feet long over the 
beak in front, 14 feet in width on the water-line and had a draught of about eight 
feet. 

Such a vessel would carry a crew of about 225 men of whom 174 were rowers: 
sixty-two occupying the upper, fifty-eight the centre and fifty-four the lower tier. 

Each oar was worked by only a single man and the inventories state that the 
longest oar in use in triremes was 13 feet 6 inches long. 

The largest possible galley would seem to be a quinquereme or five -banked ship, 
and those supposed to have been larger were probably measured by taking the 
number of rowers in a fore and aft direction and multiplying these by the number 
of banks; in this way a forty-banked galley probably meant five banks of eight 
in a row. 

The galley, and the large type, called galleasse, survived in the Mediterranean 
right down to the sixteenth century and pirates used them extensively; they were 
manned by slaves and fearful were the conditions. Sometimes seven or eight men 
pulled at each oar. 

They were very formidable craft and we read of the Battle of Provesa in 1538, 
when the Christian fleet commanded by Andrea Doria, numbering about 200 ships, 
fled before the 122 galleys of the dreaded corsair Kheyr-ed-Din Barbarossa, 
Commander for Suleiman the Magnificent. 

In Northern waters the long ship of the Norsemen held sway and the merchant 
ships w-ere designed in the same way, except that they w^ere much broader and were 
in consequence known as " round ships." 

147 



Ships and the Sea 
All these era ft were propelled by n ited i>\ one large square sail set 

upon a single mast. 

As time wont on the ships became larger, other masts were added and fur fighting 
purposes high castles or towers wore built up at either end, sometimes to a ridiculous 
height. 

With many modifications and Improvements this type survived right down to 

the nineteenth century, and the ships of Trafalgar were not so very much different 
from those of the Armada. 

Steam brought about tho first revolutionary change in ship construction and 
design, but in the early days it was not taken much notico of; during the early 
years of the nineteenth century it first came into prominence, hut engines 
were put into oxisting ships and were only used as auxiliaries to sail for very many 
years. 

In the Crimean war of 1854 a British warship was sailing into Balaklava harbour 
and the high land and baffling wind caused her to fall across the bows of a consort 
already anchored, whereupon the latter signalled, " Why don't you go astern ? " The 
Commanding Officer of tho guilty vessel replied, M Sorry, I forgot I was a steamer," 
and so it will be seen that sail had a strong hold. 

The first commercial success with an iron-built ship was the introduction of the 
Sirius in 1837. 

So the development of ships has really been well within the last hundred years 
and things have moved so fast that it seems difficult to realise that for hundreds 
of years previously things had gone along in much the same sort of way without 
radical change. 

Paddle-wheels were superseded by the screw, the old type of engine gave way to 
the compound and triple-expansion, and this made possible the first steamship 
with any claim to economy. 

148 



Origin and Development oi Ships 

Iron was replaced by steel and the triple expansion by turbines and geared turbines 
for ships of high speed. 

Since the opening of this present century, has come the motorship and the 
turbo-electric vessel, the introduction of elastic steel and electric welding in place 
of riveting. # 

The line -of -battle ship of 1850 used sail with a steam auxiliary, was little more 
than 250 feet long and moved at about six knots, not a tremendous advance on all 
that had gone before; the modern battle cruiser is driven by steam turbines, has 
a length of close on 900 feet and a speed of about thirty-five knots. 

What the future holds, none can foretell and perhaps if things move at the present 
rate it is just as well. 



149 



CHAPTER VIII 

Ship Construction 

A SHIP floats because of her shape; that is to say that a flat or solid piece of metal 

placed in the water would sink, but because it is shaped like a tin or a box it 

floats on account of it becoming lighter than the water, as its interior is full of air. 

Now the point of balanco of any object is termed its Centre of Gravity, and in 
a ship, the weight of her Downthrust into the water is concentrated at this point; 
the water pushed aside or displaced by the ship also has a centre of gravity which 
is called Centre of Buoyancy, and from this point the force or pressure of water, 
called the Upthrust, is equal to the downthrust of the ship. 

When a ship floats on an even keel the Centre of Gravity (G) and the Centre of 
Buoyancy (B) are in a direct line. 

If outside influences, such as force of waves or wind, cause the ship to heel over 
or roll, the water pushed aside does not remain in its original form so that although 
the Centre of Gravity of the ship remains the same approximately, the Centre of 
Buoyancy of the water shifts to one side and is spoken of as B. Consequently the 
downthrust and upthrust are no longer in a line, but, to cut a long story short and 
without entering into technicalities, the upthrust from B cuts the continuation of 
the original line G-B at a place called M and pushes the ship back again. 

This place (M) is called the Transverse Metacentre and the distance between M 
and G is the Metacentric Height. 

150 



Why a Ship Remains Afloat 




G. Centre of Gravity of ship ; thrusting B\ New Centre of Buoyancy. 

B rtTr W ,% dS ' * M ' Transverse Mkacentre. 

B. C enire of Buoyancy of water ; thrust- G-M. Metacentric Height. 

mg upwards. ■ y 

G-M. is not drawn to scale and in merchant ships varies from between about 1 to 3 feet. 



151 



Ships and the Sea 

Actually, there f ore, tl. the Metacentric Height the safer the ship is, 

because she oan roll a great deal without danger of capsizing, but as a rolling ship 

is unoomfortable to travel in, this Metacentric Height has to be kepi fairly low. 

The angle at which a ahip loses all power to righl herself is her " Vanishing angle." 

Mishaps Fortunately do not often occur, but there was one scry famous ahip 

afloat which fell over at bet launch and had it not been for the fact that she was 

Launched by letting the water enter tic dock where she was built, instead of being 

actually let clown slipways into the river, she would have probably turned com- 
pletely over, but as it was. the sides of the dock held her up; malicious persons state 
that the designer was so overcome by the tremendous honour accorded to him of 
being asked to design her that he miscalculated, and added the date of hor launch 
to her displacement tonnage in order to find tho launching weight; this is naturally 
scandal. 

Bearing in mind these main principles, all sorts of other important items have 
to be allowed for. A ship must be of great strength longitudinally; for instance, 
if her bow and stern are resting on tho crests of waves, her midships portion may 
be unsupported and so she might have the tendency to break her back, or if her 
centre is resting on a wave her ends might break off. 

To minimise pitching, fore and aft peak tanks for water ballast are fitted. 

Many tankers, which have to be exceptionally strong, are built on the Isherwood 
Longitudinal system which is a very definite step in the right direction for lessening 
the serious lack of longitudinal strength in ships. 

In this system, the transverse frames and beams, instead of being spaced from 
about 2 feet to 2 J- feet apart as in vessels constructed on the ordinary method, are 
placed at wide intervals of about 12 feet. They are made much stronger than usual 
in order not to lessen the transverse strength and they form complete bands round 
the ship. 

152 







Diagrams Illustrating Strains on Ship Construction 

1. Bow and stern resting on waves ; centre unsupported. 

2. Centre resting on wave ; ends unsupported. 



153 



Ships and the Sea 

These frames or bands are slotted round their outer edges in order to allow continuous 
longitudinal stiffeners to be fitted, not only at the docks but also on the sides, bottom 
and tank top and they prevent buckling which frequently occurs in ships having 
no fore and aft support between the transverse frames. It is stated that an " Isher- 
wood " ship is fifteen per cent stronger longitudinally than ordinary ships. 

Towards the end of last century a curious typo of ship came into being through 
the patenting by Wm. Doxford of Sunderland of the Turret ship. This type also 
had great longitudinal strength because the upper part formed a kind of girder 
running the whole length. 

Below water, the hull-shape was the same as for an ordinary kind of vessel, but 
a few feet above the waterlino the sides curved inwards instead of going straight 
up, and formed a ledge or narrow deck, technically known as the " Harbour deck "; 
from this deck the sides continued straight up in the usual manner to the upper 
deck, which was about six -tenths of the width of the vessel. 

This construction had two advantages; one was that on account of the harbour 
deck being not permanently enclosed, it was not subject to harbour and port dues 
and so timber and other such cargo could be carried on deck and the space so occupied 
was not registered, and the second was that the increased freeboard, obtained by 
the higher sides, increased the deadweight of cargo that could be carried and at 
the same time added to the seaworthiness. 

Vessels of very large size were constructed on this principle, some having only 
a single hold entirely clear of girders or beams, but there are only a few turret steamers 
left to-day. 

Ships with Corrugated sides are also occasionally built; they are sometimes called 
Tubular and have two or more long corrugations below water projecting from the 
side, and which give an added cargo space, and it is said that less resistance is 
encountered. 

154 



Ship Construction 

The world-wide slump in shipping during the last decade has at least brought 
about an intense research into ship form and design with a view to producing an 
economic and efficient type of general trader. 

Many new devices for saving fuel, or for increasing speed without burning more 
fuel, have materialized by improving machinery and careful research into the question 
of friction or resistance has improved hull design. 

Xew types of screws and rudders have been adopted and existing ships have been 
adapted to take these improvements and new ships have been built on entirely 
novel lines. 

Sir Joseph Isherwood, who was responsible for the introduction of the Longitudinal 
method of construction mentioned earlier, brought out the Arcform design, the chief 
feature being that the sides of the ship are arched or curved instead of being straight 
and it is claimed that this efficiency type has the following advantages: Reduced 
consumption of fuel or increased speed, improved ballast condition, increased cubic 
capacity, increased strength and increased deadweight. 

More and more ships are having their straight stems replaced by JMaier 
bows and more and more ships are designed and built on a full Maierform 
design. 

The Maier bow was first thought of in 1878 by Mr. F. F. Maier, who had given 
long study to wave resistance, and his idea was that the less the water is disturbed 
the less resistance in consequence, and the Maier bow is sloping and rising so that 
owing to the uniformly sloping frames the streamline flow is almost parallel over 
the entire surface, resulting in much less frictional resistance. 

A ship built especially to a given design must naturally give better results than 
an existing ship re -built to embody more modern ideas, but it is claimed that an 
ordinary vessel fitted with a Maier bow will gain at least one knot in service speed 
and sometimes considerably more. 

155 



Various Methods of Hull Construction 



Usual type. 



Isherwood " ArcformS 




Turret. 




Maier form, stem lines. Maier form, bow lines. Usual bow lines. 




Broadside of Maier form hull. 
156 



Ship Construction 

Much attention is also given nowadays to the rounding of superstructures, and 
in general a rounded front must offer less resistance to the wind than a straight 
flat front like the side of a house, but it is nevertheless the fact that a certain amount 
of this rounding, often incorrectly called " streamlining," is only fashion and not 
always beautiful if carried to too great lengths. 

A recent development is that of placing the boilers on deck with the bunkers 
above and many advantages of economy are claimed. 

It enables the space normally occupied by boilers below decks to be utilised for 
cargo and a saving up to ten per cent to be effected; it gives a considerably easier 
rolling movement in ballast and is said to increase the ship's stability. 

A question that has exercised many minds is, what is the best way of putting 
on the name of a ship ? 

Some cargo ships have their names painted prominently along the side, and so 
did many neutral ships during the war, and it has much to commend it, although 
for liners it is rather unsightly. 

The name wants to be prominent but not inartistic and in the days of black hulls 
the old brass lettering was fairly efficient but it does not show up well on white or 
light-coloured hulls and the tremendous flare on some modern ships quite overshadows 
any small letters. 

The new Orient ship, Orion, has large green letters; they are distinctive but 
opinion differs with regard to their aesthetic value. 

Orion also has her name on either quarter instead of round the stern, a method 
hitherto almost exclusively adopted by warships. 



157 



CHAPTER IX 

The Birth of a Ship 

Conception, Plans, Design, Tests, Building and Launch. 

T ONG before the order for a ship is placed, many problems have to be considered, 
the chief of which is, for what particular class of trade is she required ? 

The naval architects and designers must know whether she is intended as a record 
breaking flyer, wholly for the carriage of passengers, for passengers and cargo or 
for cargo only, in which case they must know whether she is to have refrigerated or 
insulated place. They must know whether she is primarily intended for service in 
tropical countries, or whether she is to be placed on a run which demands large 
bunker spaces because of distance between ports of call. 

A warship designer is faced with similar problems, only even more complicated, 
because he has to keep abreast of the very latest developments in naval armament 
and he has to consider whether decks are to be made invulnerable from air attack, 
whether speed is to be sacrificed to heavy armour or the reverse and he has to keep 
within limits imposed by international treaties and within financial limits imposed 
by the Treasury. 

These points being decided, preliminary plans are drawn up and generally three 
principal plans are made: 

1. The General Arrangement, which deals with accommodation, cargo spaces, 
ballast tanks, victualling arrangements and the internal lay-out generally. 

158 



The Birth of a Ship 

2. The Midship Section, indicating the dimensions or scantlings as they 

are technically called, of all the materials to be used in the construc- 
tion. 

3. The Sheer Draught, which includes the broadside lines of the ship, the 

half -breadth plan, showing her water lines as seen from above, and the 
body plan showing the section of the ship from either end. 

One of the chief problems to be solved is that of wave resistance and so the next 
thing to be done is to construct a large wax model of the hull from the above plans ; 
this is taken to the experimental tank in the builder's yard or elsewhere and attached 
to a movable framework spanning the tank which may be anything up to 400 feet 
in length, and it is drawn through the water at a rate proportionate to the designed 
speed for the real ship. Very intricate instruments record the wave resistance and 
by a long series of such experiments the ideal shape to meet the requirements is 
established. The water in the tank is ruffled to heights corresponding to the 
height of waves likely to be encountered in reality. 

In the case of Aquitania one of the most important modifications was the addition 
of 15 feet to her length. 

The tank experiments conducted on the model of Queen Mary were over 7,000 
in number, and the various models travelled a distance of more than 1,000 miles 
up and down the tank. 

Similar detailed tests are carried out for wind resistance to find the right height 
for the funnels so that smoke is carried clear of the decks and to find the correct 
angle or rake for both funnels and masts. 

The total weight of plates and rivets has to be carefully estimated before any 
work is commenced and, although the chief aim is to cut down all weight as much 
as possible, strength must never be sacrificed; all dimensions and thicknesses of 

159 



Ships and the Sea 
plates having to ho up to a meticulous standard drawn up by the various ship 
classification societies and by the Board of Trade. 

The U80 of high tensile steel of a verj^ special quality has been adopted for the 
topsides of many large ships recently, and welding of plates, instead of overlapping, 
gives increased strength and does away with the weight of rivets, which is con- 
siderable when it is remembered that in a ship of giant size anything up to 10,000,000 
rivets may be required. 

The model tests being completed, the revised plans are taken along to the Moulding 
Loft which is an immense low-roofed building having a well-lit floor that is black- 
painted. On this floor, full-size drawings of the different parts of the skeleton are 
made in chalk and from these chalk drawings, curves are taken with wooden battens 
to serve as patterns for the actual framework of the shi]>. 

In the loft, wooden moulds are made for all the heavy plating and a paper or 
thin wood template taken for every plate to be used, running into thousands and 
varying in size from 8 feet to 30 feet in length, and in these patterns every rivet and 
bolt hole must bo marked in the exact position. 

All this and very much more preparatory work having been completed, the next 
step is to lay the keel and commence building. 

But long even before the keel blocks are laid, careful measurements have been taken 
to ascertain as nearly as possible the exact amount of tallow that will be required 
to move her down the slipway on which she is to be built, and a thousand and one 
other seemingly small and yet essential calculations have to be made to ensure 
that on the great day all shall go off without a hitch as far as human agency can 
help to make it. 

Special ground has first to be prepared for the keel blocks; it must be in such 
a position that the hull has sufficient length or width of water in which to float clear 
without running into the river bank on the opposite side, as happened during the 

160 



The Birth of a Ship 

war when shipyards built ships to a standard size and accidents or mishaps occurred 
because there was not always sufficient care taken in launching precautions. 

Giant gantries for travelling cranes, and foundations for a row of cranes on either 
side of the building berth, have to be laid. 

Keel-blocks are massive slabs of hard timber at suitable distances, so adjusted 
that the keel will lie on them at the right angle for launching, and giving the necessary 
slope from bow to stern to allow the weight to slide into the water at the moment 
of launching; this declivity is approximately half an inch for every foot of 
length. 

The keel of modern ships is a flat plate very different from the massive creation 
of great depths seen in model yachts, or in real ones for that matter, and it runs from 
stem to stern and forms the backbone of the ship from which all the frames or ribs 
are built up. 

The next thing is to build up the cellular double bottom or series of tanks between 
the inner and outer bottoms, so providing for the safety of the ship if her outer 
one is ripped open, and which serve also for the storage of water or oil. In the case 
of very large Atlantic liners the hull is practically double right up to the level of 
the upper deck. 

The tank top or the top of the double bottom is therefore the real floor of the 
ship in the same way that the ground floor is in a house, although the latter may 
have cellars below. 

It would take too long here to describe all the various plates, brackets and angles 
that are used and it must just be said that from this stage onwards are built up 
the frames for the side plating and the cross beams for the decks until the whole 
looks like the skeleton of some gigantic sea monster in which are left cavernous 
holes for engine rooms, holds and boiler spaces. 

One of the most skilful operations is now performed by the fitting into place of 

161 



Ships and the Sea 
the huge stem and stern frames and the Queen Mary's stern frame, shaft brackets 
and rudder weigh just on 600 tons. 

The gaunt framework is now clothed by the thousands upon thousands of plates, 
each complete line or row of which is called a stroke, the garboard strake being that 
immediately next to the keel, the main strake that on a level with the main deck 
and so on. 

Where the bottom of the ship begins to curve upwards is the bilge and to this 
are fixed the bilge keels which give stability and reduce the rolling tendencies. Armies 
of caulkers follow up the riveters and beat the edges of all the plates together and 
make them watertight. 

Screws are fitted to the propeller shafts, and each probably weighs about 30 tons. 

In the hull and superstructure of a ship like the Queen Mary over 2,000 portholes 
and windows have to be cut and fitted with glass varying from one foot to two feet 
in diameter. 

The ship is now ready for launching, the first and probably the most critical event 
of her career and one of tremendous anxiety both for the designer and for the staff 
responsible for safely transferring a huge weight of metal into her natural 
element. 

Finally, before the day of launching, channels have to be dredged and kept clear 
and careful watches kept on the tides. 

Nearly all ships are launched when they reach the state described; sometimes, 
however, they have been launched fully equipped and ready for sea, but the risk 
is tremendous and they are usually built and launched so that their stern slides 
into the water first, although some very small craft are launched broadside on. 

As soon as work is sufficiently advanced, heavy timbers of very hard wood are 
laid on either side of the keel and fixed to the berth ; these are called ground ways 
or standing ways and are extended beyond the stern into deep water to lessen the 

162 



The Birth of a Ship 

risks of the ship tilting and breaking her back before she is sufficiently supported 
by the water. 

On top of the standing ways are placed the sliding or launching ways and at the 
ends of these are built up stout cradles under bow and stern to take the weight and 
keep the ship upright when all shoring and staging is removed. 

Next comes the stupendous task of transferring the whole weight of the ship 
from the building and keel blocks to the launching ways and the longer that a ship 
takes to reach the launching stage the more is she inclined to settle or sink into 
these keel blocks. This operation, known as Setting up is carried out a few hours 
before the time set for the launching ceremony to take place and it is done by placing 
a continuous layer of wedges on each side of the sliding ways. 

As the crucial moment draws near, armies of workmen are busy removing keel 
and bilge blocks so that at the vital moment she is held by as few as possible, but 
keeping close watch on her liveliness or tendency to move as the successive supports 
are withdrawn. 

Finally the last blocks are released and the hull is kept in position merely by 
the mechanical triggers and steel clamps fixed to the launching ways, an anxious 
and precarious position, as the weight cannot be held for long as the creaking of 
timbers and the mechanical drag-gauges indicate. 

An hydraulic ram is also set up in case it may be necessary to give the hull an 
initial push to set her moving 

The ceremony attendant upon the launching of a ship is too well-known to need 
lengthy description here, but it may be of interest to record that until 1811 
the ceremony was carried out entirely by men and it is said that the Prince Regent 
introduced the feminine element. 

It was customary until 1690 to drink the ship's health from a silver cup which 
was then thrown overboard, but this proved rather costly and so a bottle of wine 

163 



Ships and the Sea 
was substituted; at first this bottle was thrown at the bows of the ship as an 
unattached missile, but on one occasion a lady, in performing this graceful ceremony, 
threw the bottle, missed the bows completely, and hit a spectator who was seriously 
injured and who sued for damages. Henceforth the bottle was to be secured by a 
lanyard as at present. 

The bottle of wine having been broken, the lady christens the ship, presses a 
button which electrically releases the weight that comes down on to the last remaining 
supports, called " Dog shores," and the towering mass quivers, perhaps for a few 
minutes, and then slides down the ways, gathering momentum as it goes and carrying 
with it a mass of timbers and spars with an ever increasing roar like some gigantic 
forest king breaking through the trees by which it is encircled in a determined attempt 
to quench its thirst at a watering hole. With a final and smooth glide her stern touches 
water and lifts amid a boiling and bubbling of the waters and the inanimate mass 
of metal becomes waterborne, enveloping itself with a personality all its own; a 
new creation is born and a thing of metal becomes alive. 

To prevent a great mass weighing perhaps 40,000 tons from travelling too far 
on account of the momentum, a series of Drag-chains or iron cables is fixed to the 
hull before the launch, and these help to retard her rate of progress ; within a very 
few minutes, powerful tugs have taken charge of her and she is slowly brought round 
to the fitting -out berth near by, where she remains until completed. 

During all this time up to her launch, work has been carried on in shops and 
foundries all over the country, making her engines and boilers and all her internal 
fittings. 

Queen Mary has four gear-wheels to her turbines, totalling 320 tons in weight, 
turbines with over a quarter of a million blades, each of which was set up and tested 
by hand; she has twenty-seven enormous boilers with 160,000 tubes and she has 
nearly 3,000 feet of steam piping. 

164 



The Birth of a Ship 

All this is brought alongside and placed on board ; trainload after trainload of all 
kinds of manufactured articles arrives and is swallowed up by the insatiable monster. 

Four thousand miles of electric cables are run along seemingly interminable 
corridors and over 30,000 electric lamps are installed. 

Upholsterers and cabinet-makers are tripping her~up inside until one is tempted 
to forget that she is a ship. 

Gigantic funnels and masts are stepped into place and perhaps a year or eighteen 
months after her launch she is ready for her trials. 

A cynic once said that a ship was feminine because she was sometimes difficult 
to handle, but I prefer to think that it is because she is the most perfect of all human 
creations. 

Exhaustive trials are carried out, both on measured miles, of which a list will 
be found on the next page, to ascertain her speed, and on runs of twenty-four or thirty- 
six hours ; turning circles and helm handiness are recorded ; compasses and navigational 
instruments are tested, and, in the case of warships, gunnery tests have to be 
made. 

When engaged on these trials a vessel wears the International Code flag " A " 
as a warning to other craft in the vicinity to keep as clear as circumstances will 
allow. 

Assuming that these trials are satisfactory, the great date for commissioning 
arrives, stores and provisions are taken in, officers and crew begin to shake down 
and eventually her greatest moment arrives — the hoisting of " Blue Peter " for 
her maiden voyage. 

165 



Ships and the Sea 

Measured Miles. 
There are " Measured Miles " at the following places in the United Kingdom. 

Aberdeen Harbour. 
Aberlady Bay, in the Forth. 
Belfast Lough. 
Crosby Channel, Liverpool. 
Hartley, near the mouth of the Tyne. 
Isle of Grain, in the Medway. 
King Roads, Bristol. 
Long Reach, in the Thames. 
Lower Hope Reach, in the Thames. 
Lowestoft Ness, off Great Yarmouth. 
Maplin Sands, in the Thames Estuary. 
Netley, Southampton. 
Plymouth. 
Ryhope, Sunderland. 
St. Abb's Head, Berwickshire. 
Sandy Bay, Middlesbrough. 
Skelmorlie, in the Clyde. 
• Slapton, Dartmouth. 

Stokes Bay, Portsmouth, the Solent. 

Sunk Island, in the Humber. 

Tay. 

Withernsea, in the Humber. 

Wemyss Bay, in the Clyde. 

166 



CHAPTER X 

Parts of a Ship 

General. 

H/oxl. — The extreme front of a ship is called the Stem, which may take one or more 
forms, such as straight or perpendicular from top to bottom, raking or sloping, clipper, 
yacht or fiddle stem, such as is seen in sailing vessels and steam yachts and one or 
two other variations. Immediately behind the stem, on each side of the ship, are the 
Bows, and bow and stem are more often than not spoken of together. 

The raking stem has come more and more into favour in recent years, partly because 
it lessens resistance and so increases speed, if desired, and partly because it reduces 
the damage done by a bow-on collision, because it is usually constructed of soft steel; 
the top part only penetrates and so prevents a deep gash and it crumples upon 
impact ; the Blue Funnel line was one of the first to adopt it. 

The bulbous bow is similar in appearance, but is rounded towards the top. 

The Maier bow has the same effect as the raking stem in reducing resistance and 
it is described in the article on ship construction; Maier bows are often fitted to ships 
not otherwise constructed on the Maier principle. 

Trawler bows, as their name implies, were originated in fishing craft but they were 
adopted for some of our cruisers on account of their keeping the ship drier in head 
>as. 

The word bow comes from the old saxon word meaning a shoulder. 

167 



Parts of a Ship 



- Tqocu 



OCRRICU RDS7 



rinen voi/st 



~JnrH trflPT 




Ventilators 



A. Cowl Type. 

B. Goose Neck {usually in scuppers) 
C Mushroom (largely in warships) 



Stockless Anchor 



A. Shank 

B. Ring. 

C. Crown. 

D. Arms. 

168 



E. Flukes. 

F. Bill or Pen. 

O. Tripping Palms. 




23. Restaurant. 

24. Swimming Pool. 

25. Foyer. 

26. Restaurant. 

27. Kitchens. 

28. Restaurant. 

29. Passenger Accommodation. 

30. Cargo. 

31. Boiler Rooms. 

32. Engine Rooms. 

33. Swimming Pool. 



[Face page 168. 



SECTION OF RJB.S. ■« QUEEN MARY." 




1. Cocktail Bab. 

2. Studio. 

3. Lecture Room and Children's Room. 

4. Library and Drawing Room. 

5. Sqtash Racquet Court. 

6. Gtm.vasicm. 

8. Main Lounge, Theatre and Ball Room, 

9. Galleries and Ball Room. 

10. Smoking Room. 

11. Verandah Grill. 



Smokino Room. 
Winter Garden. 
Passenger Accommodation. 

LlBRABY. 

LOUNOE. 

Smoking Room. 

Passenoer Accommodation. 

Passenger Accommodation. 

Lounge. 

Lounge. 

Passenger Accommodation. 



23. Restaurant. 

24. Swtmmino Pool. 

25. Foyer. 

20. Restaurant. 

27. Kitchens. 

28. Restaurant. 

29. Passenger Accommodation. 

30. Cargo. 

31. Bon-ER Rooms. 

32. Engine Rooms. 

33. Swimming Pool. 



Bearings Relative to a Ship 
AHEAO 



%o« 



/o N 



ON THE BEAM 1 £ 



PORT I J 






V* 



y+L 



*>6 



o*£ 



*ij 



V 



6* 




t\ 



5 I O/V Tff£ flWM 



2* » 






p/ 



ASTERN 
169 



dC** 



-v^" 



*V 



*»*£>' 



Sr*flfiOA££> 



Ships and the Sea 

At the other end of the ship is the Stern, which, like the bow or stem, can be of 
various types. 

The Cruiser stem is generally adopted at the preeenl lime as it is stronger than 
the old elliptical or counter stern, allowing more accommodation or weight to be 
built right aft, and it lessens n sistanoe and bo increases speed or saves fuel. 

Tug and trawler sterns are variations of the cut-away type. 

The economy stern was a war-time measure, Baving the cost of rounding the stern 
plates, as it is a flat plate like the end of a box. 

Anything on the line running from bow to stern is said to be on the Fore and Aft 
line, and anything on tho line running at right angles to this or across the ship is 
said to be AthwartsJiips. 

Amidships explains itself. 

Anything in front of the 'midships lino is said to be forward (pronounced forrard), 
whilst things behind it are said to be aft or abaft the l>> m. 

Anything on the left-hand side of a ship looking towards the bows is on tho Port 
side, and anything on the right-hand side is on the Starboard side. 

Starboard takes it3 name from the old days when ships were steered by a pole 
or board called a Steerboard, which was always put over the right side. 

In consequence of this sticking -out pole it was necessary to approach land with 
the other side of the ship and to run alongside a quay on the left side, which was called, 
until 1840, the larboard side, probably from the lay-board or from the loadboard, 
which was the gangway from ship to shore; this was confusing with starboard and 
so the name port was adopted, which perpetuates both the original significance and 
the fact that a port (French " door ") was cut at the top of the lay-board to allow 
egress from the ship. 

The Weather side is the exposed or windward side of a ship; and the Leeward 
(pronounced Loo'ard) is the sheltered side. 

170 



Decks, Bows, Stems, Stebns and Loadlines 



New Style 




Old Style 



BOftT 

PfitpCE of SHBATBff. 

UPPER 

tffl'rV- 



TF 







AoHEfi ORJjP 



r S 

,_W 
WNA 



Loadlines. 



Stems. 



WNA. 



B.T. Board of Trade. 
T.F. Tropical Fresh Water. 
T. Tropical. F. Fresh. %j 
S. Summer. W. Winter. 
Winter North Atlantic (not for Vessels over 330' , nor for tankers). 




Straight. 



Sterns. 



Sloping 
or laking. 



Clipper, Yacht 
or Fiddle. 



Maier or 
Spoon. 



Counter. 
Cut away or EUiptical. 



Cruiser. 



Tug. 



Economy. 



171 






No I HOJ.0 



Various Builds of Ship 



iFAce 



tit i hold NOk Hold 



innrr tu»»$l 




Wf/mr\ — trrim Ptm 
[J fixf 



Flush Decker. 



F= 



f^ 



"3 Island'" type with raised forecastle, bridge and poop. 



f=l 



Combined Forecastle and Bridge type, with poop. 



Combined Bridge and Poop type, with forecastle. 
172 



Parts of a Ship 

This brings us to the principal measurements of a ship's hull: — 

Length is usually given in tables of reference and in registers as length between 
perpendiculars (B.P.), and is measured from fore side of stem to after side of stern post. 

Length on waterline needs no explanation. 

Length overall (O.A.) is extreme length, measured from foremost part of stern or 
bowsprit, if carried, to aftermost part of counter, and in vessels having elliptical 
sterns and raking stems the overhanging portion is quite considerable and adds a 
good deal to length between perpendiculars. 

Beam is the extreme breadth of a vessel at her widest part, her longest beam or 
cross bar. Varies slightly in registers according to whether measurement is taken 
inside or outside plating. 

Depth. Registered depth is measured from top of double bottom if there is one, or 
otherwise from top of floor to top of upper deck beam, and is slightly less than 
Moulded depth, which is measured from top of keel to top of upper deck beam. 

Depth of hold is practically the same as registered depth. 

The depth to which a vessel floats in the water is known as her Draught, or draft, 
which actually varies according to conditions of loading and according to seasons 
and places; the registered draught is taken to the centre of load-line; a vessel of 8,600 
tons deadweight drawing 24 feet 4 inches, will, at a winter dead weight of 8,300 tons, 
draw only about 23 feet 10 inches. 

A vessel is said to be travelling light or in ballast when she has very little cargo 
and is consequently sitting high out of the water, with her screw tops often visible 
churning up the sea. 

The height of hull or side from waterline to top is spoken of as Freeboard. 

The depth of a vessel in feet is indicated, in roman figures, on either bow to a height 
just above the waterline. 

The bottom part of the stern is known as the foot. Most vessels sit lower in 
the water aft than they do forward, and there are usually fore and aft peak tanks 

173 



Ships and the Sea 
containing water ballad which if utilised to trim a vessel, especially when a 
ship is travelling light, that is, v 

Every vessel has her Dame painted on the bows; and round the stern, <>r on 
the counter in a i --■ l with b cut-away stern, is painted her name and, beneath 
that, her port of registry t whieh is either the plaee where she was built or tho 
number of her owner. 

Vessels belonging to o not using the Roman alphabet have tho name 

first in the let! ring of their country and then in Roman letters. 

British Warshi] s have th ii nam h quarter and never on the bow. 

Load-Lines anl Freeboard 

In the bad old days many slii -t through overloading, and after \ remendous 

opposition Mr. Samuel Plimsoll, a native of Bristol who lived from 1824 to 1898 

and who repi I Derby m the British Parliament, managed to pilot a hill, called 

the Merchant Shipping Act, through the House in 1876. 

This act provided principally for tho fixing of a draught for every ship, below 
which it was illegal to load tho vessel, and entailed the placing on the hull of tho ship 
amidships, a disc with a line drawn through tho centre. 

This line is known as her Load-lino or Plimsoll mark. 

On January 1st, 1933, slight modifications and variations came into operation, 
following an International conference which sat in London in 1929 and 1930, called 
the International Safety of Life at Sea and Load-line Conventions. 

Under this convention, certain freeboards were increased but a greater number 
were lessened, the regulations being relaxed on account of the greater security of 
modern vessels due to improved hatch-covers and so on; this particularly affected 
tankers which have a large number of small, hermetically sealed hatches. 

Every British ship is now compelled to carry these marks, with the exception 
of a few small ships of less than 80 tons measurements, fishing craft, private yachts 

174 



Parts o? a Ship 

and pleasure steamers round the coast; the latter are regulated by being forbidden 
to carry more than a certificated number of persons. 

The new marking is slightly different from the old, and the cryptic lettering at the end 
of each prong of the "toasting fork " allows variation according to the destination of the 
vessel or the time of year ; for instance a ship floats deeper in fresh water than in sea 
water and so a vessel loaded down to the FW mark will rise when reaching salt water. 

In the days of wooden ships, the underwater portion was protected by metal, 
such as sheet-copper, and this was carried up to the waterline and between this top 
edge and the hull there was a kind of padding or washer of felt, or some other material, 
known as the boot-topping-, to-day the name is used to indicate the strip of paint along 
the waterline, usually of a different colour from the rest of the hull and an important 
feature for recognition. 

A ship is said to sag when the midship portion sits lower than the ends; this is in 
a way common to nearly all ships as there is a very distinct Sheer or slope up towards 
bow and stern. 

Hogging is the reverse, when her back is higher than her ends, not often met with 
except when a ship is aground and breaks her back. 

The Flare is the overhang of the top decks compared to the waterline : a slope out- 
wards from the waterline at the bow, particularly prominent in the French liner 
Normandie, where special precautions have to be taken to prevent tenders and other 
small craft from coming too close and becoming jammed between the waterline and 
the top overhang. Also very prominent in H.M.S. Hood, where a perpendicular 
dropped from the upper deck would be on a level with the outside of her torpedo-bulge. 

The flare makes anchor work difficult and in the Normandie there is a special hole 
cut in the hull near the stem to enable a look-out man to see what is happening. 

A ship is divided horizontally into one or more Decks and in most cases only 
continuous decks are referred to in descriptions of ships; the lower ones naturally 
have to be broken up for engine rooms, cargo spaces and for heaps of other reasons. 

175 



Ships and the Sea 

The naming of the decks to-day is rather confusing as some steamship companies 
number them only, starting with M A " as the bottom deck and working upwards, 
others reverse the process, others again number them up to a point and thon give 
the top decks names such as Sports, Sun or Boat decks. 

Strictly speaking the Main Deck or Tonnage Deck is the second continuous deck 
from the bottom, that below being the Lower Deck, and the topmost continuous 
deck is the Upper Deck. 

Decks or part decks below the lower were termed Orlop and Lower Orlop, probably 
from the Dutch word " Overlopen," which means " to overlap." 

The hull proper ends at the Upper Deck. 

In the old wooden ships there were raised platforms or castles at bow and stern 
above the topmost deck, and theso sometimes reached ridiculous proportions; they 
were used to accommodate fighting men and were known as Forecastle and After- 
castle respectively. 

The aftercastle has disappeared and the only reminder is, that in warships, the 
cleaning utensils, such as buckets and brooms, in the neighbourhood of the quarter- 
deck which superseded it, are marked A.C. (After Castle). 

The forecastle or fo'c'sle survives to-day, although very much lower, and it is 
traditionally the living quarters of the seamen although in some modern ships the 
tendency is to house them amidships or aft — a much better method as the forecastle 
is cramped and it is the first part to suffer damage as the result of a bow collision. 

A Top-gallant Forecastle is sometimes used to indicate the raised forecastle, the 
latter word being used in such case to mean the fore part of a ship. 

In the old wooden warships a deck was built up from the mainmast aft and this 
was called the Half -deck; above this again, running a quarter of the length of the ship, 
was the Quarter-deck, a name still given to the aft part of a warship ; raised above the 
after end of the quarter-deck was the Poop, the name still given to the raised deck 

176 



Parts of a Ship 
aft in a merchant vessel, although the modern poop is very much lower and is 
immediately above the upper deck. 

In the centre of a modern merchant ship is probably built another light deck 
called the Bridge Deck and not to be confused with the Navigating Bridge which 
runs across the ship above the topmost deck of all. 

A ship without any raised portions above the upper deck is known as a Flush 
Decker, and one with raised forecastle, bridge and poop is a Three Island type, and 
at sea from a distance, perhaps only the three raised portions are visible. 

There are ships with variations of these, such as with a long or short bridge, with 
a poop and bridge combined or with a forecastle and bridge combined, and they can 
be seen on the drawings on page 173. 

Some kinds of ships are more suitable than others for different trades and the 
following are a few of their uses : — 

Single Deckers (with short bridge) are especially suitable for deadweight cargoes 
such as iron ore, coal, etc., as the primary object is quick loading and unloading, 
usually direct from one port to another, and large hatches are provided which facilitate 
easy handling. 

Single Deckers with Shelter Deck. Shelter deck is constructed on the main deck 
with tonnage openings in the superstructure, thus rendering it free from tonnage 
measurement as being not permanently enclosed; frequently referred to as " open 
shelter deckers " to distinguish them from vessels, principally during the war, which 
had the openings closed to enable them to be granted heavier draught and thus to 
carry more cargo. 

Long Bridge Type. Useful when a large cubic capacity is required, such as for 
the carriage of light cargoes like grain, etc. 

Two Deckers (or ships with more than two decks). Generally useful when it is 
necessary to discharge cargo at various ports en route, where many different cargoes 
G 177 



Ships and the Sea 
i tried of wh< re pressure on o ago at bottom of holds baa to be avoided; favoured 
largely by own* d is the Far Eastern trades. 

Above the bridge deok in |ienmnflar linen are built the passenger deekS} such as 
Promenade, Upper Promenade and Bool I 

Spar Decks, A>r> M .' ; < • Decfa ami / / urricanc Decke aro all lightly 

bed (thai is to ber than the main hull) decks above the upper 

docks. 

A ship is divided perpendicularly by numerous partitions running from aide to 
side, railed Bu l khe ad s , having water-tight doors in them which can be automatically 
closed in an emergency. 

A w ell is strictly Bpeaking a hollow oul oul of a deck, allowing ■ deok to be dropped 
below the general level, called s well deck, but generally speaking, the hollow between 
the forceastlo and bridge, or between bridge and poop is re fe rred to as the well. 

FlTTINoS. 

In the hull of a ship on cither how is out a hole called the Hawee-Kole (pronounced 
. into which the anchor is drawn, the cable passing through the hawse pipe 
to a piece of machinery called a windlass in the Merchant Navy and a capstan in the 
Royal Navy. 

The cable passes from the deck to the cJiain-lockcrs on the cable-deck through a 
Navel-pipe. 

There are various shapes of hawse pipe and most very largo modern liners have a 
spade-shaped one. 

Anchors to-day have no stock and can therefore be hauled up close inside the 
hawse hole. 

The anchors on the bow are called Bower-anchors and are the heaviest, weighing 
anything up to sixteen tons each; some large ships have a third projecting from 

178 



Farts of a Ship 

a hole in the stem and all large British warships have a second abaft the starboard 
bower and these are called Sheet or Spare-anchors. 

Some ships have still another anchor projecting from a hole in the stern for pur- 
poses of preventing the ship from swinging with the tide, and this is a Stream -anchor. 

Kedge-anchors are small anchors used especially in small-boat work and for warping 
purposes. 

A ship is said to be anchored when one anchor is down and moored when both are 
down, or when tied up to a buoy. 

A ship is under weigh when her anchor is clear of the sea-bed and not necessarily 
when she has any movement on her ; thus a ship can be under weigh but with no way 
on her, a slightly confusing phrase. 

Next come the masts, the first two of which are known as Fore-mast and Main- 
mast respectively; the third mast is the Mizen, although the term probably 
originally meant a small fore and aft sail ; the fourth mast is the Jigger. 

Some of the sailing ships have more than four masts, the American fore and aft 
schooners being known to carry as many as seven, but what names are given to 
all these is controversial and the best way is to call them by the days of the week. 

Above the lower mast is a top-mast which may be capable of being lowered either 
by " striking " or by the fact that it is telescopic and slides into the lower mast, many 
large ships having lower and top masts made in one long piece of steel. 

In the days of sail, and still often seen in warships, is the Top -gallant, which took 
ts name from the old hemp rings called garlands ("gallants") through which the 
shrouds of the upper masts were rove to prevent chafing. 

On the masts above this came the Royal-mast. 

In place of the old fighting tops a modern warship has control and range -finding 
towers. 

The Truck is the extreme top of the mast, which in a battleship of the Royal 

179 



Ships and the Sea 
Sovereign class is about 170 feet above load water-line and in the Liner Queen Man/, 

about 230 feet abovo the keel. 

The Gaff is a spar sot at an angle of about forty-five degrees from the main mast 

in modern steamships, and tho extremity is called the Peak, from which ensigns are 
usually worn at sea. 

A small mast or staff in the bows is called the Jack -st iff, meaning that it is for the 
purpose of flying a " jack " or small flag, or that it is itself a small staff — the word 
k ' jack " being a maritime diminutive. 

A similar but larger staff in the stern is called the Ensign-staff and, as its name im- 
plies, is for the purpose of displaying the national flag, 

The rigging holding tlio masts in position is known as tho Standing -rigging and 
consists in modern vessels principally of a fore-stay Leading from top of foremast to 
stem, back-stay, from top of mainmast to taffrail or stern, and shrouds which come 
down on either side to the deck level and are so termed because they shroud or 
obscure the mast, being much more numerous in tho days of sail. 

There are other stays but they need not be mentioned. 

The rigging from the yards for signalling purposes are termed Halyards. 

The rigging used for the purposes of handling sails is known as Running -rigging. 

In addition to masts there are tall posts to which are fixed additional derricks, and 
called Derrick-posts ot Samson-posts, the tops of which are often ventilating cowls as well. 

At the extremities of the navigating bridge are shelters called cabs, and in the 
centre of the bridge, and above or below, are the Chart-hou^e and Wheel-house. 

In warships there is a series of bridges such as signal bridge, navigating bridge, 
flying bridge, on or between which, are built range -takers platforms and numerous 
other platforms for searchlights or anti-aircraft defence, and the practice lately has 
been to enclose all these bridges in a steel outer cover to protect them, and so we 
find the huge central tower as fitted in the British Nelson and Rodney. 

180 



Parts of a Ship 

Developments in masts have been turning a complete cycle as far as steamships 
are concerned; when the first all-steam warships were introduced, they carried one 
very heavy mast; this gave way in cruisers to lighter pole masts and in heavy ships 
to the tripod which is a heavy central mast with two heavy struts sloping forward 
at an angle of about forty degrees; the culmination of this was the many -strutted, 
pagoda-like mast, with endless platforms, such as in the Japanese ships and the 
central shot -proof tower of the Nelson class. Recent ships have discarded the tripod 
and reverted to a light wooden mast which reduces both weight and size of target 
presented to the enemy. 

The United States Navy originated a lattice -work affair called a " Cage " or 
" Basket " mast, and a modified form was introduced in the Imperial Russian Navy, 
but this was found unsuitable both owing to the " whip " caused by high speed and 
on account of the vibration throwing out all navigational and gunnery control 
instruments. 

When the American battleships were re -constructed in recent years the British 
tripod form was substituted in most cases. 

Some modern cargo ships have masts called Goal-post, Football or more technically, 
Twin-masts, that is, masts set side by side to look like goal-posts, and to these can 
be attached a great number of cargo -lifting Derricks, which name has rather a grue- 
some origin; an Elizabethan hangman called Derrick being apparently the first man 
to rig his gallows with a single spar, using the rope which was the only thing officially 
allowed him, as a lift. 

In a battleship there is a very heavy derrick, stowed fore and aft in a horizontal 
position, attached to the mainmast for purposes of hoisting in and out the heavy sea- 
boats ; during the recent years of economy, whenever power has been required for work- 
ing this main derrick, it has been switched off all the lighting, and so plunged the ship 
into darkness. This derrick runs to 65 feet in length and is nearly two feet in diameter. 

181 



Ships and the Sea 

Athwartships across the masts are the yards, nowadays only used in steamships 
for signalling purposes or for wireless aerials, but used in the square-rigged sailing 
ships for attaching the sails and the extremities of which are called yard-arms, to 
which they used to string-up offenders in days gone by. In battleships their place 
is taken by outriggers from the control tops. 

A table-top is the top of the lower masts in merchant ships to which are fixed the 
pulleys and blocks for purposes of taking the tackle from the cargo derricks. 

In the early ships the top was actually the top of the mast from which fighting 
men used to shoot arrows and other unpleasant missiles at the enemy, but by degrees, 
first a flag staff and then a mast, was rigged on this top and it soon found itself very 
low down on the mast. 

The Crow's nest is a platform with a protective shield of metal or canvas high up 
on the foremast for the purpose of providing shelter for a lookout-man; it is sometimes 
completely roofed-in, or covered, and is in telegraphic or telephonic communication 
with the navigating bridge. 

The Docking bridge is a navigating bridge on the poop or abaft the midships 
superstructure and is used for bringing the ship into port, or for going astern. 

Bake is the term given to the slope or inclination of funnels and masts from the 
perpendicular. 

On the boat-deck are the ship's lifeboats, each of which is kept stocked with provi- 
sions, flares, oil, oars and other necessaries. Many large liners carry power-driven 
boats only, and all ships over a certain size must have one or more such craft for 
towing purposes, and they must be fitted with wireless. 

The first boat on either side is called the accident boat in the Merchant Navy, it is 
usually much smaller than the remainder and is kept swung out for emergencies. 

In the Royal Navy there is always one or more sea -boat slung out for the same 
purpose. 

182 



Parts of a Ship 

These boats now have their regular crew but in sailing ship days the boat was 
manned by anyone who happened to be nearest it at the moment and there is a 
yarn that on one occasion when the crew were aloft furling sails, a man was seen 
by the officer of the watch on deck to fall; he immediately shouted " Man overboard," 
and sent away a boat to pick up the victim. 

After sculling around for some considerable time without finding any trace of the 
man the boat returned with a very dejected-looking crew. 

The roll was called to find the identity of the missing man and to everyone's 
astonishment all were present. It transpired a little later that the man who was seen 
to fall, only fell a little way and hearing the cry " Man overboard " he immediately 
continued his descent to the deck and was one of the first to man the sea-boat, little 
guessing that he was pulling about looking for himself. 

After the Titanic disaster in 1912 more stringent regulations regarding the provi- 
sion of life-saving appliances were enforced and lifeboats had to be provided with 
seating capacity for the entire crew and passengers ; the problem was, where to stow 
the boats, so sometimes they were on runners right across the ship, later they were 
nested, one inside another and extraordinary boat-handling gear was invented for 
dealing with them all. 

The things used for hoisting boats are called Davits (pronounced dayvits), and in 
most ships they are either goose-necked or swan-necked, the older style, or consist 
of an elaborate lattice-work contraption which is rather unsightly, but nearly all the 
latest ships have one or other system of gravity davits and the boats are hoisted high 
with head room beneath. 

The gravity type consists of heavy uprights and the boat rests in a sort of cradle 
on wheels which run in grooves up and down these uprights. 

The problem of boats has always been a difficult one because it is one thing to 
provide sufficient and quite another to be able to launch all or any in case of disaster 

183 



Types of Boat I > wits vnd Small Boat I 'onstkuction 




Carrel build. 



Clincher build. 



184 



Parts of a Ship 

when, at the best of times, there is bound to be a certain amount of confusion, 
especially if the electricity, on which the lighting and auxiliary power of the ship 
depends, fails at the critical moment; launching a boat from a great height in any- 
thing of a sea is not a simple task even if the ship is not in distress but if she is sinking, 
listing heavily, or going down by bow or stern, the position is rendered infinitely more 
difficult, particularly if it is night time. 

Boat drill has to be carried out by law, as it should be, and Board of Trade officials 
have, as one of their duties, to come on board before a passenger liner sails from a 
British port and satisfy themselves that the boats are in good condition and that the 
gear is efficient and capable of fulfilling the purpose for which it was designed. 

Boats are lowered regularly during the voyage and passengers have to take part 
in boat-drill, that is to say, they have to appear in lifebelts alongside the boat station 
t o which they are alloted and the number of which is posted in every cabin. The effici- 
ency of the crews is beyond reproach and a boat can be lowered in a very few minutes, 
which is very different from even a few years ago when boats used to be painted 
resting in their chocks or cradles on deck and on more than one occasion when emer- 
gency arose it was found impossible to move them. 

The unfortunate thing is, that an increasingly large number of passengers object 
to this boat-drill and make themselves very unpleasant, refuse to attend, deliberately 
obstruct the officers in their duty and scoff at the entire proceeding ; perhaps it would 
do such people a world of good if they were suddenly confronted with stark reality. 

Life-boats and other small boats are usually constructed on one or other of two 
methods : — 

Clinker-built boats, in which the planks run fore and aft, with the lower edge of 
one plank overlapping the upper edge of the one below like the slates on a roof. 

Carvel-built, in which the outer thickness is worked so that the edges of all planks 
are flush, and this method is principally used for power boats. 

185 



Ships and the Sea 

A Cat-davit or Anchor-davit is a small crano or davit in the bows for purposes of 
assisting in the stowage of the anchor; called a cat because the end of it probably used 
to have a carving of a cat's head. 

Funnels are the principal or most prominent deck feature in most modern ships, 
although the tendency even in steamships is to reduce the number, three being the 
largest number fitted to any merchant ship now. 

This is principally due to the modern developments requiring less space for boiler 
rooms, uptakes and funnels, or smokestacks, as they are sometimes called. 

There was a time some years ago when the number of funnels was considered an 
indication of* a ship's power and speed, and more than one case is recorded' in which 
ngers refused to sail in ships with only one funnel, particularly as most shipping 
literature represented ships with at least lour towering stacks. 

Natives were particularly impressed by funnels. 

Some of the old French cruisers had six funnels, grouped in threes with a space 
between, and the famous Russian cruiser Askold had five immensely tall thin ones 
and was nicknamed the " Packet of Woodbines " by British " tommies " who saw 
her during the war. 

The pre-war County class cruisers had three huge funnels set practically upright 
but they were certainly not beauties. 

The day of the four-funnelled liner is unfortunately nearly ended and the fashion 
set by Mauretania is out of date. 

The introduction of the motor vessel led to the immediate reduction in numbers 
of funnels and the Scandinavian countries, which have large numbers of motor 
vessels, have practically dispensed with funnels altogether. 

A reaction to the abolition of funnels set in some years ago and many ships had 
a dummy funnel added to enhance the appearance and this was sometimes used as 
a ventilator, as in the case of Empress of Britain; both Olympic and Berengaria 

186 



Parts of a Ship 

have dummy funnels. British motor vessels never entirely dispensed with them but 
introduced a new fashion for a short thick funnel with a straight top. 

Recently, however, funnels or dummies have tended to disappear again, because 
more deck room is allotted to deck sports and games and the prevailing fashion seems 
to be to have one large funnel amidships. 

The disappearance of funnels would be a disaster from the aesthetic point of view 
and a mistake from the business side, because one of the principal features in the 
recognition of ships and therefore of the company to which she belongs, would go 
— surely a move in the wrong direction. 

Some funnels have what look like squash hats on them, and this is usually formed 
by an inner and outer casing or by a prominent rim to the top; such are termed 
Admiralty -topped or Cowl-topped. 

Many large funnels are elliptical, flat-sided or pear-shaped and the funnels of 
Normandie slope out on either side near the base and like the Queen Mary's they are 
of unequal height. 

When Bremen and Europa first came out their funnels were 15 feet shorter than now, 
the extra portion being added because the smoke did not clear the decks at high speed 
and with a head wind; funnels have often been raised for the same reason in warships. 

Some funnels have smoke dispersing shafts or ventilators near the tops as in the 
Italian Rex. 

In many warships of great power and high speed the funnels were placed too near 
the masts, or the other way about if you prefer it, and in consequence the bridges and 
control tops became almost uninhabitable and got burnt out. 

To remedy this, funnels were " trunked " together, as in the Queen Elizabeth class, 
and in many others, the most outstanding example being the United States aircraft 
carriers Lexington and Saratoga, which have their seven uptakes all trunked into one 
gigantic funnel casing. 

187 



Ships and the Sea 

Some ships had the top of the fannel only, curved hack, othera had clinker screens 
put on and there ifl in existence at present the most weird ooUeotion of funnels ever 
seen. 

Funnels in some of the down-riv< r pleasure Bteamen are telescopic, to enable 
them to clear the bridges over the Thames* 

Some of the ships usin_r the Manchester Ship (anal have the funnel top taken 
off at the entrance and pick it up again on the return journey, and they can he recog- 
nised by the funnel platforms or galleries called cut walks running round about half 
way up. 

Last of the principal fittings OOme the ventilators and these again are tending to 
disappear in their old form: they certainly monopolised most of the deck space, but 
the great cowls in a row as in Mauretania and Aquitcvnia had a distinct charm, and 
here again the painting of the inside of the cowls formed a useful point of recognition, 
some companies favouring red. some blue, others white and so on. 

The Cunard ventilators were particularly attractive, being rather thick and with 
immense cowls. 

The Berengaria has some large square ventilators and so has Queen Mary. 

New systems of ventilation have come along and rendered these cowls largely 
unnecessary and their place is being taken by fans and by utilizing one or more of 
the dummy funnels. 

Warships mostly have what are known as mushroom -vents, and they are very short 
rounded-top fittings quite close to the deck. 

Another class of ventilator to provide air to the ballast tanks is the Goose-neck, 
situated near the scuppers. 

The number of persons carried in a ship is known as her Complement. 



188 



CHAPTER XI 

Engine-Room and Machinery 

'"THIS is not the place to advance arguments regarding the merits or demerits of 
the different types of engines in use, and the following explanations are merely 

intended to give some idea, in a non-technical form, of the various terms mentioned 

in this book. 

There are, generally speaking, three distinct systems in use to-day: — 

1. Steam. 

2. Motor. 

3. Electric. 

Steam Engines. 

There are three principal systems of steam propulsion : — 

1. Reciprocating Engines. 

2. Turbines. 

3. Combination of Reciprocating and Turbine. 

Reciprocating Engines are the most common, and do not vary greatly in principle 
from the earliest form of steam engine. 

They are non-rotary, and consequently occupy more space than turbines. 

When steam passes from one container or cylinder where it is under High Pressure 
(H.P.) to another where it is submitted to Low Pressure (L.P.), it expands, and 

189 



Ships and the Sea 
its velocity depends upon the difference in size or pressure between the two 

cylinders. 

Consequently, the more the steam can expand the greater tin* power becomes. 
In Compound Engines there are two or more cylinders as above mentioned. 

In Triple EXPANSION, DOWi I 1 in three BtagOS, the strain passing through 

an intermediate cylinder after leaving the ELP. and before Muring the L.P. cylinder. 

in QUADRUPLE Ex passion, power is exerted four times, usually passing through 

two intermediate cylinders before entering the L.P. 

Turbines. In a turbine, steam, instead of being generated in a cylinder, is played 
on to countless blades or \ I to B rotary drum, which is attached to the main 

shaft. 

In other words, in appearance a turbine is a cylinder to the outside of which are 
fixed thousands of blades at right angles or thereabouts, and tho steam playing 
on to these blades causes the cylinder t" rotate. 

As turbines are enclosed by outer casings in a ship's engine-room they are not very 
interesting things to look at, and have not tho fascination of t ho " up-and-down " 
reciprocating engines. 

There are two distinct kinds of turbine, impulse and reaction; in tho first the pres- 
sure is played from the outside on to the blades and in the other the force is from 
within. 

Geared Turbines. To obtain maximum efficiency a turbine should run at high 
speed, but to obtain maximum propeller efficiency much slower speeds are necessary. 

To attain this end without losing any power, reduction gears are placed between 
the turbine and tho ship's screw. 

Turbines can be either single or double reduction geared. 

Turbines have several advantages over the reciprocating engines, among them 
being the following: — 

190 



Engine-Room and Machinery 

Much greater power can be obtained, and for this reason they are in use in all 
high-power vessels, such as giant transatlantic liners and warships. 

There is less vibration, and in consequence of there being fewer working parts, 
they are more economical. 

They occupy much less space in the engine-room, and on account of being placed 
well down in the bottom of the ship they are particularly suitable for war vessels 
as being less likely to be damaged by shell fire. 

As an offset to these advantages, one of the greatest reasons for their not being in 
wider use is owing to the fact that they are not economical when run at slow speeds ; but 
as so many of the cargo liners now find it necessary to steam seventeen to eighteen knots 
in order to keep pace with existing conditions, their adoption is becoming more general. 

Combination of Reciprocating and Turbine Engines. In recent years, owing 
to the increasing need for economy in all directions, many devices have been intro- 
duced with a view to utilising the exhaust steam from ships' engines and putting 
it to further good purpose. Among these are the following: — 

The Bauer- Wach system of an exhaust steam turbine fitted to existing reciprocating 
engines has shown a very considerable saving in fuel, in some cases as much as eighteen 
to twenty -five per cent. 

This system enables the energy in steam exhausted from the low-pressure cylinder 
to be used again for propelling purposes. 

For medium-sized vessels this combination enables a very high economy in fuel 
to be effected with very little increased expenditure over plain reciprocating engines. 

The Caprotti Valve gear enables highly superheated and high -pressure steam to be 
used again, and savings of ten per cent, have frequently been effected. 

Many ships in the service now have oil-fired boilers instead of coal, and some burn 
pulverised coal, either carrying their own crushing plant on board or shipping it 
in the pulverised form. 

191 



Ships and the Sea 
Motor Ships. 

At the present time motor or internal-combustion engines burning heavy oil 
are much adopted, and about one-tenth of the world's merchant tonnage consists of 
motor-driven vessels. 

There are several forms of motor engines, the Diesel being perhaps the best known. 

The principle is practically the same as in a motor car, that is to say, the motive 
power is derived from a succession of minor explosions. 

There is no doubt that in certain trades the motor ship is the more economical, 
and although the initial costs are very much higher than for steam engines of the same 
power, the running costs are much lower, less labour being required and more constant 
speeds maintained. 

Electric Drive. 

A comparatively recent introduction in the British Merchant Navy is the electric - 
driven ship. 

Turbo -Electric. A vessel driven by olectricity which is generated by steam 
turbines or as an intermediate stage to the adoption of complete electric drive the 
exhaust steam is sometimes taken from reciprocating engines to a turbo-generator 
which feeds a motor on the same shaft. 

This supplementary power is particularly useful for astern purposes. 

Diesel-Electric. A vessel driven by electricity generated by Diesel motor 
engines, and usually of less power than the former. 

In the same way that turbines are now used in combination with reciprocating 
engines, as described above, an increasing number of vessels are being fitted with 
exhaust -turbo -electric gear, the most popular being the Metropolitan-Vickers system. 

This secures either an increase in speed for the existing fuel consumption or a lesser 
fuej consumption for the same speed. 

192 



Engine-Room and Machinery 

To sum up, certain types of machinery are undoubtedly more suitable for ships 
engaged on some services than on others, and where it is essential to have the highest 
power, steam turbines are unquestionably the best. 

Similarly, where no great speed is required, the reciprocating engine is the more 
economical. 

More than thirty per cent, of the world's tonnage now uses oil fuel, whether in 
steam boilers or in internal-combustion engines, and one ton of oil generates the 
same horse power as 1*6 tons of coal. 

A great impetus to oil was given after the war, when, owing to frequent strikes in 
the coal industry, the supply of coal was uncertain and the cost high. 

Oil fuel has certain advantages over coal, among them being cleanliness and ease 
of bunkering, consequently allowing quicker turn-rounds and the saving of valuable 
time, and allowing reduced engine-room staffs, and steadier steaming, as the pressure 
is so readily adjusted. 

Against these advantages must be placed the following : — ■ 

Oil is higher priced than coal, and as regards the British Empire the fact that about 
one-third of our merchant ships burn oil in one form or another, as well as all the 
ships of the Royal Navy, and that our mechanised Army and our Royal Air Force 
are likewise dependent upon oil brought from overseas, makes the outlook very dis- 
quieting. 

Great strides have been made in recent years, not only in obtaining oil from British 
coal, but also with systems of burning pulverised coal, and it is hoped that the adop- 
tion of this on a large scale will once more make our ships independent of foreign 
goodwill and replace one of our basic industries on a truly prosperous basis. 

Although coal has given way in so many cases to oil, the improvement in modern 
machinery has effected enormous savings in fuel in cases where coal is still used. 

Either less fuel is required to maintain a certain speed or if the same amount of 

193 



Ships and the Sea 
coal is burned, considerably greater speedfl result. The Bams horse-power can be 

attained to-day with less than one-sixth of the fuel required eighty years ago. 

It is interesting to recall the enormous quantitiss of ooal consumed by the very 
early steamships and by the giant Atlantic linen before they WSCS converted to burn 
oil." 

It is curious that for no apparent reason certain ships become veritablo demons 
in their insatiable demand for fuel and sometimes two sister ships will require 
very differing quantitiss; sometimes ships otherwise efficient and pood have been 
sent to the scrap heap simply because they cannot be run economically. Warships 
which eat fuel are an obvious handicap because they constantly have to put into 
bunkering stations and so have not a Large radius of action, and merchant vessels 
which demand vast stocks of coal are not only uneconomic because they eat their 
owners out of house and home, but because I hey also demand more space for bunkers 
and in consequence then ago carrying or earning capacity. 

In the old days before the introduction of compound engines the fuel consumption 
was vastly greater and wo find that the Scotia, a Cunarder of 1863, ate up 160 tons 
daily as against the Spain, of 1871, a considerably larger ship fitted with compound 
engines and with the same approximate speed, which consumed about 50 tons 
daily. 

The record-breakinL: Mauretania had a coal bunker capacity for 7,000 tons and 
she consumed about S00 tons daily, but this was because of her enormous speed and 
it is speed which eats up the fuel, in fact, the fuel burned varies as the cube of the 
speed attained. 

Horse-Power. One horse-power (H.P.) is the amount of force required to move 
33,000 lb. 1 foot in one minute, or contrarily, the force required to move 1 lb. 33,000 
feet in one minute. 

Brake Horse-Power (B.H.P.). 

194 



Engine-Room and Machinery 

Effective Horse-Power (E.H.P.). Is the actual amount of power consumed in 
the propulsion of the vessel, sometimes referred to as Tow-Rope Horse-Power, as it is 
equal to the amount of power which would be transmitted through a tow rope; 
in order to overcome the loss of power caused by propeller friction, working of 
auxiliaries off main engines, etc., a much greater power than E.H.P. must be generated 
by the engines, and this is known as — 

Indicated Horse-Power (I.H.P.)., this being the actual amount of power gener- 
ated by the engines as shown on the indicator. For purposes of rough calculation, 
the E.H.P. may be said to vary between fifty and sixty per cent, of the I.H.P. 

Nominal Horse-Power (N.H.P.). This is the power shown in the ships' register, 
but it is of no great value in showing the actual power, as it is usually only about 
one-sixth of the I.H.P. or full power of a ship. 

Shaft Horse-Power (S.H.P.). 

The increase of horse-power needed to raise the speed very slightly beyond a 
certain figure is staggering and the British County class cruisers provide a good 
example; the later ships of the class were given 10,000 additional Shaft Horse-Power 
in order to increase the speed by half a knot, up to thirty-two, and to increase speed 
of a large ship from twenty-eight to thirty knots (i.e. seven per cent.), an increase in 
power of twenty-one per cent, is needed. 

His Majesty's battle -cruiser Hood, the largest warship in the world, consumes at 
her full speed of thirty-one knots, over 1,400 tons of oil daily to drive geared -turbines 
of 144,000 Shaft Horse-Power. 

The French liner Normandie has a horse-power of 160,000 and this will probably 
be exceeded by the Cunard-White Star Queen Mary. Compare this to the 425 horse- 
power of the first Cunarder in 1840. 

The object of all this complicated and massive machinery is naturally to turn a 
propeller shaft which in its turn rotates a screw and so drives the ship through the 

195 



Ships and the Sea 
water, but the thrust of the arrow if left unchecked would have the effect of pushing 
the engines out of the ship, and when the engines were going astern the effect would 
be to drag the entire machinery out of the ship, and so a thing known as a thrust 
block is inserted to transfer this propeller thrust from the engines which are attached 
to the shaft, to the hull. 

The end of the propeller shaft attached to the screw is called the tail shaft, and 
where this leaves the hull of the ship and enters the sea, is a kind of washer termed a 
stuffing box which prevents the entry of any water into the tunnel. A broken tail 
shaft has frequently proved the undoing of ships and is a very serious matter because 
free access is accorded to the hull itself for the inflow of water; the falling off of a 
screw itself is not a dangerous matter if a vessel is not dependent upon one alone, 
and one well-known ship used to have a habit of leaving her screws dotted about in 
various harbours of the world. 

Everyone should make an opportunity of paying a visit to the engine-room of a 
ship although no one other than an engineer will come away the slightest bit wiser 
than before he went in. Your brain will either be in a whirl, staggered by all the 
weird and wonderful outfit of the underworld, or else you will be awed by the almost 
cathedral-like immensity, calm and cleanliness of it all, but of one thing you can be 
certain and that is that as you return up the steel ladder or are ushered into the 
elevator that brings you back to civilization, you will hold a very much deeper respect 
for the engineering staff than you ever held before. 

Try and pay your visit in heavy weather when the steel floor heaves beneath 
you and you find yourself in imminent danger of being dashed against some strange 
and unfamiliar shape and imagine what it is like in the engine and boiler rooms of 
countless small craft fighting their way through the same seas that cause your ship 
to roll a bit ; picture a destroyer pitching, plunging and reeling in turns, screw in, 
screw out. 

196 



Engine-Room and Machinery 

You are probably feeling far from well up top -sides, what do you think it feels 
like down below? 

Number of Vessels in World's Merchant Fleets Using Various Types o# 

Machinery. 

Reciprocating Engines (and combination of turbine and reciprocating), 22,000 
vessels. 

Turbines (and turbo -electric), 1,300 vessels. 

Motor ships (and diesel-electric), 3,900 vessels. 

Steamers burning oil fuel, 3,900 vessels. 

In addition to the main engines the engineering department is responsible for the 
power supply to all the auxiliary machinery for working cargo booms, supplying bath 
water and electricity for cooking purposes and lighting. 

The donkey-boiler does a great deal of this work and speaking of boilers reminds 
me that I have forgotten to mention that there are two kinds of boilers in use in ships 
at the present time, the fire-tube and the water-tube, and the latter is in more general 
use, especially in high-powered ships. 

In the fire-tube or Scotch boiler, the fire is led in small tubes through a boiler filled 
with water, whilst in the water- tube boiler, the process is reversed — the water being 
taken in small tubes through a fire. 

The engine-room in a steam merchant ship is divided into three compartments, 
the stokehold or boiler-room, the main engine-room, and the electrical plant. 

In a steamer burning coal the stokers work stripped to the waist, but in one burning 
oil, the engineers wear spotless white uniforms and adjust the heat by turning on 
and turning off taps. 

There are two systems of draught to a boiler-room, induced or natural, and forced, 
the former being in use in most merchant vessels and relying upon the natural draught 

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Ships and the Sea 
through the funnel and this is why certain ships trading to tropical seas have, or used 
to have until modern systems of fans helped things, such lofty Funnels, particularly 
noticeable being the older Bibby and Blur Funnel snipe. 

In forced draught, fans are relied upon altogether and the boiler-room atmosphere 
is kept at a higher pressure than t In* outside air, and has to be eul off from the outside 
by two doors with a space between, thifl forming an air-lock and allowing one door to 
be shut before the other is opened; if both were opened at once then" would bo a 
"blow-back" and burning oil or fire would shooi back from the boilers into the 
boiler-room and destroy all life in its way; this happened in some of our very early 
destroyers. 

When steam has been utilized it passes into a surface condenser which contains 
small tubes; the steam passes through these tubes and is kept cool by a constant flow 
of cold sea-water, passes into a hot -well and from thenoe it begins its circuit all over 
again. 

The sea-water, when it has done its job, is thrust hack into the sea and is called 
the main-discharge, and often shows to effect in photographs of ships like a small 
cataract near the waterline; incidentally this is about the only way in which a tur- 
bine ship can be distinguished from a reciprocating, from outside, because in the 
former, the water comes out in a steady flow whilst in the latter it comes in a series 
of jerks because the pumps which work this discharge are attached to the cross- 
heads of the engines, which go up and down. 

By the starting platform in the engine room is a bewildering mass of gauges, dials and 
clocks, and when the commands come through from the bridge telegraphs they 
are checked back and recorded on a blackboard for ultimate transference to the 
engine-room log. 



198 



CHAPTER XII 

Tonnage 

TN speaking of the tonnage of a ship, confusion often arises unless one keeps in 

mind the class of ship to which reference is being made and unless one has a clear 
understanding of the various kinds of tonnage in use. 

The word ton or tun is believed to have originated as a measure of a ship's capacity 
from the days when the principal cargo between the Continent and this country was 
wine, which was carried in barrels or tuns; each of these tuns held about 250 gallons 
and occupied a space of approximately forty cubic feet. 

This is borne out by the modern use of a Freight Ton, sometimes used by wine- 
shippers. 

The tonnage of a merchant ship of Tudor times averaged round about 200; some 
fighting ships of the same period reaching as high as 700. 

The Stuart Sovereign of the Seas was of 1,500 tons. 

Victory boasts a little in excess of 2,000 tons and the largest merchant sailing ship 
is round about 3,000 tons gross. 

To-day the largest liners reach about 80,000 gross tons, and Hood, the largest war- 
ship, about 40,000 displacement. 

Confirmation that the word ton is derived from the tun of wine is found in a letter 
still in existence, in which some Spaniard offered to sell to King Henry V of England 
two carrack ships of the tonnage of 1,400 and 1,600 butts respectively. 

By an Act of Parliament passed shortly after this it was enacted that the tun of 
wine was not to measure less than 252 gallons (old English measurement). 

199 



Ships and the Sea 

A cubic foot measures fij gallons and therefore the internal eapaeity of the tun 
of wine was just over forty oubio feet ; add the cask itself and we get about forty-two 
cubic feet. 

Two hundred years later we find that an ordinance of Louis XIV of France fixed 
the ton of shipping as being a capacitj of 42 cubic feet, and thus the freight ton of 
round about 40 cubic feet, still used by wine shippers, had its origin. 

Gross Tonnage is a measure of cubic capacity: 100 cubic feet of permanently 
enclosed space being equal to 1 gross ton, i.e. hull, passenger accommodation, deck- 
houses, etc. 

Merchant Ships are always measured on tJtis basis. 

The United States measurement includes every enclosed space, but the British 
register makes certain exceptions, such as wheel-house, aft steering-house and cook- 
house, and consequently American ships often seem to be larger than British, whereas 
actually they may be smaller. This was particularly the case with the American 
liner Leviathan, which was claimed to be the largest vessel in the world; measured 
on the United States basis she had a tonnage of 59,957 as compared with the British 
Majesties 56,551, but when the Americans were confronted with a financial crisis 
a few years back and they cut expenses to the bone, their ships were re-registered and 
Leviathan now stands at 48,942 tons. 

The gross tonnage of a ship, being the cubic measurement, it naturally varies accord- 
ing to the form and shape of the ship as well as the size, some vessels having fine 
lines and others full, etc., but as a very rough working basis the gross tonnage may 
be estimated by multiplying the length by breadth by half breadth and dividing by 
ninety-four. 

Nett (or Net) Tonnage is the gross tonnage less certain deductions on account 
of non-earning spaces, e.g. crew space, engine-rooms, water-ballast compartments, 
etc. The total earning capacity of a Vessel. Dock, port, and harbour charges are all 

200 



Tonnage 

payable on nett tonnage. Tonnage openings in a ship's side are for the purpose 
of reducing the nett tonnage, as such spaces are then not " permanently 
enclosed." 

A tug has practically no nett tonnage because almost all of her cubic capacity 
is taken up by her powerful engines and boiler spaces. 

Deadweight Tonnage. — The actual weight in tons of cargo, fuel, and ballast 
that a ship carries when down to her load-line. Such tonnage varies according to 
season, e.g. Tropical Deadweight of a vessel, 8,800 tons; Summer Deadweight, 8,600 
tons; Winter Deadweight, 8,300 tons. 

It is interesting to note the proportions of deadweight to 100 tons gross in various 
classes of ships : — 

Liners (16^ knots and above), ratio is 55 tons deadweight. 

Intermediate Liners (above 14 and under 16J knots), 100-5 tons deadweight. 

Cargo Liners (12-14 knots), 138-7 tons deadweight. 

Cargo Ships (under 12 knots), 165 tons deadweight. 

Actually, then, deadweight decreases as speed increases and increases as speed 
decreases. 

Displacement Tonnage. — The actual weight in tons of the ship. 

Light Displacement. — Without cargo and fuel. 

Load Displacement. — With full cargo and full bunkers. 

Termed displacement, as a ship or any body displaces, or pushes aside, its own 
weight of water. 

All warships are measured on this basis. 

Calculated by dividing the underwater volume of a vessel by thirty-five, there 
being thirty -five cubic feet of sea-water to one ton weight. 

Under-deck Tonnage. — Gross tonnage below the main or tonnage deck (second 
deck from bottom in other than single -decked vessels). 

201 



Ships and the Sea 

Registered Tonnage. — The same as " Nett Tonnage," unless specially stated. 

Freight Tonnage. — Sometimes used by merchants or shippers among themselves 
when chartering steamers; 1 freight ton equals 40 cubic feet of cargo space. 

Panama Canal Tonnage. — Special measurements on which charges are made for 
vessels proceeding through the ('anal; varies considerably from that for other pur- 
poses; thus, a vessel of 4,600 gross tons and 2,800 nett, would bo calculated as being 
of 6,200 tons gross and 4,600 nett for Panama purposes. 

Siez Canal Tonnage. — Very similar to " Panama Canal Tonnage." 

Thames or Yacht measurement is used for measuring yachts, and is rather com- 
plicated: it is found by the following formula: — 

From the length measured from fore side of stem to after side of sternpost on deck, 
subtract the breadth: multiply this result by the breadth and the result so obtained 
by the half-breadth and finally divide by ninety-four. 



202 



CHAPTER XIII 

Ship's Papers 

/^)NE often hears the phrase " Ship's Papers," and these are the important things 
which it is the duty of the Master of a ship to safeguard at all costs and to preserve 
if at all possible in the event of his ship meeting with disaster. An examination officer 
asks first of all for the ship's papers, and, if deemed desirable, confiscates them. 
They include the following documents: — 

Certificate of Registry, which is allotted to the ship after the completion of 
building, giving name, registered tonnage and other official details. 

Seamen's Contract or Articles, which is the official contract between the owner or 
the ship -master and his seamen, setting out the conditions and obligations of service. 

Charter Party. — If a ship is hired or chartered by anyone from the owner 
the latter grants to the charterer the right of using whole or part of his vessel 
for a specified voyage or period. 

Bills of Lading. — The Master's receipt to the shipper of goods undertaking to 
deliver up the said goods on payment of freight, to the person or place named on 
the bill. 

Manifest. — Full details of all the cargo carried, and its destination. 

Log Book. — Official record of the ship and her career, giving all things affecting 
the ship herself, such as change of course, change of speed, weather conditions, 
performance of vessel and so on. 

Bill of Health. — Is a certificate given to the Master by an official at her ports 
of departure or ports of call signifying the state of health of the population of 

203 



Ships and the Sea 
the town at the time; a Clean Bill indioatee that no infection was raging; a 
Suspected or Touched Bill, that there was possibility of an infection, and a Foul 
Bill, that the place was infected. 

These constitute the Ship's Papers so called, but there are innumerable other papers 
of varying degrees of importance which have to be completed. 

When a ship arrives off a port she is visited by Medical Officers of the port who 
examine her Bill of Health, and if clean, if there is no infection on board, they grant 
her Pratique, or permission to proceed in. If doubtful, or a foul bill, the vessel is put 
in Quarantine or has to remain outside the harbour or port until all danger of infection 
is considered over. 

Customs Officers come aboard and if all dues have been paid on dutiable goods 
and no smuggled goods are found they grant a certificate called a Ship's Clearance 
Inwards or Ship's Clearance Outwards, as the case may be. 

In times of war the Master of a ship belonging to a neutral country is given, by the 
State, a document called a Ship's Passport, which is an official paper clearly setting 
out the vessel's nationality, ownership, trade, cargo, etc. 

At every port visited, a tremendous amount of paper work has to be presented; 
lists of all passengers have to be prepared, showing who is landing, the full names, 
ages, descriptions, occupation, names of parents, number of passport, nationality 
of everyone on board ; whether the ship carries any anarchist or evilly disposed person 
whose mission in life is to place a bomb in the bed of the head of the State and so on; 
these are required by the Landing Officials. 

Similar details have to be prepared for every member of the crew, giving his official 
number on the ship's book, his rating and length of time that he has served in that ship 
or in any other ship. 

In addition to these lists all passports have to be collected for presentation to the 
Immigration Authorities. 

204 

t 



CHAPTER XIV 

Stores in an Atlantic Liner 

'"T'HE tremendous task of feeding passengers and keeping them satisfied, during a 
voyage is staggering, as many of them are on the look out for complaints. Figures 
for a giant Western Ocean ship are given because such ships are usually believed to 
be the most luxurious, but the stores required for an Eastern-bound ship, which 
probably takes six weeks instead of six days on a voyage, demand even more 
forethought. 

In a ship like Aquitania the non-consumable stores themselves are vast; for instance 
there are about 100,000 pieces of earthenware, china and glass, 26,000 pieces of silver, 
and 100,000 pieces of linen, all of which have to be checked up and breakages replaced 
after every voyage. 

Many passengers apparently imagine that their passage money entitles them to 
walk off with silver spoons or linen towels as souvenirs of the trip. 

Every piece of linen has to be landed and washed between voyages, or, if the 
turn round is a very quick one, fresh supplies have to be taken in. 

All milk and cream served in the ship is fresh and there are over 18,000 feet of 
refrigerated or cooling chambers. 

Perhaps as many as 9,000 meals have to be served every day, and some of them run 
to half a dozen or more courses each. 

Only a few of the stores can be given here, as a complete list would occupy too 

205 



Ships and the Sea 
much space and would be boring to any hut a caterer or to a person \\ bo lias ambitions 
of entering that trade. 

Tho necessaries alone, cutting out practically all the trimmings and luxuries, 
would be something like this: — 

25 calves, 75 oxen, 146 lambs, 20 pigs, 110 sheep, 10,000 oysters, 1,200 lobsters, 
4 turtles, 3,000 chickens, f>00 ducklings, 280 turkeys, 450 brace of grouse, 
450 brace of partridge, 460 brace <>(' pheasant, 1,200 pigeons, 1,000 quails, 
1,800 tins of sardines, 200 boxes <-! apples, 200 boxes of oranges, 000 melons, 
60 boxes of peaches, 300 bottles of sauce, Too tins of biscuits, 25 tons of potatoes, 
1,700 quarts of cream, 2,000 gallons of milk, 1,800 pounds of sausages, 15,000 
pounds of iish, and 60, i 

All this for about five days. 

Queen Mary requires: — 

20 tons meat, 20 tons fish, 70,000 eggs, 4.000 lbs. tea and coffee, 10,000 lbs. 
sugar, 30 tons potatoes, 4,000 gallons milk. 40,000 lbs. vegetables, 3 tons butter, 
2,000 lbs. cheese, 600 crates apples and oranges, 4,000 chickens and ducklings, 
10,000 bottles wine, 40,000 bottles beer and 60,000 bottles minerals. 



206 



CHAPTER XV 

Classes of Ships 

Liners. 

'THE term Liner originally meant a ship which was employed upon a regular 

route or line as distinct from the " Tramp " which went all over the world and 
picked up a cargo wherever there was one to be had; to-day many ships are taken 
off their regular routes in order to go on pleasure cruises and some large ships are 
regularly employed on cruises and nothing else, but they can scarcely be classed 
as other than liners. The word has lost something of its original meaning and applies 
to any luxurious or large passenger carrier. 

The passenger or mail liner is usually of considerable size and speed and can 
be easily recognised by her large number of passenger decks rising above the upper 
deck. 

More and more of these passenger promenade decks are being enclosed by glass 
windows and the superstructure is generally very much heavier in appearance than 
was formerly the case. 

The giant express liners of the Western Ocean are in a class entirely by them- 
selves, both on account of their high speed and the extreme luxury of their internal 
decorations. 

The term liner is usually taken to refer to vessels having a service speed in excess 
of sixteen and a half knots. 

207 



Ships and the Sea 
Intermediate Liners. 

The greatest proportion of tho passenger traffic of the world is carried on by 
intermediate liners, that is to say by ships which do not go much above 20,000 tons 
and which are less speedy than the larger type. Such ships are usually very much 
more comfortable and they often combine passenger carrying with large cargo 
capacity. The liners on the New Zealand service have very large refrigerated space, 
and a cargo deadweight of 13,000 tons is by no means uncommon in these inter- 
mediates. Japan has concentrated very largely on this class of ship and a Japanese 
liner of round about 10,000 tons gross compares very favourably in comfort and 
service to the largest of the fast liner group. 

Cargo Liners. 

The cargo liner is encroaching more and more on the spheres of the general trader 
or tramp ship ; generally speaking, a cargo ship may be distinguished from a passenger 
liner by the absence of decks above the upper deck and by her thicker masts and 
larger number of heavy cargo derricks and derrick posts. 

The modern cargo liner may have a speed of fourteen knots or even more, and 
she very often carries passengers in considerable comfort, but no cargo ship may 
carry more than twelve without a special licence and then she encroaches on the 
intermediate liner. 

Some of the best cargo liners have accommodation for their officers and crew 
all amidships, above the upper deck, and they often look like passenger ships in 
consequence ; such ships are the Beaver class of the Canadian Pacific and the motor 
ships of Furness Withy. 

Among the cargo liner class are ships entirely built for the carriage of frozen 
or chilled meat, such as the well known ships of the Blue Star Line, which may 
have up to 700,000 cubic feet of insulated or refrigerated space. 

208 



Classes of Ships 

There are many other ships built for specialised trades such as for the carriage 
of newsprint paper rolls or cement. 

Tramps. 

British maritime supremacy was built up almost exclusively by the tramp ship, 
sometimes poetically described as a " sea gipsy," and it is this type which has 
suffered most severely by the great decline in international trade and by the com- 
petition of the cargo liner. 

A tramp is a ship which can be chartered by a merchant in any part of the world 
and which in consequence does not trade on any regularly defined route. Some 
are specialised to the extent that they are especially suitable for the transport of 
grain or coal or some other commodity, but by far the largest proportion used 
to leave British ports with coal and return with whatever they could pick up, but 
in these hard times, with the demand for British coal falling off, they all too often 
leave these shores empty. 

The tramp or general trader remains the backbone of Britain's seaborne traffic 
and it will go hard with us if their number is insufficient to meet our needs in the 
event of future hostilities. 

Drab in appearance and not often exceeding twelve knots, the tramp has a 
difficult future, but modern improvements have produced several types of " Economy" 
ships which should go far to enable us to hold our own. 

Tankers. 

The tanker deserves a special mention, because her place is becoming more and 
more important accordingly as the world becomes more and more dependent upon 
some form of oil for its industries. 

The British Empire is in an awkward position, because with her Royal Navy, 
Royal Air Force and mechanised Army dependent for the most part upon oil, and 
H 209 



Ships and the Sea 
with over one third of her mftrftfwtilfl vessels driven i>y oil engines or burning oil 
in steam boilers, she is particularly dependent upon foreign good- will j very little 
oil is in the British Empire and our principal supplies, from [ran, are in a dangerous 
quarter of tho world. 

In tho old days, oil was carried in barrels and it was thought that steamers were 
far too dangerous to undertake tl, of ofl because of dangers of flro, so it 

was not until 1SSG that the first practical tanker was built; she was the Gluckauf, 
a small vessel of about nine and a half knots speed. 

The modern tanker is easily recognised as her Lie usually right aft and 

she looks very long and sits low in the water when fully loaded, earning the title 
of the " Dachshund of tho seas " in consequence. 

Discipline in a tanker is rigid on account of danger from fire, and the danger- 
ous time is when she has been emptied and her holds still give off inflammable 
vapour. 

They are rigidly constructed, usually on tho Isherwood longitudinal system 
described elsewhere, and special precautions, in addition to bulkheads, are taken 
to prevent any possible leakage of the petroleum into the engine-room or boiler 
spaces, petroleum being capable of leaking through where water cannot. 

Most tankers have accommodation for a few passengers and they are very com- 
fortable. 

The steel decks are encumbered by a large number of hatch covers and in order 
to provide access above deck from one end of the ship to the other very narrow 
" Flying bridges " are provided. 

Cable Ships. 

Another specialist is the cable-laying ship, but in days gone by it used to be the 
opinion that any ship that was large enough could do the work. 

210 



Types of Ships (not to scale) 




1. Tanker. 2. Ocean-going Tug. 3. Paddle Steamer. 4. Grain Elevator. 

5. Floating Crane. 

211 



Ships and the Sea 

The Great Ea s tern performed her only really useful work in Laying cable, but 
Binoe then the type has become more and more specialised. 

In appearance the ships Look like small passenger ships and are usually white- 
painted, but the outstanding vessel and the Largeei in the world La the Dominia, 
belonging to the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company, which may 
often be seen at her moorings near Greenwich pier on London river. 

This splendid vessel has Que lines like a passenger liner, she has one graceful yellow 
funnel and four tall masts and is olose on 10,000 tons in measurement; in common 
with all cable layers she can be distinguished by her sheaves or leads for laying 
out the cable over the bows. 

She has four cable tanks, each aboul fifty feel round and about twenty-seven 
feet high and each is a reservoir for L,000 miles of cable, coiled beneath tho surface 
of the cooling water in the tanks, and from stem to stern she is a museum of scientific 
ingenuity. 

During hostilities all cablo ships rank as warships and are theroforo liable to 
attack without warning. 

In all shallow waters and for all short lengths of cable, it is paid out over the 
bows on the weather side of the layer. 

Sometimes cable weighing more than 10,000 tons is carried in the tanks. 

No less wonderful are the grappling appliances for fishing the cable from the 
ocean bed to repair damages or to remedy defects, and frequently it has to be raised 
from 1,500 fathoms or more. 

The cable must be laid so that it just rests comfortably on the ocean bed; it must 
not be taut so as to cause a strain, but on the other hand it must not hang in large 
festoons between the peaks of mountain ranges beneath the sea. 

A cable -vessel by day, when engaged in repairing or laying telegraph cables and 
when not under command in consequence, exhibits two red circular shapes with 

212 



Classes of Ships 
a white diamond between, arranged vertically. By night, two red and one white 
light take their place, and if the ship is not under way, no side lights are shown. 

Fruit Carriers. 

The fruit -carrying vessel usually has beautiful lines and is almost invariably 
painted very light grey or white. 

She usually has accommodation for a limited number of first-class passengers 
and the fruit is stored in the " tween decks." 

Elders and Fyffes have done much to introduce the banana as a food item in this 
country and each of their vessels carries anything up to 100,000 stems of them at a time. 

Cross-Channel Packets and Coastal Liners. 

The modern passenger-carrying ships round the British coasts are in every respect 
smaller editions of the large ocean liner. 

In appearance they look the same except for their size and internally they are 
very comfortable and well appointed. 

The cross-channel ships have fine lines on account of their high speed and it is 
these fine lines which make them lively in a seaway, particularly as nearly all the 
stretches of water covered by them have the reputation of providing nasty lumpy seas. 

The paddle-steamer remained until quite recently on these cross-channel runs, 
because the paddle wheels undoubtedly made them steadier, and it was not until 
a few years ago that the last pair, run by the Zeeland Steamship Company 
between Flushing and Folkestone, was withdrawn. 

Some weird contraptions were introduced last century, such as double-hulled 
craft, that is to say the superstructures were built across two hulls side by side, 
but they were not very successful and must best be regarded as freakish experiments. 

The first turbine ship on the cross -channel service was the South Eastern and 

213 



Ships and the Sea 
Chatham Railway Company*! The Queen early in this century, and thenceforth, 
developments were rapid. 

Still among the packet class, but more approximating in build to the coasting 
ship, is the slower type exemplified by the three motor vesflelfl of the Belfast Steamship 
Company. 

Pleasure Craft. 

A class of ship easily recognised, is the coastal pleasure or excursion steamer, 
because she is usually a " paddlei " and she is always of light looking build with 
line graceful lines, more often than not with one mast only. 

The paddle-steamer ifl very fascinating to watch, she is easy to handle, is steadier 
because of the extra width provided by the paddle boxes and she is of very shallow 
draught; fortunately there is no indication that her sphere of usefulness is at an 
end, in fact modern developments have been incorporated into the design of recent 
ships of this type, such as the diesel-electric drive- 
Curiously enough, how ever, a series of paddle ships built during the last few years 
has been designed so that broadside on, except for the churned-up water amidships, 
they would look like ordinary screw ships and this seems a pity. 

The idea that excursion paddlers are only lightly constructed and unable to 
stand up to heavy weather is quite a mistaken one and it was Lord Jellicoe who 
proved their inestimable worth by taking most of them over for mine-sweeping 
and patrol work during the Great War. Their shallow draught enabled them to 
cross most mine -fields in safety and when, later on in the war, it was necessary to 
build minesweepers, they were largely of the paddle type. 

On the Clyde, the turbine-driven excursion steamer is a very fine type and it 
was from experience gained by an early Clyde ship that The Queen, mentioned 
above, was evolved for cross-channel work. 

214 



Classes of Ships 
Train Ferries and Motor Car Ferries. 

Train-ferries can easily be recognised because they almost invariably have very 
thin flat-sided funnels, set side by side but widely spaced, one on either beam. 

They have open sterns which may possibly be closed by doors, and railway tracks 
running the entire length of the vessel. 

The principal advantage of the train-ferry is that the time and labour of loading 
and unloading cargo or passengers is saved, because the vessel just backs against 
a specially constructed stage at the terminal point, so that the rails on the deck of 
the ship fit with the rails on the quay, and the train is run in. 

They are particularly of value for short crossings and show to best advantage 
in smooth water because their unusual construction makes them most uncomfortable 
in other circumstances. 

We had not favoured them much in this country until the war, when three train- 
ferries were constructed especially to run from the war-time port of Richborough, 
near Sandwich, across to the other side of the channel; these steamers are to-day 
run by the London and North Eastern Railway between Harwich and Zeebrugge. 

Shortly there will be another train-ferry service in operation, that between Dover 
and Dunkirk, and special docks have been constructed at Dover to facilitate the 
handling of these craft ; difficulties have been encountered owing to the great difference 
in height between high and low water and to unexpected engineering hitches. 

These Dover ferries will have large garage accommodation for passengers' cars 
in addition to the trains. 

There are one or two cross-channel vessels designed and run purely as motor-car 
ferries and the cars run straight on in the same way as the trains do in the larger 
train-ferries. 

The weather to which all the cross-channel craft are subjected is heavy, especially 
in winter months, and the strain on ship and navigators is tremendous; the ship 

215 



Ships and the Sea 

has to be One-lined for speed end j bo face haei y eeee end much 

buffeting in getting into pons in ell day end night in all snneons the 

routes are maintained end the strain on the oxew of continually cutting right across 
the Bhippii Traveller- implain <>t" the diaoomforte of 

unci journey; lei them think a bit of the man s U weathers and 

who just carry on. OX let then it D the Admiralty Pie* at Mover, under cover 

at the Bhor e w ar d end with the seas breaking right over the roof, and let them wetoh 

a cross-channel paoket fighting h- r waj in OX out of the harbour; pexhapf they will 
live to marvel and to complain less. 

Tugs and Salvage Craft. 

Some of t ho i, Hid ubiquitous craft of all are tugs; they exe pictuxeaque 

and thexe oan be few people who have not seen some form ox another <>f tug- 
boat. 

The ihipf and BOme Ol those on the lower 

reachee of British riv- rs axe by no on at -mall. 
The Dut(di have always specialised In powerful tugs Fox deep-sea towing, and 

have many famous Mioir credit, suoh as pulling large floating docks half 

across the world. 

They always give the impxi E i. an effect enhanced by the fact 

that most of them have their funnels and bridge pushed forward, and they more 

often than not have a characteristic stern, in which the bulwarks aft have a very- 
strong "tumble home," a characteristic originating from the river tugs employed 
on lighterage work to enable the lighters to push their sloping stems right up over 
the tug's stern and so keep station without difficulty. 

The power of a modern tug is very great and the amount of Space occupied by 
their engines can be judged by the very slight difference between the gross tonnage 

216 



Classes of Ships 

or total cubic capacity of the ship, and the net tonnage, or what is left after deducting 
engine and boiler spaces. 

Towing is an extremely difficult business and the skippers of tugs are some of 
the finest seamen afloat; to watch a river tug being handled, spinning round on 
her own length, or towing lighters lashed abreast, is an education in itself. 

In the days of sail, London tugs often went as far afield as Dungeness and even 
well beyond the Scillies in order to wait for an incoming ship. 

To watch tugs assisting a giant Western Ocean liner into her berth is another 
interesting sight and on the other side of the Atlantic they push with their noses 
against the liner's side. 

At night, a vessel towing, exhibits, in addition to her sidelights, two white lights 
on her foremast not less than six feet apart and if the length of the tow is more than 
600 feet, a third white light above or below the others. 

Many tugs are also fitted with salvage appliances, such as powerful pumps and 
oxy- acetylene gear, and again there are craft specially designed as salvage ships 
and which, although as capable of handling heavy tows as the ordinary tug, do 
not undertake ordinary towage duties except in conjunction with salvage operations. 

There are some very powerful German ships of this class and some very fine work 
they have done. 

Most of these salvage craft are based on regular ports, such as at Queenstown, 
Gibraltar, Aden, and so on. 

Some of the most powerful tugs round the British coasts are the Dover Harbour 
twin -funnelled vessels, and the Lady Brassey is well known for her services up and 
down the channel. 

On long tows the hawser usually consists of part wire and part hemp, the wire 
length is easier to pay out or shorten as necessary and is much easier to slip in an 
emergency, while the hemp allows the necessary elasticity and prevents anything 

217 



Ships and the Sea 
carrying away; the wire will probably bo about four and a half inches in girth and 
tho hemp tw el ve inches, the two oombined giving a length of Anything up to 150 

fathoms. 

To deoide upon the length of the tow-rope ii a mat tor demanding much experience 
and good judgment, but m a genera] role, the more sea-room that there is, the 
longer tho tow, and, oertamly in bad weathsr a she Longer the tow the groator the 
safety. 

Xugfl also sometimes serve as tend n to disembark passengen from ships which 
lie out in open roadsteads, but they natorally have to be certified for this purpose. 

Tho histories of many of our tug-owning companies make extremely interesting 

reading and many have mots well into tho past ; Turner's picture of tho Fightituj 
Tcmeraire has immortalised ono of the bugl of William W'atkins, which is shown 

pulling the old ship to her last reetinj;-pl* 

It does not require much stretch of tho imagination to realise the difficulties of 
effecting a satisfactory tow even in calm waters, especially of such a thing as a 
giant floating dock which is quito powerless to help herself and which cannot be 
steered, or of a ship whose engines are not functioning, but in heavy weather the 
difficulties and dangers are tremendous. In the first place getting a hawser across 
to the other vessel is a difficult operation, but when tho two vessels are plunging 
wildly in seas running mountains high, the difficulties are increased and once having 
passed a hawser the next thing is to wait for it to part and to wonder how long it 
is going to be before the whole business has to be done all over again. The tow is 
one minute riding high above the stern of the tug, threatening to plunge down and 
crush it, and the very next minute it may be entirely lost to view, hidden by a 
wave crest or dipping in the heavy swell. 

Akin to the salvage tug are the vessels employed by Trinity House or Harbour 
Commissioners for raising and lowering buoys, removing wrecks and visiting light - 

218 



Classes of Ships 




Hopper Bucket Dredger. 



vessels, towing them home for repairs, if necessary, and generally supervising all 
beacons and coastal marks. 

Dredgers. 

How anyone can work up an affection for a dredger is beyond most men's compre- 
hension and yet the crew of these extraordinary craft profess to do so, but perhaps 
it is perverted; on the other hand, ugly and dirty as they are externally, they are 
certainly most wonderful creations. 

Nearly all ports have dredgers and with the increasing draught of modern ships 
their duties are increasing; channels have to be maintained at a given depth and 
in a port such as London, which stretches for forty miles or more, the work is 
unceasing. 

The class includes a very large number of types, differing according to the work 
upon which they are engaged. Some are towed to their station by tugs and others 
are self-propelled, 

219 



Ships and the Sea 

The chief typo in use in British ports is tho bucket dredger, which has a largo number 
of buckets attached to an endless chain working on a ladder which can bo raised 
or lowered as required. 

Having scooped up tho mud from tho bottom, tho buckets tip t heir spoils out as 
they go over tho top of the wheel to which the chain is attached, and this either 
goes into the dredger's hold or more often nowadays down chutes into barges 
alongside. 

A bucket dredger such as is in use in the Thames Estuary dredges about 2,000 tons 
of spoil hourly. 

To hear ono at work is to gain an impression of a soul in torment; the noise is 
unearthly, not necessarily because of its volume bul becauso of its weird, wheezing 
coughing and squeaking which is like nothing heard elsewhere; people have often 
been kept awake at night in seaside hotels under tho impression that the place was 
Daunted, and no wonder. 

The type which carries her own spoil is called a hopper dredger and when she gets 
to a place sufficiently far out at sea, the bottom is opened, the spoil dumped and 
the water pressure immediately closes the traps in the bottom again, and this is 
where the skill in design and construction comes in, because it is a tremendous strain 
on the dredger to be suddenly relieved of several thousand tons w r eight of sand 
or rock. 

If barges convey the stuff to sea instead of the dredger they are called hopper 
barges and these similarly may be either self-propelled or dependent on tugs for their 
movement. 

Sometimes the bed of the river or channel may be of rock and the dredger has 
a large grab or crane which picks up a large chunk at a time and deposits it in a 
place of safety, or the buckets may have large teeth which serve the same purpose. 

Others are suction dredgers, such as those well known on the Mersey, and one 

220 



Classes of Ships 

owned by the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board is nearly 500 feet in length and 
she can handle 10,000 tons of sand in fifty minutes. 

As its name implies, the suction dredger sucks up the liquid mud through pipes, 
perhaps over three feet in diameter and the pumps of the above mentioned vessel are 
effective up to depths of 70 feet. 

British built dredgers are about the finest obtainable and they are found all over 
the world. 

Others again are used for making canals and they usually have long overhanging 
bows so that they can be moored close up to the bank which they proceed to eat 
away. 

In the daytime a dredger at work hoists two black balls and a red flag in the form 
of a triangle, the flag indicating the side on which it is dangerous for other vessels 
to pass ; at night two white and one red lights take their place, and if it is safe to 
pass on either side, three white lights are used. 

Harbour Craft. 

Other floating wonders likely to be met with in a port are Grain Elevators 
and Goal Elevators, which are sometimes self-propelled and which do away with 
the necessity of ships having to wait for a berth ; the former suck the grain out of 
the ship's hold by long pipes and the latter bunker a steamer from barges to lighters 
alongside, and the speed with which they work is astounding. 

Such methods save all the time of warping in and out of dock or they are frequently 
in use in very congested waterways when there is no vacant space alongside the quay. 

Floating cranes, again either self-propelling or otherwise, are interesting and 
frequent sights in large ports. 

In busy waterways ferries are continuously in operation and they usually have 
rudders at both bow and stern to facilitate manoeuvring; the Mersey ferries are 

221 



Ships and the Sea 
very tine craft capable of accommodating about 2,000 people each. The Woolwich 
Free Ferry is conducted by quaint-looking paddle craft with a very tall, thin, bell- 
topped funnel at either end: carts and oara are carried on the upper deck and 
passengers below. 

In all weathers, fine and foul, these services are carried on, and very rarely indeed 
does fog interrupt them, and the work must be trying and exacting. 

A thousand and one other craft of all shapes and sizes could be mentioned, foreign 
as well as British, but probably those most likely to be met with have been described. 



222 



CHAPTER XVI 

Sailing Ships 

TT is doubtful whether many voyagers will ever set eyes on some of the types of large 

sailing ships mentioned here, because there are very few of them left. 

It is only in recent years, when the sailing ship has become practically extinct, 
that people have become interested in them and no doubt more nonsense has been 
written about them than about anything else. Like all things in this world, ships 
and conditions varied; some were floating hells and some were happy ships; some 
of the officers and men were hard cases and others were ordinary human beings, 
but there is no doubt that of a necessity the life was hard and conditions often almost 
unendurable. 

There can be no two opinions regarding the outward beauty of the sailing clippers, 
but then these were only in existence during the swan-song of sail — the famous 
Cutty Sark herself was built in 1869, almost thirty years after the introduction of 
serious steam competition. 

Cutting out the fast clipper ships, there is undoubtedly a beauty about a sailer 
that can never be attained by her modern counterpart. 

The first sail of which there is any record is the square sail and the Norsemen's long 
boats had a single square sail only, and as time went on more masts were added 
to ships, but on all of them were placed various sizes of square sail and the fore- 
and-aft rig was not introduced until 1700, although similar sails were in use in 
Mediterranean galleys at least 100 years earlier. 

223 



Ships and the Sea 

Square-rigged means that the sails are set upon yards which are at right angles to 
the keel, or athwartships, and fore-and-aft rigged, that they lie along the centre line. 

The old East Indiamen were lumbering and stately craft with whom time was 
little or no object, and it was not until speed became an asset, such as for those 
privateers or smugglers who cut into the legitimate trading business or later when 
the gold rushes started, that lines became finer and the speedy clipper made her 
appearance. The China silk trade and the tea trade depended for their profits upon 
quick arrivals in the markets and so the fast sailer was brought to perfection, but 
the opening of the Suez Canal hastened her disappearance already foreshadowed 
by the steamer. 

When owners of sailing ships had to economise in every way in order to hold 
their own against the steamer, the fore-and-aft rig came more and more to the front, 
because square sails required a very large crew for handling whereas the fore-and-aft 
did not, and taking it right up to modern times this practice increased with the 
introduction of steam winches for the handling of sails. 

Before going into details about the rigs it is interesting that the full-rigged ship 
did not come into existence until comparatively recently; before that time the 
vessels were rigged almost like the modern barque but it was found that for convoy 
purposes, and for warships which had to keep station, a check was needed on the 
mizzen mast and so at first a small topsail was added and gradually this became 
larger until the cross- jack was placed below about three square sails. 

The large ships until about the eighteenth century carried three very large square 
sails on each mast, and the Trafalgar ships carried very much the same, but it was 
gradually realised that these gigantic spreads of canvas were unwieldy and so they 
were divided. 

The masts of large sailing ships are in three pieces ; the lower mast, above which 
is the topmast, and above this again, the topgallant. 

224 




P et ham Jo * es 



"TORRENS" 

Composite ship, built 1875 by J. Laing, of Sunderland, for a syndicate headed by Captain 
Henry Robert Angel. Dimensions, 222-1 by 3S1 by 21 -5 feet. Gross tonnage, 1,335. Nett 
tonnage, 1,276. 

Built in what was perhaps the finest period of the Australian passenger trade under sail, 
the Torrens is always put down as a ship with a remarkable personality and is remembered, 
among other things, for having had the honour of numbering Joseph Conrad, the author, 
among her officers. Another feature is the extraordinary connection between her and the 
Angel family as owners, masters, officers and apprentices ; the ribald would describe her as 
"the Ship of the Angel Host*'. 




-ARCHIBALD RUSSELL" 

Steel, four-masted barque, built 1905 by Scott's Shipbuilding <fr Engineering Co., of Greenock 
for J. Hardie and Co., of <ila«gow. Dimensions, 291 4 by 43 2 by 24 1 feet depth of hold. 
Gross tonnage 2,385. Nett tonnage, 2,1>1. 

By the time the Archibald Rutsell was built in 1905, the pressure of steam competition 
had forced the sailing ship to consider economy in every direction, particularly in the number 
of hands employed. The divided and comparatively low sail plan, the buntlines to lessen 
the work on the yard?, the triangular spanker and the comparatively short combined bowsprit 
and jlbboom were all designed with economical manning in view. 




"PIAKO 



Iron ship, built 1876 by A. Stephens & Sons, of Glasgow, for the New Zealand Shipping 
Company, of London. Dimensions, 215 -3 by 34 bv 20 -5 feet depth of hold. Gross tonnage, 
1,136. Nett tonnage. 1,075. 

The New Zealandefs took just as great a pride in their sailing ships as did the Australians, 
but whereas the Australian ships were nearly all of individual design, although often enough 
of the same general type, the New Zealanders built very much more in classes of sisters although, 
as was usual in sail, it was very difficult to design an exact sister and they varied greatly in 
performance. The Piako was typical of the New Zealand Shipping Co.'s sailing ships before 
they finally turned to steam and she was originally designed to carry a fair number of pas- 
sengers, while her spars were unusually heavy for her day, although on the New Zealand trade 
weight and strength were often badly needed. 




*LOCH TORRfDON 



Iron four-masted ship, built 1881 by Barclay Carle and Co., of Glasgow, for Alkten <fc Lllbura, 
managing the General Shipping Company, of Glasgow. Dimensions, 287 4 by 42-6 by 24 feet 
depth of hold. Gross tonnage, 2,081. Nett tonnage, 2,000. 

Carrying emigrants to Australia at a time when the greater part of that trade had been 
transferred to steam, ships of the Loch Line like the IakH Torridon paid a great deal df atten- 
tion to their appearance ; smart aloft, their riulls were painted grey below the line of Imitation 
gunporta and olack above it, while white forecastle-head and half-round poop completed the 
scheme. The round perforations in the clews of the sails will be noticed, while the spencer 
gaff on her mizen was most unusual for a ship as modern as she was. 



zltes 



"tweetj" 

Biiilt originally as a paddle frigate at Bombay, in 1854, for the East India Company's navy. 
Converted into a wooden merchant ship of dimensions 250 by 39 -6 by 24 -7 feet depth of hold. 
Gross tonnage, 1,751. Nett tonnage, 1,646. 

The famous John Willis clipper, The Tweed, bore signs of her naval origin to the end of her 
days although later this impression was lessened by the fitting of double topgallant sails. 
According to sailor's tradition her lines were copied in the Cutty Sark, but the most careful 
examination failed to show any great similarity between the two. 




" YAl.I.ARnl" 

Iron ship, built 1685 by \. Hall A Co., of Aberdeen, for A. Nicol A Co., of Aberdeen. Dimen- 
sions, 245 8 by 88*1 by 22 feet depth of hold. Gross tonnage, 1,565. Nett tonnage 1,499. 

The 'eighties were a period of experiment with sail and various ideas were tried for improving 
the efficiency of the ship or occasionally, one suspects, from a desire to be different. The 
Yallaroi was actually a three-skysail-yard ship, but the topgallants had so little hoist that 
she was very often put down as a double-topgallant-sail ship and her peculiar rig was the 
subject of infinite argument among sailing ship men. 




,, GARTHPOOL M 

Steel, four-masted barque, built 1891 by W. B. Thompson & Co., of Dundee, for Charles 
Barrie, of Dundee. Dimensions, 310 by 45 by 25 1 feet depth of hold. Gross tonnage, 
2,842. Nett tonnage, 2,652. 

Like many other slrips built during the revival of sailing ship construction in the early 
'nineties the Oarthpool designed to carry the biggest possible cargo of Indian jute, was given 
the Jubilee rig, introduced in 1887, the year of Queen Victoria's Jubilee. Called "bald- 
headed" by the sailor, Jubilee ships had a very square rig and carried nothing above the top- 
gallant sails, a measure adopted purely in order to reduce the necessary crew. 




"CUTTY SAKK" 

Composite ship, built 1S69 by Scott & LintoD, of Dumbarton, for John Willis & Son, of 
London, Dimensions, 212-5 by 36 by 21 feet depth of hold. Gross tonnage, 963. Nett 
tonnage, 921. 

Terhaps the best known of all the clippers to the general public, the Cutty Sark is still to be 
seen and studied at Falmouth. With a particularly graceful bow, her entrance was more 
like that of a modern liner than an old-time sailing ship. As she has been restored in Fal- 
mouth she carries her old tea-clipper rig with a main skysail ; as shown in the illustration she 
carries the modified rig which she was given when sne went into the Australian trade. 




"INVERCATJLD" 

Steel, three-masted barque, built 1891 by A. McMillan and Son, of Dumbarton, for George 
Milne <fe Co., of Aberdeen. Dimensions, 237-5 by 36-2 by 21 7 feet depth of hold. Gross 
tonnage, 1,416. Nett tonnage, 1,303. 

Typical of the steel barques, built on the Clyde in considerable numbers in the early 'nineties, 
the Inrercauli had the characteristics of a number of other ships of the same ownership in 
that she carried single topgallant sails at a peiiod when the double was almost universal. 
The short poop and forecastle was much more characteristic in modern practice. 




"MONKBARNS" 

Steel ship, built 1895 by A. McMillan & Son, of Dumbarton, for Charles W. Corsar, of Liver- 
pool Dimensions, 267 by 40 1 by 23-6 feet depth of hold. Gross tonnage, 1,911. Nett 
tonnage, 1,771. 

A typically modern sailing vessol designed for the tramping trade, and to carry cargo rather 
than to make passages, the Monkharns was no beauty in the eyes of the old sailorman who was 
brought up to appreciate the clipper's grace, yet by means of every labour-saving device for 
working the cargo and sails she contrived to make a living in spite of the competition of steam. 
Like all Corsar's ships she had a flying horse as a figurehead which, appropriate enough in his 
Pega*u$, was a little incongruous in some of the others. 




p^ 



"NORTH STAR" 

Steel, four-masted barque, built 1892 by Grangemouth Dockyard Co., of Alloa, for A. Bil- 
brough & Co., of London. Dimensions, 316-8 by 43-2 by 24-5 feet depth of hold. Gross 
tonnage, 2,761. Nett tonnage. 2,627. 

Built at a time when most British sailing ships were designed primarily for economy, the 
North Star was conspicuous for her tremendous sheer forward and the fact that she crossed 
three skysail yards when the majority of the four-masted barques of her day were bald-headed 
and carried nothing above their topgallants. Her big "Liverpool House*' amidships added 
greatly to her comfort but made her a little awkward to work. 




"BRILLIANT" 

Iron ship, built 1877 by Duthies, of Aberdeen, for their own service. Dimension*, 254-8 
by 39*7 by 24 -2 feet depth of hold. Gross tonnage 1,666. Nett tonnage, 1,613. 

Most of the clippers and semi-clippers hailing from Aberdeen were known by their green 
hulls but the Brilliant was an exception and always had a glossy black hull on service which, 
with her graceful lines and the brass rail which went all round the ship, gave her a particularly 
smart appearance and earned her the nickname of "Duthie's Yacht," or "the Australian 
Yacht," in the ports where she was known. 



Sailing Ships 

On each of these was set a large square sail, but when they were divided there 
remained a large sail on the lower mast as before, with two on the topmast and most 
likely two also on the topgallant ; the yard, upon wilich the upper of either pair was 
fixed, hoisted and lowered on the foremast, but the lower yard was fixed. 

This practice remains to the present day, but above the topgallant mast is a light 
mast called the royal pole on which there is also a square sail. 

In clipper-ship days still more sails were crammed above the royal and went by such 
names as skysail, shy-scraper, moonraker , etc. The skippers were renowned for driving 
their ships hard and crammed every ounce of canvas on; studdingsails (pronounced 
stunsels) were rigged on either side of the square sails and so made them wider and 
they quite overdid the fore and aft staysails which were placed between each mast. 

The thing to remember in trying to give names to the sails of a ship are :— 

1. The names of the masts; foremast, mainmast, mizzen and jigger. (You do 

not often come across vessels with more than four nowadays.) 

2. Each mast which is square-rigged is divided into four parts: lower, topmast, 

topgallant and royal pole, so that you have fore lower mast, main topmast, 
mizzen topgallant, etc. 

3. On the lower mast and royal pole there is one sail and on topmast and 

topgallant usually two each. 

In consequence we get the sails as shown on the drawing on page 233, the 
mizzen course being called the crossjack and pronounced crojik. 

The rigging which holds the masts in position is called the standing rigging and 
that which works the sails the running rigging. 

Modern sailing ships have their bowsprit in a single piece, but the old-timers had a 
bowsprit with a jib-boom projecting beyond it and perhaps a, flying jib-boom in addition. 

In the very old sailing ships, the shrouds and backstays were fastened to pieces 

225 



Ships and the Sea 
of iron outside the hull, called chain plates, and the lower ends were bolted into the 
side but this fashion went out long ago and they all come down inside the bulwarks now. 
The parts of sails are as under : — 

Parts of a Sail. 

Clew. — The lowest after corner, (or both bottom corners in a square sail). 

Foot. — The lower edge or bottom. 

Head. — The upper edge or top. 

Leach. — The after edge, or both edges in a square sail. 

Luff. — The foremost edge. 

Peak. — The upper after corner. 

Reef Points. — Pieces of line worked into the sail for reefing or furling the sail. 

Roach. — The curve in the foot of a fore and aft sail. 

Throat. — The upper foremost corner. 

Staysails are the fore and aft sails fixed to the forestays between the masts or 
from the foremast to the bowsprit. 

The chief rigs are as follows : — 
Basque (or Bark). — A vessel square rigged on all masts except last which is 

fore and aft rigged. 
Barquentine. — A three masted vessel, square rigged on the foremast and fore and 
aft rigged on the main and mizzen masts. Originated on Great Lakes and 
not often seen but when it is, it is often called a Schooner. 
Brig. — A two masted vessel, square rigged on both masts and with a boom main- 
sail. (Might almost be called a two masted full -rigged ship for purposes of 
fixing in memory.) 
Brigantine. — A two masted vessel, square rigged on the foremast and fore and 
aft rigged on the mainmast. (Remember it as a two masted barque.) 

226 



Parts of Sails. 



HEAD 



7*c4 




FOOT 



Jib. 



MET* 



Map 



mm ; .Wa*. 



ctetv 




p&ut 



THROAT 



lUFf 



7ACX L 




kEfiCH 



new 



foot 



Mainsail. 



Foot 
Square sail. 



CLEW 




fofiE-LEMH/ Urre&>JLVtni 



227 



Types of Bailing Vessels (1). 




Full- Rigged Ship. 




Three-Masted Barque. 



J3LJ. 




Brig. 




Brigantine. 



228 



Types of Sailing Vessels (2). 




Barquentine. 




Three- Masted Fore and 
Aft Schooner. 




Topsail Schooner. 




Yawl or Dandy. 



Types of Sailing Vessels (3). 





Than 



Lugger. 





Vessel with Sliding 
Gunt er Sails. 




Sloop. 



230 



• Vessel with 
Gaff Sails. 



Some Types of Foreign Sailing Vessels. 




Mediterranean and Nile Vessels 
with Lateen Saik. 




Chinese Trading Junks, 
231 




Dutch Schuyt. 




Ships and the Sea 
Cutter. — Single-masted vessel, fore and aft rigged. 

Ketch. — Sana' as a cutler, but having a mizzen mast stepped aft. 

Schooner. — A vessel foro and ait rigged on all masts. Originally had two masts 
but may have any number and there lias been a seven masted schooner. Some- 
times called a fore and ait schooner to distinguish from topsail schooner. 

Ship (Full-rigged). A ves se l square rigged on nil masts, of which she usually has 
three. 

Topsail Schooner. — Same as a schooner, but usually with two masts only and 
carries a square topsail on the foremast. 

Yawl. — Same as a ketch, but with smaller mi/./.en mast which is set further aft. 

Sloop.— Same as cutter but with one head sail only. 



Sails of a Full-rigged Ship [* 



dr 



1. 

2. 


Flying Jib. 
Outer Jib. 


1."-. 
16. 


3. 


Inner Jib. 


17. 


4. 
5. 


Fore Topmast Stay-sail. 
Fore Sail or Fore Course. 


18. 
19. 


6. 


Lower Fore Top Sail. 


20. 


7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 


Upper Fore Top Sail. 
Lower Fore Topgallant Sail. 
Upper Fore Topgallant Sail. 
Fore Royal. 


21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 


11. 


Main Sail or Main Course. 


25. 


12. 


Lower Main Top Sail. 


26. 


13. 
14. 


Upper Main Top Sail. 
Lower Main Topgallant Sail. 


27. 

28. 



233). 
Upper Main Topgallant Sail. 
Main Royal. 
Main Skysail. 
Cross- Jack (Brailed up). 
Lower Mizzen Top Sail. 
Upper Mizzen Top Sail. 
Mizzen Topgallant Sail. 
Mizzen Royal. 
Spanker or Driver. 
Main Topmast Stay-sail. 
Main Topgallant Stay-sail. 
Main Royal Stay -sail. 
Mizzen Topmast Stay-sail. 
Mizzen Topgallant Stay-sail. 



232 



Sails of a Full-Rigged Ship. 




233 



Ships and the Sea 

Masts and Yards of a Full-rigged Ship (see 

1. Bowsprit, consisting also of Jib- 

Boom and Flying Jib-Boom. 

2. Dolphin Striker. 

3. Fore Mast. 

4. Fore Topmast. 

5. Foro Topgallant Mast. 

6. Fore Royal -Mast. 

7. Fore Truck. 

8. Fore van 1. 

9. Lower Fore Topsail Yard. 

10. Upper F'ore Topsail Yard. 

11. Lower Fore Topgallant Yard. 

12. Upper Fere Topgallant Yard. 

13. Fore Royal Yard. 

14. Main Mast. 

15. Main Topmast. 

16. Main Topgallant Mast. 

17. Main Royal Mast. 

18. Main Truck. 

A bald-headed rig is one in which the masts are stumpy; for instance, there may 
be nothing above the topgallant in a square-rigged ship or no topsail in a fore and 
aft schooner. 

The Jubilee rig, so-called because it made its appearance in 1887, the year of 
Queen Victoria's Jubilee, was applied to four-masted barques with no sails above 
the topgallants, which were much more square in shape and which had very long yards. 

234 



d'ii oing on page 235) 


19. 


Main Royal Yard. 


20. 


Upper Main Topgallant Yard. 


21. 


Lower Main Topgallanl Yard. 


.)•> 


(Jpper Main Top Sail Yard. 


23. 


Lower Main Top Sail Yard. 


24. 


Main Yard. 


2.-.. 


Mizzen Mast. 


26. 


Mi /./.on Topmast. 


27. 


Mizzen Topgallant Mast. 


2-. 


Mizzen Royal Mast. 




Mizzen Truck. 


30. 


Mizzen Royal Yard. 


31. 


Mizzen Topgallant Yard. 


32. 


Upper Mizzen Top Sail Yard. 


33. 


Lower Mizzen Top Sail Yard. 


34. 


Cross-Jack Yard. 


35. 


Spanker Gaff. 


3G. 


Spanker Boom. 



Masts and Yards of a Fuxl-Rigged Ship. 



> 
Ih 




IZ 


6 


u 


5 


to i 


_ 


9 


4 



16 



Ki- 
lo- 



21- 
24— 



HI 




235 



Ships and the Sea 

There are many variations of these rigs but they cannot be gone into now. 

There are also very many interesting rigs in use on small craft in different parts 
of the world, such as the Mediterranean " Felucca " with her lateen sails looking 
very picturesque and like enormous wings. 

Chinese and Japanese junks appear to be very clumsily rigged, with bits of what 
look like sun-blinds stuck all over them with no method, but they are among the 
most ancient of craft and have existed almost unaltered for many centuries and are 
most efficient in their way; there are many different shapes and rigs of these craft. 

Barges and fishing vessels vary very much all over the world but there is nothing 
in beauty to compare with the Thames sailing barge, which is unfortunately getting 
scarcer. A thing of beauty, she has been immortalized by Wylie and countless 
other artists; her sails are usually rust-brown, except her head sails which she uses 
when at sea and which are more often than not of a lighter colour, white or cream. 

The hull of the Thames barge is flat-bottomed, so that to prevent her drifting 
to leeward and to assist her to sit safely on the mud at low water, she has leeboards 
fixed on either side, which are dropped down when required. 

These craft are known as Sprit-sail barges because there is a long spar called a 
sprit which is fixed to the foot of the mainmast while its upper end supports the 
peak of the giant mainsail. They are often handled by two men only, and their 
work is heavy and their seamanship unsurpassed. 

Racing Yachts are usually rigged as cutters of some kind or as sloops and they 
are dealt with in the following chapter. 

It is strange to think that as recently as four years before the last war there were 
very large fleets of British sailing ships afloat, that of Andrew Weir amounting in 
1911 to over fifty square -riggers. 

Many of our shipping companies lines have histories carrying them well back into the 
days of sail and the ships of the Aberdeen and Commonwealth Line to-day still carry 

236 



Sailing Ships 

on the tradition of the old green-hulled clippers of George Thompson and his Aberdeen 
Line. 

Just as steamships are recognised to-day by their funnel colouring so the old 
sailers had their distinguishing features in the colours of their hulls, their masts and 
spars or their yard arms; when merchant ships were in constant danger of attack 
from privateers in the Napoleonic wars, we painted our merchant ships with rows 
of imitation gun ports along the side and this custom survived well down the years. 

There is only one British square-rigged ship afloat now and she is privately owned. 

If you are lucky enough to see one you will most likely be indebted to Captain 
Erikson, of Finland, who has a fle.et of about two-dozen large barques which receive 
a considerable amount of publicity in the season when they bring grain from Australia. 
Captain Erikson is also re -naming his vessels so that they now nearly all bear their 
original names. 

Certain other countries maintain sea-going square-rigged training ships and 
several attempts have been made to re -introduce them in this country, but although 
it is no doubt true that a man trained in sail makes a better sailor than one not 
so favoured, it is very doubtful whether anything will materialise and after this 
generation it is more than likely that other nations will also drop out of the running. 

The consolation to Britain is that out of about three dozen square-rigged ships 
in existence, one half were built in this country and we still have a considerable 
number of small coasting schooners. 

The best known vessels afloat to-day are as follows: — 

Name Built Big Country Tonnage 

Abbaham Rydbebg Clyde, 1892 4-masted Barque Sweden 2,345 

af Chapman Whitehaven, 1888 Ship Sweden 1,493 

Archibald Russell Clyde, 1905 4-masted Barque Finland 2,354 

237 



Ships and the Sea 



Name 


Built 


Rig 


Country 


Tonnage 


C. B. Pederm n 


Italy, 1891 


4-masted Barque 


Sweden 


2,142 


Cutty Sark 


Dumbarton, 1869 


Ship 


Great Britain 963 


(not trading) 










KlLLORAN 


Clyde, 1900 


Barque 


Finland 


1,817 


Kurt 


Clyde, 1904 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


3,116 


KVIKMORE 


Clyde, 1880 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


1,229 


L'AVKNIR 


Germany, 190S 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


2,754 


Lawhill 


Dundee,' 1892 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


2,816 


Olivebank 


Clyde, 1892 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


2,795 


Padua 


Germany, 1926 


4-masted Bnrque 


Germany 


3,064 


Pamir 


Germany, I90fi 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


2,799 


Parma 


Clyde, 1902 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


3,047 


Passat 


( rermany, 1911 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


3,137 


Penang 


Germany, 1905 


Barque 


Finland 


2,019 


Pestalozzi 


Germany, 1884 


Barque 


Finland 


1,057 


POMMERN 


Clyde, 1903 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


2,376 


PONAPE 


Italy, 1903 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


2,342 


Priwael 


Germany, 1920 


4-masted Barque 


Germany 


3,185 


SCHULSCHIFF 










Deutschland 


Germany, 1927 


Ship 


Germany 


1,257 


Vlkino 


Denmark, 1907 


4-masted Barque 


Finland 


2,670 


WlNTERHUDE 


Germany, 1898 


Barque 


Finland 


1,972 



The sailing ship was and still is perhaps the most beautiful thing originated and 
made by man ; she is a living thing in the way that no modern .power-driven vessel 
can ever be, and for beauty of appearance she can never be equalled, but there is 

238 



Sailing Ships 

no denying that the seaman's life was hard in those days. Those, however, who say 
that romance and glamour died with the sail ship are wrong — surely such qualities 
are spiritual rather than material. 

Countries owning a Considerable Number of Sailing Ships. 

The numbers owned are no indication of the class of ship, for instance the British 
Empire owns 660 vessels, totalling 227,000 gross tons, an average of about 350 
tons each, but Finland owns 65 averaging nearly 1,000 tons each. 

British Empire 660 vessels of 227,000 tons 

United States 500 „ „ 630,000 „ 

Italy 190 „ „ 46,000 „ 

France 100 „ „ 36,000 „ 

Portugal 80 „ „ 20,000 „ 

Finland 64 „ „ 60,000 „ 

Spain 60 „ ,. 14,000 „ 

Argentina 40 „ ,, 25,000 „ 

Esthonia 40 „ „ 13,000 „ 



239 



CHAPTER XVII 

Yachts and Yachting 

Yachts. 

THE word comes from an old Dutch word " Jacht " and really means a hunting 

ship, although exactly what that signifies I do not know. 

Whatever may be the correct derivation, it is unquestionable that it has been 
associated with pleasure craft for many centuries and first made its appearance 
in this country with the Restoration, when two of the Dutch yachts which accom- 
panied King Charles II across the Channel were presented to him. 

In early days it was no doubt a vessel used to convey important persons from 
one place to another, or from one country to another on ceremonial visits. So to-day 
the yacht is the vessel used to convey His Majesty to sea on state occasions, such 
as reviews, and is also the private pleasure craft of the wealthier people. 

Charles II, like all the Stuarts, took a keen interest in the sea, and he often 
engaged in yacht racing with his brother who afterwards became King James II, 
and thus it gradually became a common practice for owners of pleasure craft to 
engage in competition with other owners; with a long coastline, this country was 
particularly favourable for the growth of yachting and the first officially registered 
yacht club or association was the Cork Harbour Water Club, now the Royal Cork 
Yacht Club. 

The nineteenth century saw a tremendous boom and many of the craft used to 
congregate in the summer off the Isle of Wight, so in 1812 a club was formed at 

240 



Yachts and Yachting 

Cowes. The Prince Regent became a member and two years later the Club 
was reorganised. Soon after William IV came to the throne he gave authority 
for the club to take the name of The Moyal Yacht Squadron and to-day this 
is the centre of British yachting and the most exclusive club in the world, 
for which something beyond financial greatness is necessary before a man may 
be eligible for election. 

The Royal Yacht Squadron shares with the Royal Navy, and the Royal Naval 
Volunteer Reserve, the honour of wearing the White Ensign. 

As time went on it was realised that a vessel which gave great comfort was not 
necessarily the ideal for racing purposes, and so the racing cutter was developed 
with fine lines and constructed of much lighter material than the roomier and some- 
times luxuriously appointed " family " craft. 

Yachting is popular in all the British Dominions and dependencies, although in 
most places the small yacht is in favour. 

Many of the South American magnates have been attracted to this sport and 
there are some fine clubs in the Argentine, but the only foreign nation that has 
gone in for yacht racing on a large scale, with big yachts, is the United States, 
and the first large club to be formed there was the New York Yacht Club in 
1844. 

Seven years after this, that is, in 1851, the American schooner-yacht America, 
visited Cowes and carried off the cup which has since become famous as the 
" America's Cup," for which British yachts have been contesting off and on ever 
since. 

The principal difficulty militating against British success is that a challenging 
yacht has to be sufficiently strongly built to cross the Atlantic and yet be 
sufficiently light to win races against a defender which is not handicapped in 
this way. 

I 241 



Ships and the^Sea 

Races for the cup take place over a triangular course and a straight course, 
each of thirty miles, and the winning ya<-lit has to win four out of seven 
races. 

Tho races have been as follows: — 

1870. Magic beat Cambria* 

1 S7 1. Columbia Deal kivaiia. 

1876. Madelii mnUss qf Duffwin* 

1881. Mischief beat Atlanta. 

1885. Puritan beat Gencsta. 

1886. Mayflowar beafl tifalofeai 

1887. VolurU* r beat 77, >'.->•/. 

1893. Viailant beat Valkyrie II. 

1895. Defender beat ]'alkj/ric III. 

1899. Columl'ia beat Shamrock I. 

1901. Columbia beat Shamrock II. 

1903. Reliance beat Shamrock III. 

1920. Resolute beat Shamrock IV. 

1930. Enterprise beat Shamrock V. 

1934. Rainbow beat Endeavour. 

All the Shamrocks were owned by the late Sir Thomas Lipton who devoted a 
fortune to yacht racing and whose principal ambition was to regain the cup for 
this country. 

The last race, in 1934, was unfortunately marred by bad-feeling on both sides 
and it is unlikely that there will be another challenger for some considerable 
time. 

242 



Yachts and Yachting 

The size of these large modern yachts is considerable and some details of the last 
challenger, Endeavour, may be of interest. 

Displacement: 143 tons. 

Length: 83 feet on waterline and 130 feet overall. 

Beam: 22 feet. 

Draught: 15 feet. 

Height of mast: 167 feet. 

Length of boom: 66 feet. 

Sail Area: 7,560 square feet. 

Two other well known races for large yachts are the Fastnet Race, inaugurated 
in 1925 by the Royal Ocean Racing Club, and the Channel Race, inaugurated three 
years later and which is for rather smaller craft. 

The rig of the large yachts has altered considerably in recent years and the former 
cutter with topsail and bowsprit has been almost exclusively superseded by the 
Bermuda rig, but some large yachts are rigged as schooners and others as yawls. 

Racing with big yachts is a very expensive business and in the early part of the 
present century racing was at a very low ebb; revivals were attempted but the 
war intervened and it was not until the late King brought out his famous cutter 
Britannia, in 1920, that a real impetus was given to the sport. 

In that year he sailed her on the Clyde and at Cowes and since then the Cowes 
week has been a triumphant success. 

Britannia is the most famous racing cutter ever built and she was designed 
by the late Mr. G. L. Watson in 1893 for King Edward VII (then Prince of Wales); 
in her first season she took thirty-three prizes out of forty-three starts; in 1894 
she took thirty-eight prizes out of forty-eight starts; in 1895, forty prizes out of 
fifty starts. 

243 



Ships and the Sea 

New yachts came out and Borne said that she was outclassed and the Prince sold 
her to Sir Richard Bulkoley, but ho was not convinced that a craft which could take 
147 prizes out of 219 starts in five consecutive years was really done for, and so he 
soon bought her back again. 

New Internationa] rating rules and time allowances wore introduced from time 
to time and it was difficult to arrange races in which Britannia could take part 
under the new rules. 

After the war, however, in handicap races she more than hold hor own until she 
was converted to the modern Bermuda rig and this never seemed to suit her so 
well. Britannia wants real blowy and billowy weather, and given this she is second 
to none. • 

Apart from being purely a racing cutter, Britannia is very comfortably fitted inside 
and has a 20 foot-square, saloon. His late Majesty had an affection for her that 
was often not fully appreciated and when it was BUggested that as a tribute from 
yachtsmen he should bo givon a brand new yacht to celebrate his Silver Jubilee, 
he would have none of it. 

The measurements of this celebrated yacht are: — 

Tonnage: 221, Thames measurement. 100 tons displacement. 

Length: 123 feet overall. 

Beam: 231 feet. 

Draught: 15 feet. 

Keel: 90 tons. 

Racing yachts for International purposes are grouped into various classes according 
to tonnage or length. The large yachts are usually referred to as being of the " J " 
Class or of the 12, 8 and 6 metre Classes. 

244 



Various Types of Yachts. 






Schooner Yacht. 



Cutter. 



Bermuda Rig. 




H.M. Yacht " Victoria and Albert.' 



Motor Yacht. 



245 



Ships and the Sea 
The largest British racing yachts are: — 

Astra. 

Britannia. 

Candida. 

Endeavour. 

Shamrock V. 

Velsheda. 

Sail Letters. 

Sail letters are allotted to yachts of various countries for purposes of International 



ing as follows: — 


A. 


Argentina. 


B. 


Belgium. 


C. 


Esthonia. 


D. 


Denmark. 


E. 


Spain. 


F. 


France. 


G. 


Germany. 


H. 


Netherlands. 


I. 


Italy. 


K. 


Great Britain and Ireland. 


KC. 


Canada. 


L. 


Finland. 


M. 


Hungary. 


N. 


Norway. 


0. 


Latvia. 



246 



Yachts and Yachting 

P. Portugal. 
RC. Cuba. 
S. Sweden. 
U. Uruguay. 
Z. Switzerland. 

Apart from the big racing yachts there is an ever growing number of small yachts 
and cabin cruisers of all sizes, and thousands of town dwellers spend their week-ends 
and holidays afloat. 

When steamships became more economical, towards the end of last century, 
many wealthy people went in for steam yachts and some were almost like small 
liners, both on account of their size and by reason of the luxury of their furnishing 
and decoration and many of these craft performed excellent service during the 
war on auxiliary service as patrol boats, convoy sloops, examination vessels and 
such like things and others again were utilised as hospital ships. 

The most beautiful steam yacht ever built is His Majesty's yacht Victoria and 
Albert, which, although getting on in years now, remains the loveliest thing afloat 
with her beautiful sheer and her two bell-topped funnels. 

The motor and electric yacht is now taking the place of the steam vessel and 
there are some very large ones afloat. 



Some large Steam Yachts afloat to-day. 

Alacrity 1,830 gross tons. 352 feet long. Bu 

Atmah 1,665 „ „ 314 „ „ 

Ebik 1,116 „ „ 270 „ „ 

Ianara 1,115 „ „ 346 „ „ 

Iolanda 1,715 „ „ 310 „ „ 

247 



ilt 1900. 
1898. 
1905. 
1908. 
1908. 



British. 



United States. 



Ships and the Sea 



Liberty 


1,607 gross 


tons. 304 feet long. 


Bui 


t 1908. 


British. 


Maha Chakri 


2,162 „ 


340 „ 


» 


» 


1918. 


Siam (H.M. The 

King) 


Mahroussa 


3,762 „ 


478 „ 


" 


» 


1865. 


Egypt (H.M. The 
King) 


Nahlin 


1,392 „ 


296 „ 


,, 


,, 


1930. 


British. 


Sapphire 


1,207 „ 


285 „ 


,, 


,, 


1912. 


,, 


Savarona 


4,646 „ 


409 „ 


., 


,, 


1931. 


United States. 


Savoia 


4,989 ,, 


390 „ 


,, 


,, 


1923. 


Italy (R. Navy). 


Victoria and 














Albert 


5,005 „ 


439 „ 


» 


» 


1899. 


British (Admiralty). 


Some large Motor and Electric Yachts afloat to-day. 






Alva 


2,265 tons. 264 feet 


long. 


Built 1931. 


United States 


Corsair 


2,142 , 


343 „ 




,, 


1930. 


„ ,, 


Dannebroo 


1,069 , 


259 „ 




,, 


1931. 


Denmark (R. Yacht). 


Flying Cloud 1,179 , 


204 „ 




,, 


1927. 


United States. 


Hussar 


2,323 , 


316 „ 




,, 


1931. 


,, ,, 


NOURMAHAL 


1,969 , 


264 „ 




,, 


1928. 


,, ,, 


Orion 


3,097 , 


333 „ 




,, 


1929. 


,, ,, 


Rosaura 


1,426 , 


274 „ 




„ 


1905. 


British. 



List of Principal Yacht Clubs in Great Britain. 

British Yacht Clubs fly a rectangular flag, usually the Red or Blue Ensign, plain 
or defaced by a badge or device, except the Royal Yacht Squadron which flies the 
\Vhite Ensign. 

248 



Yachts and Yachting 

In addition the yachts fly a distinctive Burgee, as it is called, although it is actually 
shaped like a Pendant. 

Abbreviations 
B. . Blue Ensign. R.D. 

R. . Red Ensign. B.D.J. , 

B.D. . Blue Ensign defaced by badge. R.D.J. 



Red Ensign defaced by badge. 
Blue Ensign with defaced Jack. 
Red Ensign with defaced Jack. 



Royal 


Yacht Clubs. 








Name of Club Established 


Station 


B. . 


Royal Albert . 


1864 


Southsea 


R. . 


. Royal Alfred . 


1864 


Kingstown, Co. Dublin 


B. . 


. Royal Anglesey 


1802 


Beaumaris, Anglesey 


B.D. 


Royal Burnham 


1895 


B ur nham - on- Crouch 


B.D. 


Royal Channel Islands 


1863 


Jersey, C.I. 


B. . 


Royal Cinque Ports 


1872 


Dover 


B. . 


Royal Clyde 


1856 


Glasgow 


B.D. 


. Royal Corinthian 


1872 


Burnham- on -Crou ch 


B.D.J. 


Royal Cork 


1720 


Queenstown 


B.D. 


. Royal Cornwall 


1871 


Falmouth 


B. . 


. Royal Cruising Club 


1880 


London 


R.D. 


. Royal Dart 


1866 


Kingswear 


— . 


. Royal Dee 


1815 


Liverpool 


B. . 


. Royal Dorset . 


1873 


Weymouth 


— . 


. Royal Eastern 


1836 


Edinburgh 


B. . 


. Royal Engineer 


1845 


Chatham 


B.D. 


Royal Forth 


1868 


Edinburgh 


R.D. 


. Royal Fowey . 


1894 


Fowey 



249 





Ships and the Sea 






Name of Club Established 


Station 


— . 


Royal Galway . 


— 


Galway 


B. . 


Royal Gourock 


1894 


Gourock 


B.D. 


Royal Harwich 


1843 


Harwich 


B. . 


Royal Highland 


1881 


Oban 


B.D. 


Royal Irish 


1846 


Kingstown 


B. . 


Royal Largs 


1882 


Largs 


B.D. 


Royal LONDON . 


1838 


Cowes, I.O.W. 


B.D. 


Royal Mbbsby . 


1844 


Birkenhead 


B. . 


Royal Motor 


1905 


Southampton. 


— . 


Royal Minster 


— 


Crosshaven, Co. Cork 


R.D. 


Royal Norfolk and Suffolk 1859 


Lowestoft 


B.D. 


Royal North of Ireland 


L892 


Belfast 


B. . 


Royal Northern 


1824 


Rothesay 


— . 


Royal Ocean Racing Club 


London 


B.D. 


Royal Plymouth 








Corinthian 


1877 


Plymouth 


B.D.J. 


Royal Portsmouth 








Corinthian 


1880 


Portsmouth 


R.D. 


Royal St. George 


1838 


Kingstown, Co. Dublin 


B.D.J. 


Royal Southampton . 


1875 


Southampton 


B. . 


. Royal Southern 


1837 


Southampton 


B.D. 


Royal South Western 


1890 


Plymouth 


— . 


. Royal Tay 


— 


Broughty Ferry 


B. . 


Royal Temple . 


. 1857 


Ramsgate 


B. . 


Royal Thames . 


1775 


London and Ryde, I.O.W 


B.D.J. 


. Royal Torbay . 


. 1863 


Torquay 



250 



B.D. 
R.D. 
B.D. 
B. . 

B. . 

R.D. 
W. . 
B.D. 



Yachts and Yachting 




Name of Club Established 


Station 


Royal Ulster . 


1866 


Bangor 


Royal Victoria 


1844 


Ryde, I.O.W. 


Royal Welsh . 


1847 


Carnarvon 


Royal Western 






(of England) . 


. 1827 


Plymouth 


Royal Western 






(of Scotland) . 


. 1875 


Glasgow 


Royal Windermere . 


— 


Bowness 


Royal Yacht Squadron 


. 1815 


East Cowes, I.O.W 


Royal Yorkshire 


. 1847 


Bridlington 


l Known Yacht Clubs in 


British Isles. 


Name of Club Established 


Station 


Aldeburgh 


— 


Aldeburgh 


Alexandra 


1873 


Southend-on-Sea 


Ballyholme 


— 


Bangor, Co. Down 


Bembridge Sailing Club 


1886 


Bembridge, I.O.W 


Benfleet . 


— 


South Benfleet 


Blackpool and Fleetwooi 


) — 


Blackpool and 
Fleetwood 


Blackwater 


— 


Maldon 


Bristol 


— 


Bristol 


Bristol Channel 


— 


Mumbles 


Castle 


— 


Lee-on-Solent 


Clyde Corinthian 


— 


Glasgow 


Clyde Cruising Club 


— 


Glasgow 



251 



Name of Club 

COLNE 

Crouch 

CBUI8ING AsSOCI 

Essex 

Careloch . 

Great Yarmouth 

Guernsey . 

Household Brigade 

Littli: Sun- Ci.ru 

Liverpool 

Lough Kee 

lv.minc tom 

Lytham 

Med way 

Medway Cruising Club 

Motor Boat Association 

MUDHOOK . 

Narrow Seas Club 

Nore 

Northumberland 

Pembrokeshire . 

Penarth . 

Poole 

St. Helier 

Solent 

Sussex 



Ships and the Sea 
Established 



1908 



1880 



1903 



1878 



Sla/ion 
Brightlingsea 
Burnham-on -Crouch 
London 
Leigh 

Helensburgh 
Great Yarmouth 
Guernsey, C.I. 
War sash 
London 
New Brighton 
Athlone 
Hants 
Lytham 
Rochester 
Gillingham 
London 
Glasgow 
London 

Southend-on-Sea 
Newcastle-on-Tyne 
Milford Haven 
Penarth 
Poole 

St. Helier, C.I. 
Yarmouth, I.O.W. 
South wick 



252 



Name of Club 
Wallasey . 
West Lancashire 
West Mersea 
Westcliff 
Whitstable 



Yachts and Yachting 

Established 



Station 
New Brighton 
Southport 
West Mersea 
Westcliff- on-Sea 
Whitstable 



A Few Important Yacht Clubs in British Dominions and Dependencies. 





Name of Club Established 


Station 


B.D. 


. Gibraltar Yacht Club 


. 1829 


Gibraltar 


R. . 


Holdfast Bay . 


1883 


South Australia 


B.D. 


Royal Bermuda 


1844 


Bermuda 


B.D. 


Royal Bombay . 


1846 


Bombay 


B.D. 


Royal Jamaica . 


1884 


Jamaica 


B.D. 


Royal Natal 


1858 


S. Africa 


B. . 


. Royal New Zealand 








Yacht Squadron 


1871 


Auckland 


B. . 


Royal Perth 


1875 


Perth 


B.D. 


. Royal Prince Alfred 


1867 


Sydney- 


B. . 


. Royal Queensland 


1885 


Brisbane 


B. . 


. Royal South Australian 








Yacht Squadron 


1869 


Port Adelaide 


B.D. 


. Shanghai . 


1870 


Shanghai 


B. . 


. Royal Sydney Yacht 








Squadron 


1862 


Sydney 



253 



Ships and the Sea 
Some Well Known Foreign Yacht Clubs. 

Name of Club 
Associacao Naval de Lisboa 
Club Naval de Lisboa 
New York Yacht Club 
Real Club Canottieri Italia 
Regio Yacht Club Italiano 
Royal Danish Yacht Club . 
Royal Netherlands Yacht Club 
Royal Norwegian Yacht Club 
Royal Swedish Yacht Club 
Royal Yacht Club de Belgique 
Royal Yacht Club D'Ostende 
Yacht Club Argentino 
Yacht Club de France 



Established 


Station 


. 1851 


Lisbon, Portugal 


. 1892 


Lisbon. Portugal 


. 1S44 


New York, U.S.A. 


. 1889 


Naples, Italy 


. 1883 


Naples, Italy 


. 1866 


Copenhagen, Denmark 


1847 


Amsterdam, Holland 


. 1883 


Oslo, Norway 


. 1830 


Stockholm, Sweden 


. 1851 


Antwerp, Belgium 


. 1853 


Ostend, Belgium 


. 1S83 


Buenos Ayres, Argentina 


. 1857 


Paris, France 



254 



CHAPTER XVIII 

Fishing Boats and the Fishing Industry 

"pISHING is one of the many things that most of us take for granted in this 
materially -minded age. 

It is, perhaps, the oldest industry in the world, and although science has intro- 
duced improvements in this, as in most other trades, the main changes have been, 
perhaps, the increase in size and efficiency of the ships; sail gave way in most cases to 
steam, and steam is being supplanted in many cases by the internal combustion engine. 

The hazards of the calling remain the same and it would be a good education 
if people would go to sea in a trawler for one voyage in the ordinary weather prevailing 
round our coasts during the winter. 

All over the world fishing of some kind or another goes on, and many weird craft 
are used in different parts, but we must confine ourselves to British vessels. 

Many rigs of sailing smacks were and perhaps still are in existence in home waters, 
but the best known was probably the Brixham trawler; before the war this fleet 
ran into many hundreds, but the number is sadly diminished to-day. 

The Brixham smacks were famous in the days of Queen Elizabeth and were prob- 
ably the first deep-sea fishing craft in these waters; they ventured further afield 
and soon discovered that the North Sea fishing grounds opened up great prospects, 
especially the Dogger Bank, which quickly became the happy hunting ground for 
East Coast fishermen who joined with the craft from Devon. 

255 



Ships and the Sea 

In the beginning it was a case of each boat for itself, but it was very early recog- 
nised that by co-operating better results for all could be obtained, and so fleets were 
organised under the command of an " admiral " whose orders were rigidly obeyed; 
he was one of the most experienced fishermen and selected the ground and gave orders 
for the shooting and drawing in of nets; by this method fleets remained on a ground 
for many weeks and their daily catch was transferred to special carriers who collected 
the catch and returned to the land. 

By the end of the nineteenth century there were four regular fleets, each numbering 
about 150 vessels, working constantly in tho North Sea, but during the last twenty 
years or so of this century, steam made its appearance, at first to take the place of 
the swift-sailing carriers and quickly after that to supplant the trawlers themselves. 

Staunch as were these sailing smacks or Dandies, as the later types were called, 
disaster often overcame them and one of the worst disasters took place when the 
Dogger fleet was caught by a tremendous storm in 1881 and it is said that in one East 
Coast fishing town alone, over two hundred women were widowed by this one storm. 

Soon after this, experiments were made with steam trawlers, and this proved so 
successful that with astonishing swiftness sail almost disappeared. 

At the present time the same system of trawler fleets is in operation, (although 
this may not last much longer) and this custom of working together and of obeying 
orders proved of tremendous value during the war, when the fishermen of England 
left their profitable occupations and shot their nets to sweep up the minefields; this 
is a side of the war at sea that has never been adequately told and the debt that 
everyone owes to these splendid men in peacetime mounted to unredeemable heights; 
how many ships and men were lost has never been told and probably never will. 

Each fleet is a self-contained community with its own store ships, mother ships, 
hospital ships and so on, and fleets go as far afield as the Arctic Seas, the Bay of Biscay 
and even to the Northern coasts of Africa. 

256 



Fishing Boats and the Fishing Industry 

Large fleets are usually looked after by a Fishery Protection Gunboat, whose duty 
it is to see that the vessels are not molested by any ill-intentioned persons, and to see 
that territorial waters are not encroached upon. 

With their nets out a fishing fleet occupies a huge stretch of sea and many have been 
the mutual recriminations in the past when perhaps some destroyer on manoeuvres has 
blundered into the middle of a drifter fleet because (never let it be whispered abroad) 
in the old days fishing vessels sometimes had a rooted objection to exhibiting the 
necessary lights, as laid down in the book of the words governing such things. 

The two chief methods of fishing to-day are trawling and drifting. In the former, 
the ship keeps moving and lowers what is termed an otter trawl, which is a large 
net about 120 feet or so wide at the mouth and about 25 feet long, tapering to a 
point; midway is a sort of valve by which the fish enter from the wide mouth 
but through which they cannot return. A drifter, on the other hand, carries about 
a hundred nets, which are played over the side and are buoyed and weighted so that 
they lie in the sea in the form of a solid wall about fifty feet deep and up to two miles 
in length; into this wall the fish swim and are caught by their gills in the meshes; 
having shot the nets the vessels just drift with the tide and currents. 

This method is principally used for herring fishing, when anything like twelve 
hundred drifters operate from Lowestoft and Yarmouth alone during the season. 
Such a fleet would cast nets totalling about two thousand miles in length. 

Hull specialises in Arctic fishing for the cheaper varieties of fish and sixty Hull 
brawlers form a " boxing fleet " which remains at sea for about six weeks at a time. 
Cod and halibut are caught off the Greenland coast during the summer at depths 
up to 500 fathoms (3,000 feet). 

Whale oil factories have increased very largely in numbers during the last few years. 

Some very well known old liners, such as Persic and Runic of the White Star Line, 

• have been converted for this purpose; others are converted oil tankers, and others 

257 



Ships and the Sea 
again have been especially designed and constructed for the purpose. These craft 
accompany a fleet of small whalers or trawlers which convey the catch to the factory 
ship, which then proceeds to extract the oil from the carcase and to convert the rest 
into cattle food and so on. 

There are still a large number of " single boaters " working on their own, inde- 
pendent of the fleets, and these are usually larger than vessels which are units of a fleet, 
and are likely to increase in numbers in the next few years. 

A good-sized modern steam or motor trawler will average about 400 tons and will 
be about 150 feet in length with a speed of anything up to twelve knots, and she 
will probably be equipped with directional wireless or wireless telephony and echo- 
sounding devices. Drifters are very considerably smaller than trawlers but their 
appearance is much the same. 

All fishing vessels, steam or sail, are marked with letters to distinguish their home 
port; more often than not the first and last letters of that port are used but there 
are many exceptions; the list on page 260 will give the principal registration marks to 
be seen round our coasts. In addition to this lettering, each vessel is allotted a regis- 
tration number. 

In the case of sailing smacks, both the lettering and number must be painted 
in white on both bows and on mainsail. 

In motor boats, mizzen sails are to be marked in addition. 

In case of steamers it must be painted on both bows and quarters and on front 
of funnels, and it is more often than not exhibited on any auxiliary sails that such 
a craft may carry. 

When not engaged in fishing, all fishing craft exhibit lights prescribed for vessels 
of their tonnage as discussed in an earlier chapter. 

When fishing with drift nets, vessels must show two white lights- where they can 
best be seen; the vertical distance being not less than six feet nor more than fifteen 

258 



PORTS AND SEASONS 

OF THE 
HERRING FISHERY 

(THE PRINCIPAL PORTS ARE UNDERLINED) 



BALTASOUND \ MAY TO 
LERWICK t AU6usr 
SCALLOWAY ) 



MAY TO 
SEPTEMBER 



JUNE TO 
SEPTEMBER 



^JLYTO 
DECEMBER 

APRIL TO 
JUNE AND 
DECEMBER 
JANUARY 



JULY TO 
OCTOBER 




APRIL, MAY (baltimokc - 

AND DECEMBER ) kins ale — S 

TO FEBRUARY \dvnmore cast 



[HOVYTH 

] PEEL 

j PORT ST. MARY 

HOLYHEAD 
\ MILFORO HAVEN 



Drifters at Work 




259 



Ships and the Sea 
feet, the horizontal distance not less than five nor more than ten feet; the lower 
of these lights is to be in the direction of the nets. 

Vessels engaged in trawling, by which is meant the dragging of an apparatus 
along the sea bottom, carry a three-coloured lantern showing a white light from right 
ahead to two points on each bow, green light to starboard and red light to port; 
not less than six feet nor more than twelve feet below this lantern is to be exhibited 
another bright white light throwing an unbroken light all round the horizon. 

One often hears a catch referred to by number of crans, which is an official measure 
and wmich applies to baskets or boxes; actually quarter-cran measures are more 
often than not dealt with and roughly a quarter-cran box is 31 inches in length, 
14£ in breadth and 7 inches in depth, but how many fish this holds I leave to you to 
work out for me. 

Distinguishing Marks of British Trawlers. 







England. 




BE. 


Barnstaple 


E. 


Exeter 


BW. 


Barrow 


FH. 


Falmouth 


BK. 


Berwick 


F. 


Faversham 


BD. 


Bideford 


FD. 


Fleetwood 


BH. 


Blyth 


FE. 


Folkestone 


BN. 


Boston 


FY. 


Fowey 


BL. 


Bristol 


GY. 


Grimsby 


BM. 


Brixham 


HL. 


Hartlepool West 


CK. 


Colchester 


HH. 


Harwich 


CS. 


Cowes 


H. 


Hull 


DR. 


Dover. 


LR. 


Lancaster 



260 



Fishing Boats and the Fishing Industry 

England — conid. 



LI. 


LlTTLEHAMPTON 


LL. 


Liverpool 


LO. 


London 


LT. 


Lowestoft 


LN. 


King's Lynn 


MH. 


Middlesbrough 


NN. 


Newhaven 


NT. 


Newport 


PW. 


Padstow 


PZ. 


Penzance 


PH. 


Plymouth 


P. 


Portsmouth 


PN. 


Preston 


R. 


Ramsgate 


RR. 


Rochester 


B. 


Belfast 


C. 


Cork 


D. 


Dublin 


DK. 


Dundalk 


G. 


Galway 


L. 


Limerick 


LY. 


Londonderry 



RX. 


Rye 


SS. 


St. Ives 


SH. 


Scarborough 


sc. 


Scilly 


SN. 


North Shields 


SSS. 


South Shields 


SM. 


Shoreham 


SU. 


Southampton 


ST. 


Stockton 


SD. 


Sunderland 


TN. 


Teignmouth 


WY. 


Whitby 


WA. 


Whitehaven 


YH. 


Yarmouth 



Ireland. 



N. 


Newry 


S. 


Skibbereen 


SO. 


Sligo 


T. 


Tralee 


W. 


Waterford 


WT. 


Westport 



WD. Wexford 



261 



Ships and the Sea 



CT. 


Castletown 


DO. 


Douglas 


A. 


Aberdeen 


AA. 


Alloa 


AH. 


Arbroath 


BF. 


Banff 


BO. 


BORROWSTONES 


BRD. 


Broadford 


BCK. 


Buckie 


CN. 


Campbeltown 


CY. 


Castlebay 


DE. 


Dundee 


FR. 


Fraserburgh 


GW. 


Glasgow 


GH. 


Grangemouth 


GN. 


Granton 


GK. 


Greenock 


INS. 


Inverness 


AB. 


Aberystwyth 


BS. 


Beaumaris 


OF. 


Cardiff 



Isle of Man. 




PL. 


Peel 


RY. 


Ramsey 


Scotland. 




KY. 


Kirkcaldy 


K. 


Kirkwall 


LH. 


Leith 


LK. 


Lerwick 


ML. 


Methil 


ME. 


Montrose 


OB. 


Oban 


PEH. 


Perth 


PD. 


Peterhead 


RO. 


Rothesay 


SY. 


Stornoway 


SR. 


Stranraer 


TT. 


Tarbert 


UL. 


Ullapool 


WK. 


Wick 


Wales. 




CO. 


Carnarvon 


M. 


Milford 


SA. 


Swansea 


262 





CHAPTER XIX 

Royal National Life-Boat Institution 

TT should require little imagination to understand what the life-boat service means 

to all of us, and understanding, we must be amazed and our hearts should beat 
a little faster when we ponder over the courage of the men who man them; courage 
of the highest order because the men know full well what they are up against. 

A life-boat is admittedly a craft designed and constructed with the object of 
battling against almost any weather, and she is as near the unshakable ship as it 
has been possible yet to come, but how many of us would push ourselves forward 
to face all the most awful forces of nature that it is possible to conceive ? When we 
are cowering in our homes, afraid to go outside because half a gale is blowing and it 
is as much as we could do to keep our feet, men are volunteering to ride into the 
teeth of the storm because someone is in distress somewhere out in that inky mael- 
strom which screams and bubbles like a witch's cauldron. 

Seamen say that there is not much to fear in the worst storm as long as there is 
plenty of sea-room; life-boats go to those very places where there is no sea-room; 
to dreadful iron-bound coasts where perhaps a ship is wedged between tooth-like 
rocks beneath a towering immensity of perpendicular cliff, or to banks of treacherous 
shifting sand which momentarily threatens to engulf the unhappy wreck. 

Having faced the elements and come up to the wreck, marvels of seamanship 
skill and infallible judgment are needed to effect a rescue when every wave threatens 

263 



Ships and the Sea 
to overwhelm the life -boat or to carry it forward and dash it to destruction on the 
very wreck which it has come to succour. 

Remember again that these men are for the most part fishermen who have never 
been trained to discipline like the men in the Fighting Services, and the admiration 
for the spirit and organization of the life-boat service will deepen. 

Curiously enough, the first Englishman who concentrated upon the idea of building 
a boat of special buoyancy was a London coach-builder named Lionel Lukin, and as 
far back as 1784 he had experimented with an old yawl, but his plan was not neces- 
sarily to make a boat especially for life-saving purposes but rather to make all boats 
more secure. 

He was, however, associated with the very first attempt to establish a life-boat 
station on our coast. 

In 1789 an association of gentlemen of Newcastle called " The Gentlemen of the 
Lawe House," which latter overlooked the mouth of the Tyne, offered a prize of two 
guineas for a plan or model of a boat capable of facing the heavy weather in that 
neighbourhood. From the design submitted by William Wouldhave an actual model, 
incorporating several ideas of other gentlemen, was made and The Original, as she 
was named, was constructed by Henry Greathead from that model. This vessel 
remained in commission until 1830, when she was dashed to pieces after saving 
hundreds of lives during the period of her service. 

The experiment was successful and by 1803 Greathead had built thirty-one 
boats, including eight for foreign countries which were becoming interested in 
the idea. 

In 1807, Lukin, the coach-builder before mentioned, designed the first sailing life- 
boat for the Suffolk Humane Society, and she was the fore-runner of the famous 
Norfolk and Suffolk type of boat. 

In 1824 there were thirty-nine life-boats stationed on the coasts, and in that year 

264 



Royal National Life-Boat Institution 

was established the Royal National Life-Boat Institution to organise the whole 
of the scattered stations. 

The founder was a native of the Isle of Man, Colonel Sir William Hillary, Bt., who 
had witnessed many dreadful shipwrecks and who was determined to do what he 
could to alleviate the suffering of ship -wrecked men. 

In 1823 he drew up an appeal and set out his plan for an organisation which remains 
to-day very much the same in principle, and Royal Patronage was secured from 
the start. 

Originally the work included the care of the shipwrecked after the rescue, and 
the establishing of rocket apparatus on shore, but in 1854 the Shipwrecked Fishermen 
and Mariners' Society took over the former and the Board of Trade in 1855 assumed 
the liability for the rocket apparatus. 

Sir William himself took part in many rescues, in one of which he was severely 
injured and he continued until well over sixty years of age, taking part in the saving 
of 305 lives. 

In 1838 Grace Darling's share in the rescue of the crew of the Forfarshire shed a 
light on the activities of the Institution's work which will never be allowed to go out 
although by 1849 public interest had so far diminished that its income had dwindled 
to just over £350. In that year, however, disaster had overtaken the Tyne life-boat 
and twenty of her crew of twenty-four had lost their lives, and this undoubtedly 
helped to recall the public to their responsibility. 

To-day the Institution's record stands at close upon 65,000 lives saved, and this 
means an average of 11 lives every week for 112 years. 

65,000 men marching in fours would take five hours to pass a given point: imagine 
yourself at the top of a great staircase welcoming your guests as they file up the stairs 
to shake your hand; you would be standing there for over twenty hours. 

Eastbourne is a large city but its population is not 65,000. 

265 



Ships and the Sea 

At the present time there are about 120 motor life-boats stationed round the 
5,000 miles of British coast, and nearly fifty pulling or sailing craft — less than there 
were some years ago, but of infinitely more value on account of their increased radius, 
speed and efficiency. 

The work of the Institution is tremendous and does not end with the providing 
and maintaining of the boats themselves; life-boat slipways and launching platforms 
have to be provided and dependants of those gallant men who lose their lives have 
to be looked after. 

In addition to the life-boats regularly in use there are three motor and fifteen 
pulling boats in reserve at the Institution's yard at Poplar on the Thames. . 

This great British work is carried on entirely by voluntary subscriptions, and it 
costs nearly £250,000 annually to enable it to hold its own. 

The cost of a large motor life-boat is £9,000, and of one of smaller type £6,000 or 
£3,250. £20 will provide a line-throwing gun and £925 an engine for a motor boat. 

Life-boats and their Construction. 

A life -boat is a small vessel capable of standing up to weather which has disabled 
larger ones — perhaps a hundred times its own size. 

She has great strength, the power to empty herself of water as fast as she takes it 
in, and great buoyancy. 

Her strength is secured by building her of specially chosen woods of many kinds 
and by giving her a double skin. 

She empties herself of water through scuppers or valves in the bottom and 
sides which will free a boat in twelve seconds even if she has been filled to the 
thwarts. 

Every boat is divided into from seven to fourteen water-tight compartments and 
is fitted with from seventy to 160 air cases. 

266 



Royal National Life-Boat Institution 




Flag. Bed Cross bordered with blue ; Gold Crown and Anchor ; Red letters. 




45-foot Twin-Screw Motor Life-Boat. Lightly shaded portions are Flotation Boxes. 

267 



Ships and the Sea 

There is another type called the Self-righting type. With all sails set and a hole 
in the bottom, such a boat will right herself in four seconds even if turned completely 
over, but only the smaller craft are built on this principle because they are less easy 
to handle in heavy weather and they are more liable to capsize. 

The engine goes on with its work even when the boat is flooded, and it can run 
although completely submerged; it lias two magnetos and two sets of sparking plugs 
and it gives a speed of from seven to ten knots with an enormous reserve of power 
in case of need. 

Before the days of the internal combustion engine there were six steam life-boats 
in use, the first being introduced in 1890 and the last withdrawn in 1928. 

In 1903 the first experiments with the motor-driven boat were made and until the 
introduction of the first twin-screw boat in 1923 all such craft carried a full set of sails. 

The modern twin-screw boat has engines up to 80 horse power each, but the 
most powerful life-boat in the world is stationed at Dover and she has two engines of 
375 horse power each, and she is used specially to protect the heavy passenger traffic 
in the Straits as well as to look after the cross-channel aeroplanes, having a speedof 
eighteen knots. 

The Institution's Motor Life-boats. Types Now Being Built. 
51 Feet Barnett (Stromness) Type. 

A cabin motor life-boat, 51 feet by 13 feet 6 inches. On service, with crew and 
gear on board, she weighs 26£ tons. She is divided into seven water-tight compart- 
ments, and is fitted with 160 air-cases. She has twin screws, and is driven by two 
60 horse power engines. The engine-room is a water-tight compartment, and each 
engine is itself water-tight, so that it could continue running even if the engine-room 
were flooded. Her speed is just under nine knots, which, having regard to her speed- 
length ratio, is equivalent to a speed of nearly thirty-five knots in a vessel the size 

268 



Royal National Life-Boat Institution 

of the Mauretania. She carries enough petrol to be able to travel 120 miles, at full 
speed, without refuelling. She carries a crew of eight, and in rough weather can take 
100 people on board. She has a cabin, a line-throwing gun, and an electric search- 
light, is lighted throughout with electricity, and is fitted with an oil-spray in the bows 
to make smooth the water round the wreck. 

46 Feet Watson Cabin Type 

A cabin motor life -boat, 46 feet by 12 feet 9 inches. On service, with crew and 
gear on board, she weighs 19| tons. She is divided into seven water-tight compart- 
ments, and is fitted with 142 air-cases. She has twin screws, and is driven by two 

40 horse power engines. The engine-room is a water-tight compartment, and each 
engine is itself water-tight, so that it could continue running even if the engine-room 
were flooded. Her speed is 8£ knots. She carries enough petrol to be able to travel 
116 miles, at full speed, without refuelling. She carries a crew of eight, and in rough 
weather can take ninety -five people on board. She has a line-throwing gun and 
an electric search-light, and is lighted throughout with electricity. 

41 Feet Beach (Aldeburgh) Type 

A motor life-boat, 41 feet by 12 feet 3 inches, specially designed for stations where 
conditions at sea require a fairly large and heavy type, but where it is impossible 
to station the Barnett or Watson cabin type, as the boat has to be light enough to be 
launched off the beach. On service, with crew and gear on board, she weighs 16£ 
tons. She is divided into seven water-tight compartments, and is fitted with 135 
air-cases. She has twin screws, and is driven by two 35 horse power engines. They 
are in a water-tight engine-room and are themselves water-tight so that they could 
continue running even if the engine-room were flooded. Her speed is just over 
7£ knots, and she carries enough petrol to be able to travel 116 miles, at full speed, 

269 



Ships and the Sea 

without refuelling. She carries a crew of ten, and in rough weather can take eighty- 
five people on board. She has a line-throwing gun and an electric search-light, and 
is lighted by electricity. 

41 Feet Watson Type 

A motor life-boat, 41 feet by 11 feet 8 inches. On service, with crew and gear on 
board, sho weighs just over fifteen tons. She is divided into five water-tight compart- 
ments and is fitted with 145 air-cases. She has twin screws, driven by two 35 horse 
power engines. The engine-room is a water-tight compartment, and each engine is 
itself water-tight, so that it could continue running even if the engine-room were 
flooded. Her speed is just over eight knots, and she carries enough petrol to be able 
to travel 130 miles, at full speed, without refuelling. She carries a crew of eight, 
and in rough weather can take fifty people on board. She has two cock-pits, a line- 
thro wing- gun, and an electric search-light, and is lighted by electricity. 

35 Feet 6 Inches Seli-rightini Type 

A light type of motor life-boat, 35 feet 6 inches by 9 feet 3 inches, specially designed 
for stations where the life-boat has to be launched off a carriage or the open beach. 
On service, with crew and gear on board, she weights 6} tons. She is divided into 
six water-tight compartments, and is fitted with 115 air-cases. If a sea breaks on 
board she can free herself in twelve seconds, and if she were capsized, even with a 
hole in her bottom, she could right herself in four seconds. She has one screw, driven 
by a 35 horse power engine in a water-tight engine-room. The engine itself is water- 
tight, so that it could continue running even if the engine-room were flooded. Her 
speed is 7 ^ knots, and she carries enough petrol to be able to travel 100 miles at full 
speed without refuelling. She carries a crew of seven, and can take thirty people on 
board in rough weather. 

270 



Royal National Life-Boat Institution 
35 Feet 6 Inches Liverpool Type 

A light type of motor life-boat, 35 feet 6 inches by 10 feet 3 inches, specially 
designed for stations where the life- boat has to be launched off a carriage or the open 
beach. She is broader in the beam than the light self-righting type, and, though she 
cannot self-right, is much less likely to capsize. On service, with crew and gear on 
board, she weighs 7 tons. She is divided into six water-tight compartments, and is 
fitted with 115 air-cases. If a sea breaks on board she can free herself in twelve 
seconds. She has one screw, driven by a 35 horse power engine in a water-tight 
engine-room. The engine itself is water-tight, so that it could continue running even 
if the engine-room were flooded. Her speed is 1\ knots, and she carries enough 
petrol to be able to travel 100 miles at full speed without refuelling. She carries a 
crew of seven, and can take thirty people on board in rough weather. 

Life-boat Sta!ions of the Royal National Life-boat Institution. 

Corrected to 31st December, 1935 from information kindly supplied by the 
Institution. 

M. indicates a motor life-boat. 

P. indicates a pulling and sailing life-boat. 

S.R. indicates a self-righting life-boat. 

England. 



Northumberland . 








Berwick-on-Tweed . 


, M. (S.R.) 


Built in 1930 


Holy Island 


. M. . 




1925 


North Sunderland 


. P. (S.R.) 




„ 1909 


Boulmer . 


. M. (S.R.) 
271 




„ 1927 



Ships and the Sea 

England — contd. 



Hauxley . 


. P. (S.R.) 


Built in 1902 


Cresswell 


. P. (S.R.) 


1909 


Newbiggin 


. P. (S.R.) 


1911 


Blyth " . 


. M. . 


1921 


Cullercoats 


. P. (S.R.) 


1907 


Tynemouth 


. M. (S.R.) 


1917 


DUBHAM. 






Sunderland 


. M. (S.R.) 


1911 


Seaham . 


. M. . 


1910 


Hartlepool 


. M. . 


1924 


Yorkshire. 






Teesmouth 


. M. . 


1924 


Redcar . 


. M. (S.R.) 


„ 1931 


Staithes . 


. P. (S.R.) 


1900 


Runs wick 


. M. . 


1933 


Whitby . 


. M. (S.R.) 


1918 




P. (S.R.) 


„ 1907 


Scarborough 


. M. (S.R.) 


„ 1931 


Filey 


. P. (S.R.) 


„ 1907 


Flamborough 


. M. 


1934 




P. (S.R.) 


1910 


Bridlington 


. M. (S.R.) 


„ 1931 


Humber 


. M. . 


„ 1929 



272 



Royal National Life-Boat Institution 
England — contd. 

Built in 1932 



1916 
1936 
1904 
1924 
1934 
1904 



Lincolnshire. 




Skegness 


M. . 


Norfolk. 




Wells 


P. 




M. . 


Sheringham 


P. 


Cromer 


M. . 




M. . 


Caister 


P. 


Great Yarmouth and 




Gorleston 


M. . 


Suffolk. 




Lowestoft 


M. . 


Kessingland 


P. 


Southwold 


M. . 


Aldeburgh 


M. . 


Essex. 

Walton and Frinton . 


M. 


Clacton . 


M. . 


Southend 


M. . 


Kent. 




Margate . 


M. 


Ramsgate 


M. . 



1923 



1920 
1912 
1925 
1931 (On Beach) 

1928 
1929 

1928 



1924 
1925 



273 



Ships and the Sea 
England — contd. 



Walmer . 


, M. . 


Built in 1933 (Beach) 


Dover 


, M. . 


1929. (Special fast boat 
to go to help of aero- 
planes as well as ships.) 


Hythe . 


M. . 


1929 


Dungeness 


P. 


1912 




M. 


1933 (Beach) 


Sussex. 






Hastings 


M. (S.R.) 


1931 


Eastbourne 


M. (S.R.) 


1922 


Newhaven 


M. 


1930 


Shoreham Harbour . 


M. . 


1933 


Selsey 


M. 


1928 


Isle of Wight. 






Bembridge 


M. (S.R.) 


1922 


Yarmouth 


M. . 


1923 


Brooke 


P. (S.R.) 


1907 


Jersey. 






St. Helier 


P. (S.R.) 


„ 1911 


Guernsey. 






St. Peter Port . 


M. . 


1929 


Dorset. 






Poole and 






Bournemouth 


P. (S.R.) 
274 


„ 1910 



Royal National Life-Boat Institution 
England — contd. 



Swanage . 


. M. (S.R.) 


Built in 


1928 


Weymouth 


. M. . 


>> 


1930 


South Devon. 








Exmouth 


. M. (S.R.) 


»» 


1933 


Teignmouth 


. P. (S.R.) 


»■• 


1911 


Torbay . 


. M. . 


>> 


1930 


Salcombe 


. M. (S.R.) 


>> 


1922 


Plymouth 


. M. . 


»> 


1926 


CORNWALL. 








Fowey 


. M. 


>> 


1928 


Falmouth 


. M. 


>> 


1924 


Porthoustock . 


. P. (S.R.) 


>> 


1911 


Coverack 


. M. . 


„ 


1934 


Cadgwith 


. P. (S.R.) 


99 


1918 


The Lizard 


. M. . 


J> 


1934 


Penlee 


. M. 


„ 


1931 


Sennen Cove . 


. M. (S.R.) 


99 


1922 


Sctlly Islands. 








St. Mary's 


. M. . 


>> 


1930 


Cornwall 








St. Ives . 


. M. (S.R.) 


99 


1933 


Padstow . 


. M. (S.R.) 


99 


1931 




M. . 


„ 


1929 



275 



Ships and the Sea 
England — contd. 



North Devon. 






Clovelly . 


. P. (S.R.) 


Built in 1907 


Appledore 


. M. (S.R.) 


1922 


llfracombe 


. P. (S.R.) 


1910 


Lymnouth 


. P. (S.R.) 


1906 


Somerset. 






Minehead 


. P. 


1912 


Watchct . 


. P. (S.R.) 


„ 1901 



Weston-Super-Mure . M. 



1933 



Wales. 



Glamorganshire. 






Barry Dock 


M. 


1922 


The Mumbles . 


M. 


1924 


Carmarthenshire. 






Ferry side 


P. (S.R.) 


„ 1907 


Pembrokeshire. 






. Tenby . 


M. . 


„ 1930 


Angle, Milford Haven 


M. . 


„ 1929 


St. David's 


M. (S.R.) 


1911 


Fishguard 


M. . 


1930 


Cardiganshire. 






New Quay 


P. 


1907 


Aberystwyth . 


M. (S.R.) 
276 


„ 1932 



Royal National Life-Boat Institution 

Wales — contd. 



Merionethshire. 








Barmouth 


. P. 




Built in 1905 


Caernarvonshire . 








Pwllheli . 


. M. 




„ 1912 


Porthdinllaen . 


. M. 




1925 


Anglesey. 








Holyhead 


. M. 




„ 1929 


Moelfre . 


. M. 




1930 


Beaumaris 


. M. 




„ 1913 


Caernarvonshire. 








Llandudno 


. M. 


(S.R.) 


1933 


Flintshire. 
Rhyl 


. P. 




„ 1896 




England. 




Cheshire. 








Hilbro Island . 


. P. 




1901 


Hoylake . 


. M. 




1931 


New Brighton . 


. P. 




1905 


T . A "NT ft \ OTTT'DTj 1 


M. 




1923 


Lytham-St.-Annes 


. M. 


(S.R.) 


„ 1931 


Blackpool 


. P. 




1905 


Fleetwood 


. M. 


(S.R.) 


1912 


Barrow . 


. M. 


277 


1927 





Ships and the Sea 




Cumberland. 

Mary port 


England — contd. 

. M. . Built in 1934 


Isle of Man. 

Ramsey . 
Douglas . 
Port St. Mary 
Port Erin 
Peel 


. M. (S.R.) 
. M. . 
. P. (S.R.) 
. M. (S.R.) 
. P. (S.R.) 

Scotland. 


1931 
1924 
1906 
1917 
1912 


Kircudbrightshire. 
Kircudbright 


. M. (S.R.) 


1931 


Wigtownshire. 

Portpatrick 


. M. . 


1929 


Ayrshire. 

Girvan 
Troon 


. M. (S.R.) 
. M. . 


1931 
1929 


Argyllshire. 

Port Askaig 
Campbeltown 


. M. (S.R.) 
. M. . 


1920 
1929 


Hebrides. 

Barra Island 


. M. . 


1932 



278 



Royal National Life-Boat Institution 
Scotland — contd. 



Island of Lewis. 
Stornoway 


. M. 


Built in 1929 


Orkneys. 

Longhope 
Stromness 


. M. 

. M. . 


„ 1933 
1928 


Shetlands. 

Lerwick . 
Aith 


. M. . 
. M. . 


1930 
„ 1926 


Caithness-shire. 
Thurso 
Wick 


. M. . 
. M. . 


„ 1929 
„ 1921 


Cromartyshire . 
Cromarty 


. M. . 


„ 1928 


Banffshire. 
Buckie 
Whitehills 


. M. 

. M. (S.R.) 


1922 
„ 1932 


Aberdeenshire. 

Fraserburgh 
Peterhead 
Newburgh 
Aberdeen 


. M. (S.R.) 
. M. 

. P. (S.R.) 
. M. . 
P. (S.R.) 
279 


1915 

1921 

„ 1902 

„ 1926 

1918 





Ships and the Sea 




KlNCARDINESniRE. 

Gourdon . 


Scotland — contd. 

. P. (S.R.) Built in 1915 


Angus. 

Montrose . . M. . ., 

P. (S.R.) 
Arbroath . . M. (S.R.) 

Brought v PVrry M. „ 


1920 
1900 
1932 
1908 


FlFESHIRE. 

St. Andrews 

Anstruther 


. P. (S.R.) 


1909 
1933 


Haddingtonshire. 
Dunbar . 
Skaternw 


. P. 


1931 
1906 


Berwickshire. 
St. Abbs . 
Eyemouth 


. M. . 

. P. (S.R.) 


1910 
1909 


County Antrim. 
Portrush 


Northern Ireland. 
. M. . 


1924 


Down. 

Donaghadee 

Cloughey 

Newcastle 


. M. . 

. M. (S.R.) 
. P. 

280 


1932 
1931 
1906 



Royal National Life-Boat Institution 



Louth. 

Clogher Head . 

Dublin. 

Howth 
Poolbog . 
Dun Laoghaire 
(Kingstown) 

WlCKLOW. 

Wicklow . 
Arklow . 

Wexford. 

Rosslare Harbour 
Kilmore . 

Waterford. 

Dunmore East 
Holvick Head 

Core:. 

Youghal . 

Ballycotton 

Courtmacsherry 

Harbour 
Baltimore 



Irish Free State. 

. M. (S.R.) Built in 1931 

. M. . „ 1929 

. P. „ 1910 



M. 



1919 



. M. (S.R.) „ 1910 

. M. (S.R.) „ 1914 

. M. „ 1927 

. P. (S.R.) „ 1914 

. M. . „ 1925 

. M. . „ 1919 

. M. (S.R.) „ 1931 

. M. . „ 1930 

. M. . „ 1929 

. M. . „ 1919 
281 



Ships and the Sea 

Irish Free State — contd. 
Kerry. 

Fenit (Tralee Bay) . M. . Built in 1932 

Galway. 

Galway Bay . . M. . ,,1921 

Donegal. 

Arranmore . M. ,,1910 



282 



CHAPTER XX 

Some Well Known Ship Canals 

Amsterdam Canal connects Amsterdam with the North Sea at Ymuiden. It 
was opened in 1876 and has a length of 16 miles. At present it has a depth of 32 feet 
and a width at bottom of 164 feet, very much more than when it was opened. 

It is still further to be increased to a width of 330 feet and a depth of 50 feet and 
this will allow the largest vessels access to the port of Amsterdam. 

Caledonian Canal. Extends from the Atlantic to the North Sea, across the 
north-west of Scotland, and has a length of 60 miles, nearly forty of which are 
natural waterways such as the famous Loch Ness. Its depth is 17 feet and its passage 
forms one of the most delightful trips to be had in summer time. 

Corinth Canal. Connects the Piraeus (Athens) with the Gulf of Corinth and 
was opened in 1893. It is only 4 miles long but in places it cuts through cliffs 250 feet 
high and it has a depth of 27 feet and a width at bottom of over 70 feet. 

Elbe and Trave Canal. Opened in 1900 and has a length of 41 miles, a depth 
of 10 feet and a width at bottom of 72 feet. 

Gota Canal, in Sweden, was opened in 1832, it has a length of 115 miles and a 
depth of 10 feet and a width of 47 feet. It cost only £770,000. 

Kiel Canal, sometimes called the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal, its original name. 
Connects the Baltic with the North Sea at Kiel, the great German naval station. 

It has a length of over 60 miles a depth of 45 feet and a width at bottom of 150 feet, 
but as originally opened in 1893 its width was only 72 feet and its depth 30 feet. 

283 



Ships and the Sea 

Germany soon saw that, with the innroairing size of warships, the canal would 
have to be enlarged and the work was taken in hand and completed just prior to 
the outbreak of war in 1914. 

The total cost lias been in the neighbourhood of £20,000,000. 

The canal was of tremendoue value to Germany during the war, as it saves over 
200 miles in the voyage over the Kattegat passage. To-day well over 50,000 vessels 
use the canal during the year, ami ii wan de-mflitariaed under the terms of the 
Versailles Treaty, although whether it remains so to-day is open to doubt. 

Kronstad-Pethoc. kad Canal was opened in 1896 and is of considerable strategic 

Value. It is 10 miles long, has a width at bottom of 220 feet and a depth of 20 feet 
and cost about £2,000,000. 

.Malta (anal is the name given to the channel running between Malta and Sicily. 

Manchester Ship Canal at first met with tremendous opposition and its origina- 
tors were considered lunatics but it was eventually opened in 1894, and thus opened 
up the City of Manchester, 40 miles inland, to the sea. 

The actual cannl begins at Eastham Lock on the Mersey, and from there to Stanlow 
oil dock the depth is 30 feet; from Stanlow to Manchester it is 28 feet deep and its 
average width at bottom is 120 feet. There are bridges over the canal and so ships 
with tall funnels have to leave the top parts on the quayside at the entrance and 
pick them up again outwards. Topmasts also have to bo struck as the clearance 
is 70 feet only. 

To-day ships of 12,000 tons regularly visit Manchester and so the £19,000,000 
expended on the construction of the canal was more than justified. 

North Holland Canal. Connects Amsterdam wdth the Helder, a length of 
50 miles. It is 31 feet wide at bottom, is 20 feet deep and was completed as far back 
as 1825. 

284 



Some Well Known Ship Canals 

Panama Canal. Connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans across the Isthmus of 
Panama and saves the tremendous and dangerous passage round Cape Horn or 
through the Magellan Straits; it reduces the distance between New York and San 
Francisco by some 8,000 miles. 

The canal has a length of 50 miles and varies in width from 300 feet to 1,000 feet 
and it was officially opened in 1914. 

It is over 80 feet higher than the oceans on either side and immense locks, each 
1,000 feet in length, by 110 feet wide and with a depth of 41 feet, are provided for 
lifting the ships and powerful electric locomotives assist by pulling. 

At one part, called the Culebra Cut, which runs through great cliffs, over 100,000,000 
cubic feet of earth was excavated and this cut has frequently caused trouble on 
account of landslides which block the passage. 

It is said that this cut alone cost nearly £17,000,000 and that the total cost has 
been in the neighbourhood of £75,000,000. 

Approximately 5,000 commercial vessels pass through the canal during the year 
and the tremendous strategic value to the United States Navy can be imagined; 
the fleet can concentrate on the Atlantic or Pacific coasts within a few hours and 
both entrances are heavily fortified and the entire length carefully guarded to prevent 
sabotage. 

The idea of cutting a canal had long been the dream of many; perhaps Drake 
was the first to have the vision when he scaled a tree on the Isthmus and gazed 
upon the blue waters of the Pacific for the first time. 

Originally projected as a commercial proposition in 1879 by Ferdinand de 
Lesseps, who constructed the Suez Canal, it was to have been a waterway on sea 
level but after ten years' work, financial failure caused the scheme to be dropped 
until 1894 when another company carried on for a further ten years and then the 
United States Government took over the scheme which included the sovereign 

285 



Ships and the Sea 
rights over a ten mile strip of territory belonging to tho Republic of Panama and 
known as the Canal Zone. 

Tho greatest difficulty other than financial was to combat tho terribly unhealthy 
climate; workmen died in thousands until doctors and scientists overcame tho trouble. 

From Colon on the Atlantic coast (which curiously enough is 20 miles to the 
westward of Panama City on the Pacific Coast), by way of tho Horn is 10,500 miles 
and by way of the canal, about 50. 

For the first 7 miles from the Atlantic the canal is on sea lovol and then come 
the Gatun Locks which lift a vessel 86* feel up to tho level of tho Gatun Lake, the 
largest artificial lake in the world. Passing through the Gatun Lake at a speed up 
to 15 knots the ship approaches tho Culebra (Spanish for snake) Cut and reduces 
to about 6 knots for tho 8 miles ad later the Pedro Miguel Lock drops 

her 30 feet and the Miraflores a further 55 feet to the level of tho Pacific. 

Suez Canal is the outstanding example of the sea-level canal in the same way 
that tho Panama represents the lock system. 

Its total length is ST milc>s and it runs from Port Said in the Mediterranean to 
Suez at the top of the Red Sea. Ismailia is the half-way house. 

Its width at the bottom is 117 feet and its depth about 3 4 feet and the total cost 
to date amounts to about £30,000,000. 

From time immemorial a canal of sorts has crossed the Isthmus of Suez following 
very closely the lines of the present one although history records that this waterway 
became silted up on more than one occasion. 

Napoleon the Great was the first man within measurable time to consider its 
practical value and he actually had the land surveyed with the idea of putting the 
work in hand but nothing came of the idea and it was not until Ferdinand de Lesseps 
took the matter over that work was commenced in 1859. 

286 



Some Well Known Ship Canals 

Ten years later the official opening took place, although a ship had made the 
passage some four years previously. 

The passage occupies about fifteen hours and about 6,000 vessels, of which over 
half are British, pass through during the year. 

At night time vessels use powerful searchlights and it is a very impressive sight 
to see a liner make the night passage. 

As for the Panama Canal, dues are based on a special tonnage measurement, 
which is different from that used for other purposes and ships in ballast pay 2-875 
gold francs per ton and full ships pay 5-75 gold francs. In addition a charge of 10 
francs for each adult passenger and 5 francs for each child passenger is made, 
and approximately 320,000 passengers pass through annually. 

Much nonsense has been talked recently about the desirability of the British closing 
the Suez Canal against the passage of Italian ships; apart from the fact that this 
would be an act of war totally unjustified in the circumstances, we have no authority 
to do so. True, this waterway constitutes one of the principal arteries of the Empire 
and its security means everything to us, but we have no sovereign rights over the canal. 

The original project for a canal was approved in England, France, Austria, Russia, 
Turkey and Germany but the British Government showed almost open hostility 
to the whole concern and not a single application for shares came from this country. 
Palmerston described the scheme as " one of the greatest frauds of modern times 
to construct a foul and stagnant ditch." 

The majority of the shares were taken up in France, and practically the remainder 
by the Egyptian Khedive. 

In 1875 Egyptian finances were in a parlous state and upon it reaching the ears 
of Disraeli that the Khedive wished to dispose of hi3 shares, he, seeing the tremendous 
opportunity offering, purchased them on behalf of the British Government. 
Three British directors were elected to the Board. 

287 



Ships and the Sea 

In 1882 came the rebellion of Arabi Pasha against the Khedive's authority, and 
the French refused to help the British in quelling the rebellion and in defending 
the canal itself. 

When the rebellion was crushed and the menace to the canal disposed of, entirely 
by British action, the shipowners of this country maintained that the dues were 
too heavy and that they seriously handicapped business and that whilst at this 
time four-fifths of the canal traffic was British and we held nearly one -half of the 
shares, only three British representatives were on the Board. 

They proposed to petition the Government to construct a rival waterway. 

After endless conferences the " London Programme " was introduced,, whereby 
the shipowners' demands were, in the main, agreed to, and the British representation 
Avas increased to seven seats on the Board. From this date, 1883, the Franco-British 
relations have left nothing to be desired. 

The Suez Canal Company is registered under Egyptian law as an Egyptian concern; 
its President is always a Frenchman and there are twenty French, one Dutch and 
ten British directors on the Board and of these latter, three represent the Government. 

As the original concession to de Lesseps in 1869 was for a period of ninety-nine 
years, there remain only just over thirty years to run and at the end of this time 
the Canal will lapse to the Egyptian Government. 

Much depends upon the attitude of the Egyptian Government in power in 1968. 

No doubt very much depends upon temperament but to me the passage of the 
Suez Canal, whether by day or by night, is the most delightful part of a voyage to 
the East; there is certainly nothing much to see, but the colouring of the water, the 
closeness of the desert on either side and the glorious sunset effects leave an impression 
never forgotten. The cliffs at the Suez end, seen in the early morning, are bathed 
in a pink glow impossible to describe, and the effect of moonlight on the canal as 
seen from the crows' nest is one of ethereal beauty. 

288 



Some Well Known Ship Canals 

Inland Waterways in Great Britain. 

The canals of this country have often been badly neglected, although they are 
of priceless value both commercially and strategically. 

During the Great War their possibilities were recognised and an organisation 
known as the Inland Water Transport took over the entire management, upkeep 
and development, but since then much of the good work done has been allowed 
to lapse. 

There are over 4, 000 miles of canals in England and Scotland and well over 12,000,000 
tons of goods are carried annually. 

There are at present encouraging signs that once more they are going to be put 
to good use and especially is this necessary in view of the increasing congestion 
of the roads. 

The longest canal is that known as the Grand Union Canal which connects 
London with the Midlands and which has outlets into the Thames at Brentford 
and Limehouse and which has a total length of 280 miles. 

The system embraces the following canals : the Birmingham and Warwick Junction 
Canal, the Erewash Canal, the Grand Junction Canal, which itself is 190 miles 
long, the Leicester and Loughborough Navigation Canal, the Regent's Canal, the 
Warwick and Birmingham Canal and the Warwick and Napton Canal. 

Other large systems in this country are the Leeds and Liverpool, 145 miles 
long, and the Shropshire Union, 200 miles. 

The Hythe Military Canal, which wanders over the Romney Marsh, was 
constructed during the Napoleonic wars. 

The canal system is one which is capable of tremendous development and organisa- 
tion and with it would come the demand for more factory and industrial sites, and 
the entire oj)ening up wants to be tackled on a national basis. 

289 



CHAPTER XXI 



World's Greatest Seaports 



THE following arc a lew- 
annual volume of trade; 
purposes of interest. 



of the largest sea ports in the world measured by average 
the figures given are only approximate and are given for 



Antwerp 

New York . 

Hamburg 

London 

Rotterdam 

Singa:pore . 

Hong Kong 

Liverpool . 

Marseilles 

Southampton 

Genoa 

Colombo 

Shanghai 

Newcastle . 



Total tonnage entered 
and cleared 
48,000,000 
41,000,000 
38,000,000 
32,000,000 
31,000,000 
30,000,000 
28,000,000 
26,000,000 
22,000,000 
21,000,000 
18,000,000 
16,000,000 
15,000,000 
14,000,000 
290 



Value of 
trade in £ 

755,000,000 

604,000,000 

74,000,000 
168,000,000 
352,000,000 

76,000,000 
102,000,000 

122,000,000 
42,000.000 



Grand Union Canal 



WNtVtM I ONOTTlNCtmn 




5 10 30 lO MILES 




291 



Ships and the Sea 

Total tonnage entered Value of 



Cardiff 

Durban 

Montevideo . 

Kobe . 

Glasgow 

Hull 

Rangoon 



and cleared 

13,000,000 

12,000,000 

12,000,000 

10,000,000 

9,000,000 

9,000,000 

9,000,000 



trade in £ 
24,000,000 

20,000,000 
101,000,000 
70,000,000 
89,000,000 
51,000,000 



292 



CHAPTER XXII 

Various Kinds of Docks 

(^VER and above the general term docks, which is applied to a place where 
ships congregate to load or unload at quays or wharves, there are two very 
interesting types which merit attention. 

The first is the Graving Dock or dry dock into which a vessel goes when it is desired 
to clean or examine her underwater surface. 

In the old days the word " grave " meant, as applied to ships, " to ground," so that 
at low water she could be cleaned or repaired below the water line and the oldest 
dry dock in the world is that in which H.M.S. Victory now rests at Portsmouth and, 
which was constructed in 1495. Before this time, in fact from time immemorial 
hollows had been scraped out of banks of rivers to serve for the same purpose, but 
the one at Portsmouth is the earliest actually built. 

For all practical purposes here, dry docks are merely hollows cut into the ground 
which can be emptied of or filled with water as desired. Naturally their construction 
is one requiring all the resources of engineering skill and they are very wonderful things, 
but their chief disadvantage is that they are naturally fixed and cannot be moved 
about to keep pace with the shifting centres of trade and they cannot be enlarged 
without a very large expenditure of money and immense labour, and perhaps the 
adjoining ground is not available for expansion. 

• When the ship is in the dock, the water is pumped out and the entrance closed 
by heavy caissons or gates. 

293 



Ships and the Sea 

The largest graving dock in the world is the King George V Dock at Southampton, 
designed with a view to accommodating the giant Queen Mary and opened by the 
late King in July, 1933. It is 1,200 feet long and 135 feet wide at the entrance and 
at high water there is a depth of 45 feet. 

There are graving docks with a length of 1,000 feet or upwards at the following 
ports of the Empire: — 

Liverpool. 

Quebec. 

St. John (New Brunswick). 

Victoria (British Columbia). 

Also at: — 

Balboa (Panama). 
Boston (United States). 
Bremerhaven (Germany). 
Havre (France). 
Norfolk (United States). 
Philadelphia (United States). 
San Francisco (United States). 
St. Nazaire (France). 

There is, in addition, one of 1,300 feet long being constructed at BAHIA 
BLANCA, Argentina. 

Towards the end of last century the disadvantages of the graving dock were 
recognised, and as ships grew larger, many docks were rendered obsolete as far as their 
original intention of handling large ships was concerned, and so the Floating Dock 
began to receive attention. 

294 



Various Types of Floating Docks 






JS. 



j r"i a i 




_i m. 






rn ■ 



General Type of Box Dock. 





Depositing Dock with Gridirons. 



Off-Shore Dock. 



295 



Ships and the Sea 

Until the last quarter of the century floating docks; had existed in th form of 
the hulls of old ships fitted with a double bottom, or of wooden pontoons which 
had very limited value, but about this time the Russians went in for immensely 
broad battleships, almost circular in hull design, and no dry docks in existence 
could accommodate them; this gave an impetus to floating dock design and a floating 
dock, known as a depositing dock, was patented by 8 British designer and this 
proved so useful that rapid developments were made. 

Generally speaking a floating dock is shaped like a box with open ends and to 
receive a ship it is sunk to a depth corresponding with the draught of the ship and, 
the charge being warped in, the water is pumped out and the dock rises, carrying 
with it the ship. 

The body of the dock is called the pontoon, which is divided up into hollow com- 
partments into which water is admitted and from which it can be pumped as 
desired. 

Above the pontoon are built the walls of the dock, upon the tops of which are 
usually placed large travelling cranes and the control houses. From the sides project 
telescopic Shores, which help to hold the ship in position while she is being centred 
over the keel blocks laid along the centre of the floor of the dock. 

As the water is pumped out of the dock, bilge blocks are placed into position 
beneath the bottom of the ship and she rests comfortably, high and dry. 

Another advantage of the floating dock is that it can hold vessels of a greater 
length than itself and it can be operated at any state of the tide. 

There are two types of floating dock most commonly in use, the Box Dock, as 
described above, and the Sectional Box Dock, which is more often favoured now, 
especially for docks of great size. 

The latter type possesses all the qualities of the original box dock, with the additional 
advantage that it is made and built up in sections, each of which is a box in itself, 

290 



Various Kinds of Docks 

and this enables one portion to be docked by the others in the case of repair and 
facilitates the towing from one place to another. 

This type is called the Bolted Sectional and there is another called the Sectional 
Pontoon, in which only the bottoms or pontoons are sectional, the walls being con- 
tinuous, and so the pontoons only, can be lifted on to another portion. 

Sectional Docks can always be increased in size if required by simply bringing 
up another section and bolting it on. 

In 1884 the Off Shore dock was patented and this is similar to the docks already 
described, except that it has one wall only and the ship may be floated in or out 
broadside on. 

At many ports may be seen Gridiron, which are a series of parallel beams supported 
by piles driven into the river or sea bed. 

In conjunction with these is used a Depositing Dock, which is similar to the 
off-shore type except that the whole floor is divided up into a series of parallel 
" Fingers " with spaces between. A ship is lifted on to this dock in the same way 
as before, by sinking the pontoon, and the fingers of the dock are then pushed in 
between the spaces of the gridiron, the dock is once more submerged and the vessel 
is left high and dry on the grid. 

This system is largely used for small coasting vessels and it has the very definite 
advantage that as many ships can be deposited as there are grids to receive them. 

The process of lifting a ship is very rapid compared with the time required for 
emptying an ordinary graving dock and vessels of 30,000 tons can readily be lifted 
in about two hours. 

The largest floating docks in the British Empire are at: — ■ 

Devonport with a lifting capacity of 32,000 tons. 

Malta „ „ „ „ 65,000 „ (The largest in the world.) 

297 



Ships and the Sea 
Portsmouth with a lifting capacity of 32,000 tons. 
Singapore „ „ „ „ 50,000 „ 

Southampton ,, „ ,, 60,000 „ 

and there are large ones at: — 

Hamburg (Germany) with a lifting capacity of 46,000 tons. 

„ 38,000 „ 
Nicolaieff (Russia) ,, ,, ,, ,, 30,000 „ 

Rotterdam (Netherlands) ,, ,, ,, 46,000 „ 



298 



CHAPTER XXIII 

A Few Outstanding Dates Connected with Shipping 

1078. Establishment of Cinque Ports. 

1206. Press Gang first legalised for King's ships. 

1485. Establishment of Royal Navy by Henry VII. 

1550. Invention of sextant. 

1597. Hammocks introduced into Royal Navy. 

1599. Mercator's Chart drawn up. 

1608. Marine telescope invented. 

1661. Naval Discipline Act introduced. 

1675. Greenwich Observatory established. 

1703. Smoking first authorised in Royal Navy; permitted over tubs of water on 

forecastle only. 

1707. First experiments with paddle-wheel steamboat. 

1714. First steam-engine constructed. 

1735. Chronometer invented. 

1748. Uniform first introduced into Royal Navy, for Commissioned Officers. 

1785. First ship propelled by steam through pipe at stern. 

1780. Daily Divisions introduced into the Royal Navy by Kempenfelt. 

1787. First register made of Imperial ships. 

1812. First passenger steamer in Europe regularly employed. (Comet.) 

1819. First steamer (paddle with auxiliaries) to cross Atlantic. (Savannah.) 

1824. Foundation of Royal National Life-Boat Institution. 

299 



Ships and the Sea 

1838. First actual steamer to cross Atlantic. (Sirius.) 

1839. First screw steamer to cross Atlantic. {Great Britain.) 
1843. First iron steamships built in Great Britain. 

1848. Navigational Lights first standardised. 

1851. First submarine telegraph cable laid. 

1852. Continuous Service introduced into Royal Navy. 
1857. First International Code of Signals introduced. 

First uniform for lower deck ratings in Royal Navy. 

1860. First marine compound-engino introduced. 
First British iron-clad built. {Warrior.) 

1861. First gale warning issued. 

1862. First International Rule of the Road at Sea introduced, 

1863. Twin-screws first used. 

1864. White Ensign made the only ensign of Royal Navy. 

1869. Opening of Suez Canal. 

1870. First attempt to burn oil-fuel at sea. 

1871. First steamer with saloon amidships. {Oceanic.) 
Lloyd's incorporated. 

1878. United Kingdom Chamber of Shipping established. 

1879. First electric light in Atlantic liner. {City of Berlin.) 

1880. Triple-expansion engines introduced. 

1883. First steamer service on Great Lakes. 

1884. First twenty knot ships. {Umbria and Etruria.) 

First frozen meat brought from New Zealand. (Elderslie.) 
1889. First auxiliary cruisers built. {Majestic and Teutonic.) 

1893. Manchester Ship Canal opened. 

1894. First turbine ship. {Turbinia.) 

300 



A Few Outstanding Dates with Shipping 

1900. Wireless adopted by British Admiralty. 

1901. First permanent wireless in merchant ship. (Lucania.) 

1902. First wireless message across the Atlantic. 
1904. First Atlantic turbine ship. {Victorian.) 

Heavy-oil first tried for marine engines; experiments with electrical pro- 
pulsion. 
1908. Introduction of combined triple-expansion and low-pressure turbine. 

Gyro -stab iliser for ships invented. 

Port of London Authority constituted. 
1910. Water- tube boilers first introduced. 

1912. Loss of Titanic, world's largest ship, with over 1,500 lives. 

1913. First diesel-electric drive tried. 
Pilotage Act introduced. 

1914. Panama Canal opened. 
1916. Battle of Jutland. 

1918. Surrender of German Fleet to Royal Navy. 

Mercantile Marine given official title of British Merchant Navy. 
1921. First turbo-electric ship. {San Benito.) 

1923. Trevcssa lost in Indian Ocean; crew reach Mauritius after twenty-three 
and twenty-six days in open boats. 

1926. High pressure turbines introduced. 

1927. First Atlantic crossing by ship burning pulverised fuel. {Mercer.) 
1933. Direct Helm orders introduced. 

1935. Mauretania. which had held Blue Riband of Atlantic for twenty-two years, 

broken up. 
First ship to exceed 1,000 feet in length. {Normandie.) 

1936. First British ship to exceed 1,000 feet. {Queen Mary.) 

301 



CHAPTER XXIV 

Speeds of Ships throughout the Ages 

TT is not possible to present a complete record of speed in this little book, but 

a few figures may prove interesting. 

No very accurate figures exist regarding the ships of early times, so that we must 
be content with a few examples and the speed of steamships is given for the Atlantic 
ships, as it is on the Western Ocean that the highest speeds have been reached. 

The speeds given in all cases are the averages of the fastest passages recorded 
by them in the year mentioned and no attempt has been made to give the actual 
time taken in days, hours and minutes, partly because there is not sufficient space 
and partly because some of the voyages were from each to west, some from west 
to east and they were not all made between the same places. 

16th Century. Galleys. (Rowed by slaves). 4-4-5 knots for first hour 

when crews were fresh; drop- 
ping a knot for the next hour 
and then falling to 2-5. 
About 5 knots. 

18 knots. (Reached by 
American clipper Lightning in 
1854, a speed not exceeded by 
any vessel, sail or steam, for 
thirty years.) 
302 



18th Century. 
19th Century. 



Line of Battleship 
Clipper Ship 



Speeds of Ships throughout the Ages 



6-5 knots. 

8-5 
10-6 
11-7 
12-1 
13-0 
14-1 
15-1 
16-1 
17-2 
18-1 
19-7 
20-0 
211 
22-0 
23-1 
25-1 
26-25 
27-22 
28-55 
28-92 
29-68 



Steamships : 






1838. 


Royal William 


1840. 


Britannia 


1840. 


Britannia 


1847. 


Hibernia 


1850. 


Asia 


1851. 


Pacific 




1862. 


Scotia 




1873. 


Baltic 




1882. 


Alaska 




1882. 


Alaska 




1884. 


Oregon 




1888. 


Etrtjria 




1889. 


City of Paris . 


1893. 


Campania 


1894. 


Lucania . 


1902. 


Kronprinz Wilhelm 


1907. 


LUSITANIA 


1907. 


Maltretania 


1924. 


Mauretanta 


1933. 


Bremen . 


1933. 


Rex 


1935. 


NORMANDI 


E 



Warships have reached a greater speed than merchant vessels, although in the 
case of destroyers it must be borne in mind that they are so very much smaller 
comparatively, and the following give a few present-day high speeds. 

303 



Ships and the Sea 

Hood (Battle Cruiser) . . 31 knots. 

County Class Cruisers . . 32-25 „ 

Duquesne (French Cruiser) . . 34-5 „ 

Malin (French Destroyer) . 37 ,, 

Le Terrible (French Destroyer) 45-25 „ 

Blue Riband of the Atlantic. 

The North Atlantic has always been the scene of intense rivalry between ships 
and on it the highest speeds of merchant ships have been made. Since the advent 
of steam the rivalry has become International in order to secure the coveted honour 
called the " Blue Riband of the Atlantic," winch was entirely of a mythical character 
until 1934 when Mr. H. K. Hales presented a silver trophy. 

Actually the Italian liner Rex had given reality to the distinction some little time 
before by appearing in Genoa flying a long blue streamer. 

Since 1838 the honour has been held by the United States, Great Britain, Germany, 
Italy and France, the most famous holder being the Cunarder Mauretania, which 
held it from 1907 until 1929, when she relinquished it to the brand-new Norddeutscher 
Lloyd liner Bremen. 

The Italian liner Rex was the first holder of the actual trophy, holding it for a 
few months only, before relinquishing it to the French giant Normandie. 

To decide upon the conditions for the awarding of the trophj', an International 
Committee, representing Great Britain, France, Italy and Germany was formed 
and it was agreed that, as the distance to be covered was not always the same, and 
to avoid excessive speed by the competitors in crowded or restricted waters, 
it should be given for the greatest speed between given points and not for the 
time taken on the whole trip. Consequently the following routes were agreed 
upon : — 

304 



Speeds of Ships throughout the Ages 

Bishop Rock Light to Nantucket Light for ships sailing from the Channel. 
Fastnet Light „ „ „ „ „ „ ,, Liverpool. 

Cape Tarifa „ „ „ „ „ „ „ Mediteranean. 

At the time of going to press the holder of the " Blue Riband " is the French 
liner Nonnandie, which secured it in 1935 by her run from Southampton, of 4 days, 
11 hours, 33 minutes, at an average speed of 29*68 knots, a slight difference from 
the Great Western which secured it in 1838 by her run from Liverpool in 10 days, 
10 hours, 15 minutes, at an average speed of about 6-5 knots. 



305 



CHAPTER XXV 

The British Merchant Navy 

TT is difficult in a small space to give anything like a satisfactory sketch of the 

history, record and traditions of the British Merchant Navy. The rise of com- 
mercial enterprise overseas and the fitting out of properly equipped ships for 
mercantile purposes, may be dated back to the Elizabethan period, when, towards 
the end of that era, there were signs that a regular fighting force would have to be 
kept in being as distinct from the trading fleets. 

Up to that time and indeed in some measure for a very much longer period after- 
wards, no warships were constructed purely and simply for fighting the enemies 
of the country; trading ships were hastily commissioned and filled with soldiers 
and when the war was over the soldiers were paid off and the ships returned to 
commercial pursuits. 

When ships were designed as fighting craft they were often hired out to merchants 
in peace-time. 

Right down to the Napoleonic wars merchant ships carried guns to beat off the 
attacks of privateers and enemy frigates. 

British seamen, however, became known throughout the world for skill and 
bravery and the merchant service was undoubtedly the cradle of the Royal 
Navy. 

In 1864 the use of the Red Ensign was discontinued by the Royal Navy and 

306 



The British Merchant Navy 
became the national ensign and was officially adopted by the Merchant Navy in 
consequence, although it had almost always been worn previously. 

With the rise of the Empire the merchant fleets became the very arteries of the 
Imperial system and although few people seemed to realise the fact, their very lives 
depended upon its supremacy. 

The Great War proved the great testing time, and how well it did its job is best 
signified by remembering that His Majesty King George V, the Sailor King, ordered 
that in future the Service was to be known as the British Merchant Navy; later 
he appointed H.R.H. The Prince of Wales (our present King) as Master of the British 
Merchant Navy and Fishing Fleets. 

To the ordinary hazards of war was added the horrors of an unrestricted sub- 
marine campaign; 3,400 British merchant vessels were lost and 16,000 non-combatant 
British seamen gave their lives to keep our communications open. 

Not one man who survived the submarine campaign refused to sign on again. 

In addition, large numbers of officers and men joined up in the fighting services. 

The convoy system was introduced and although merchant seamen had little or no 
experience in keeping station or of steaming in fleet formations, the scheme was 
an immediate success. 

The bravery and heroism of British merchant seamen during this period was 
beyond all praise. 

The two branches of the sea services were drawn close together and a mutual 
admiration and respect was engendered which has never diminished; each side now 
understands the other's problems and difficulties as never before. 

Knighthoods were conferred on representative masters of the service as a further 
recognition of the debt owed to it. 

The trawlers and drifters spent their time fishing for mines and in laying and 
guarding anti-submarine net barrages, and the toll of ships and fives was high. 

307 



Ships and the Sea 

Over two-thirds of the United States 1 expeditionary force was brought over by 
the ships of tho British Merchant Navy. 

After the war, fleets had to he rehuilt and then oame the heavy fight against 
subsidised foreign shipping and the world crisis; GO. 000 officers and seamen have 
been walking our streets looking for employment. 

The tide has probably turned, but many ships have been sent to the shopbreakers 
and further men thrown on the Btn 

All is not well with tho British Merchant Navy to-day and the time may 
come when a Minister of .Marine will have to bo created to tako over tho whole 
problem. 

The Service has traditions as deep rooted ns those of tho Royal Navy and its 
officers and men are as loyal and devoted to their country as ever in the past but 
unfortunately all shipowners have not realised this. 

By far the majority of owners are beyond reproach, but others care little for 
the comfort, conditions of service and future of the men under their flag; a loyal 
and splendid body is in danger of becoming disgruntled and their loyalty is being 
tried very high. 

The Royal Family never ceases to show its interest and everything has been 
done by it to forward the interests of the personnel and to raise the status of the 
Service. The present. King became, as Prince of Wales, Master of the newly formed 
Livery Company of Master Mariners and at the Jubilee Review in July, 1935, 
merchant ships were present at the request of the Admiralty and Captains of liners 
and Skippers of fishing craft were presented to His late Majesty by the Prince of 
Wales, on the bridge of the Royal Yacht. 

No standard conditions exist in such matters as hours of service or annual leave 
or even of superannuation. 

The seamen have behind them the National Union of Seamen, which, be it said 

308 



The British Merchant Navy 

to its credit, has not often usurped its authority and wandered into the political 
field, but the officers do not wish for any similar organisation, although recently 
one has been formed. 

Requests have been submitted to owners unceasingly year after year, deputations 
have been sent to Parliament and Parliamentary committees have been formed: 
inquiries have been promised and efforts have been made to rouse the public conscience 
to a realisation of its responsibilities, but so far in vain. 

Some ships are run with the bare minimum of crew as required by the Board 
of Trade and watch-keeping officers are driven far beyond the endurance that should 
be asked of any man. 

Leave is given at such rare intervals that it ceases to enter into the consideration 
of many of these officers; their posts are too precarious for them to complain and 
they are not a company given to airing their grievances. 

The Merchant Navy forms as vital a part of Imperial Defence as any of the fighting 
services and it must be organised and handled with full consideration of this view; 
it is a national service and must be placed upon a national basis. 

At present many of the officers are too much at the mercy of the whims of 
individual directors and shore-keeping officials. 

Shipowners have had a very hard time in recent years, and their sea-going 
staffs are the first to appreciate it and to be willing to make their full share of 
sacrifice when necessary for the common good. The sacrifice has been too 
one-sided. 

The very high standard set by a great many companies, both passenger and cargo, 
only throws into high light the unhappy conditions in others. 

With regard to the service conditions of seamen. A standard is laid down by law 
but that law was framed many years ago before modern ideas of hygiene had advanced 
to the position prevailing to-day; they can be very strictly adhered to and yet 

309 



Ships and the Sea 
appalling discomfort suffered. A very large number of humane owners voluntarily 
provide much more than this legal requirement and reap their reward by contented 
crews and better all-round efficiency. 

The British Empire has still a supreme Merchant Navy and yet it is ranked seventh 
in this matter of humane conditions for its seamen. Slum clearance ashore is a long 
overdue necessity; it is not less so afloat. 

With regard to living quarters, sleeping space, light, ventilation, sanitation and 
general living conditions, far too many of our ships are a disgrace and even in passenger 
liners the stewards' quarters are often rather more than a scandal. 

Perhaps some day, if we succeed in setting up a co-ordinating body, continuous 
service may be made possible, instead of the time, labour, friction and waste, of 
crews signing on and signing off each voyage. 

Economic conditions must be faced and shipowners are no more philanthropic 
than any other body of business men, but all that the officers and men ask for is 
justice and it is the concern of every one of us to see that they obtain it before 
irreparable harm is done to the most vital industry of the Empire which depends 
for its very existence upon those men. 

They were lauded during the war; they are forgotten in the peace. 

Fortunately an important step was taken a short time ago by a considerable 
number of shipowners who drew up, and agreed to put into force, a scheme which 
provides for the standard conditions of entry, training and conditions of service 
of officers, and this is perhaps the beginning of a much wider movement but there 
is not doubt that, as in all industries, there are a few firms who will do nothing 
unless they are compelled by some higher authority. 

At present, officers are either apprenticed direct to a shipowner for a term of 
four years before they may sit for their examination for a Board of Trade Certificate 
as Second Mate, or else they serve as a Cadet in H.M.S. Worcester, off Greenhithe 

310 



The British Merchant Navy 

in the Thames, in H.M.S. Conway, off Rock Ferry in the Mersey, or at the Nautical 
College at Pangbourne. 

The progress of a youth apprenticed direct, depends very largely upon the com- 
pany, as some give a very thorough training and others give next to none, leaving 
it to the individual to pick up what he can although his parents may have paid a 
considerable premium for his Articles. 

Cadets in the training establishments have a very much better time and two 
years in either of these, counts as one year at sea; The Admiralty grant special 
privileges, such as the wearing of Royal Naval Reserve uniform and the offering 
of appointments in the Senior Service. 

For seamen there are the following principal institutions: — 

Gravesend Sea School, at Gravesend, Kent, which also maintains the T.S. 

Triton and which is for boys between sixteen and eighteen years of age, of 

good character only. 
T.S. Arethusa, off Upnor in the Meclway, which is maintained by the Shaftesbury 

Homes. 
T.S. Cornwall, off Denton in the Thames, which is a reformatory ship. 
T.S. Indefatigable, off Rock Ferry in the Mersey, which is for boys between 

thirteen and fourteen and a half years of age, of good character only. 
T.S. Mercury, in the Hamble River. 
T.S. Warspite, off Grays in the Thames, which is maintained by the Marine 

Society and which is for boys of good character only. 

The latter establishment alone has sent over 70,000 lads into the Royal and 
Merchant Navies. 

There are about 100,000 seamen employed in merchant vessels wearing the British 
flag, and of these about 8,000 are foreigners and over 43,000 are Lascars. 

311 



CHAPTER XXVI 

Merchant Navy Officers and their Duties 

AN officer in the Merchant Navy has to maintain discipline and good order 
by his example, personal behaviour and character; he has no Naval Discipline 
Act to back him up if necessary, and it must be remembered that the crew, although 
for the most part splendid fellows, have not had the training and discipline of the 
ratings in the Royal Navy. 

The men have a Trades Union behind them and this calls for even greater tact 
and character on the part of the officer who has dealings with them. 

That the standard of discipline and pride in the service should be of such a high 
standard is surely sufficient testimony to the greatness of the British Merchant 
Navy officer. 

The duties and conditions of service vary somewhat according to the company 
and naturally according to the size of the ship, and it is to be feared that in many 
of the smaller cargo vessels the barest minimum of officers is carried, but in all 
well regulated ships the standard is very much the same, or sufficiently so to be 
able to give some idea of their responsibilities. 

Some companies' ships carry several additional navigating officers, such as Junior 
Second and Junior Third and in others, every navigating officer must hold an extra 
Master's certificate. 

The Master, Captain or Commander is the supreme authority, naval and civil. 
He is responsible for the safe navigation of the ship, for the proper efficiency of his 

312 



Merchant Navy Officers and Their Duties 

junior officers and of his entire crew, and for the comfort and happiness of his 
passengers. 

Master Mariner is still the correct term and dates back from the old days before 
fighting ships and merchant ships developed along separate lines, when the Master 
was the sailor responsible for the safe navigation of the ship and the Captain was 
in charge of the troops shipped for fighting purposes. 

A man who, although holding a master's ticket, has never held command of a 
ship, should not be addressed as, nor should he use the title of, Captain. 

A Commodore is the senior Captain in a company's fleet but the title is by no 
means general. 

In times of danger the Captain is invariably on the bridge and he may keep it 
for days on end, merely dozing and snatching a few hours of sleep at intervals. It 
is the proud and true tradition that a captain of the British Merchant Navy is the 
last to leave his ship in the event of disaster; many have stayed on the bridge too 
long and have gone down with their charge. 

Many of the largest liners carry a Staff Captain whose duties are similar to those 
of a Naval Commander in ships which carry a captain in command. He is the senior 
executive officer and is the Master's right-hand man, sometimes devoting his 
attention to navigation but never relieving the Master of the supreme respon- 
sibility. The Master is referred to as the " Skipper " or the " Old Man " by his 
subordinates. 

The Chief Officer acts as the chief executive officer in a ship not carrying a 
Staff Captain or as the latter's assistant if there is one. 

He is responsible for the smooth working of the ship and rarely stands watches. 

He is responsible for the whole of the upper deck personnel and is usually entirely 
in charge of, and responsible for, the cargo. 

First Officer. In large ships comes next below the Chief Officer and below him 

313 



Ships and the Sea 

the Second, Third and Fourth Officers with sometimes Junior Seconds, Thirds 
and Fourths as well. 

These are the watch-keepers or the actual navigators of the ship. 

In smaller ships there is no First Officer, the Second coming next to the Chief. 

There is usually a senior and junior officer together on watch, the senior taking 
the title of Officer of the Watch or O.O. W. and he alone is responsible for the ship's 
safety. 

The Officer of the Watch has first and foremost to supervise the navigation; he 
has to receive periodical reports from the ship's police, master-at-arms, the carpenter 
and stewards. Bridge and navigational instruments are usually tested in every 
watch, as are water-tight doors, fire alarms and safety valves. 

At night the lamp trimmers have to report all navigational lights as correctly 
burning at each half hour. 

Any changes of course or other unexpected happenings have to be reported to 
the Captain. 

All these officers were formerly known as Mates. 

The chief Petty Officer on board is the Boatswain, who comes between the officers 
and the men, hence his nickname of " Buffer"; his is a very old title dating back to 
Norse and Viking times and he and his mates take charge of all the seamen. 

Upon the Boatswain rests a great responsibility and it very much depends upon 
him whether the ship is a happy one or otherwise. 

The Master-at-Arms is the head of the ship's police and takes charge of all the 
gangways, and usually of the third-class decks as well. 

The highest rank of seamen is the Able Bodied Seaman (A.B.), usually called 
Able Seaman. From them are chosen the Quartermasters who take tricks at 
the wheel ; they derive their name from the old days when the wheel of a ship was 
on the quarterdeck. 

314 



Merchant Navy Officers and Their Duties 

Below them come the Ordinary Seamen (O.S.) and then the Boys. 

This more or less completes the Upper Deck department. 

The Chief Engineer or " Chief," as he is usually called, has entire charge of the 
engine-room department, and is responsible only to the master of the ship. 

Below him are the Second, Third and Fourth Engineers who keep engine-room 
watches. 

There is never a First Engineer, although in large ships there is frequently an 
Assistant Chief Engineer. 

The Surgeon and his staff have entire charge of all medical duties ; the Surgeon 
makes no charge for his services, although most companies do not forbid the acceptance 
of any small personal gift. 

The Purser has entire charge of victualling and clerical work of the ship and 
large transatlantic liners carry a large staff of assistant pursers and writers. 

He is the host of the ship and has to see that perhaps 3,000 passengers and 1,000 
crew are cared for to everyone's satisfaction. 

He has to satisfy Board of Trade, Customs, port health authorities, emigration 
and immigration officials, port, harbour and dock corporations. 

He has to keep records of all the crew and prepare their wages so that at the 
end of the voyage, all accounts are up to date for the men to be paid off. 

He has to keep statistics of, and account for, every tin of baked beans or for 
every orange consumed. 

Perhaps some director wishes weird and wonderful statistics of his own kept, 
such as whether the passengers on A Deck consume more plates of soup than those 
on B Deck, the purser's department has to keep them. 

All passengers' laundry accounts have to be kept. 

The Purser's office is the bureau where all complaints are ventilated and believe 
me, there are many passengers who seem to have nothing else to do but to find 

315 



Ships and the Sea 
fault with everything and everybody and the more money the passenger has, usually 
the more is he or she disgruntled and objectionable. 

Oil has to be poured on troubled waters and it is the Purser's duty to do this. 

Ho has to be a statesman and diplomat and has to be ready to converse with 
any passenger on any subject; ho has to take charge of their valuables, if desired, 
and to find them if foolishly left lying about. 

He has to take charge of all the cash on board and to issue all stamps, library 
tickets and so on; he has to account for all sales of tobacco and liquor. 

He has to answer questions about places of interest at the ports of call and to 
arrange for sightseeing parties; he has to provide all information about hotels and 
their rates or about railway travelling facilities. 

He has to put up with abuse and rudeness. 

He has charge of the orchestras, the printers and the baggage masters. 

He is responsible for the printing and posting of all notices throughout the ship. 

He is responsible for all the deck games and sports and for the arranging of ship's 
concerts. 

Under him is the entire steward's department, in charge of the Chief Steward, 
who is often mistaken for the Commander of the ship as he is usually resplendently 
arrayed and makes it a point to be in evidence at the gangways. 

A ship may be full to capacity and a passenger may complain about his cabin ; 
the Purser must find him accommodation elsewhere. A passenger may have an 
aversion to his next door neighbour; the Purser must keep the peacs. 

This i3 just the routine work and conveys no idea whatever of the hundred and 
one odd things that crop up to make the Purser's life interesting and sometimes a 
burden. 

When a ship is delayed from docking at her proper time the work thrown upon 
the Purser and his staff is tremendous, because all the careful calculations regarding 

316 



Merchant Navy Officers and Their Duties 
wages of the crew are thrown out. Perhaps a thousand entries in wages sheets have 
to be altered in time for the paying off in a few hours' time. 

Some people ashore imagine that any fool goes to sea as a Purser if he is unfitted 
for anything else. If they ever travel and take the trouble to think that ship's 
officers are working to make their trip pleasant, they may be pardoned for thinking 
that a Purser is a fool to stick to his job, but any reflection upon his mental capacity 
in other directions will quickly be dissipated. 



317 



CHAPTER XXVII 

British Merchant Navy Uniforms 

TN 1918, as an appreciation of the services of the Merchant Navy during the Great 

War, an Order in Council prescribed for an Official and Standard uniform dress 
for all officers and ratings. 

This order has never been enforced, although a considerable number of companies 
adopted it, because a large number of the greatest lines had already had their own 
uniform for many years and officers were averse to severing the traditional associations. 

Both in the standard uniform and the individual companies' uniform the various 
branches are distinguished by coloured cloth of identical colouring between the 
gold stripes and this colouring follows along the lines of the Royal Navy, namely: 
Purple for Engineers, Red for Surgeons and White for Pursers. 

Some companies' officers wear their rank on their sleeves and others on the shoulder; 
some have chevrons and other stripes and the cap badge usually takes the form of 
the whole or part of the company's House flag surrounded by laurel or oak leaves. 

In some of the largest lines frock coat is worn for ceremonial occasions and on 
Sundays; mess kit is worn for dinner and white uniforms in warm climates. 

The seamen's dress is almost identical with that worn by seamen of the fighting 
service. 



318 



Standard Merchant Navy Uniforms 



CAP 





Captain 



i : 



BADGE 



m B 



Chief Officer 1st Officer 2nd Officer Junior Officer 





Chief Engineer Senior Surgeon Purser 

{Mauve between (Red between (2 thin gold 

Stripes). stripes). on white). 

319 



Wireless 

Officer. 



m 

Chief 
Steward. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

His Majesty's Customs and Excise and Coastguard 

'THE Customs officer in this country is usually so unobtrusively dressed that he 
is often overlooked. His opposite number abroad strikes terror by his very 
appearance, as he is usually arrayed in a semi-military uniform and is hung about 
with swords and revolvers. 

The headquarters of this highly important and hard-working department are at 
His Majesty's Customs House in Lower Thames Street, London. 

Commissioners of Customs were first appointed in 1671 and were housed by King 
Charles II in London. The present " Long Room," 190 feet over all, replaces that 
built by him and rebuilt after destruction by fire in 1718 and again in 1814. 

The Excise Department was amalgamated with the Customs Department in 1909. 

Customs officers are to be seen wherever it might be possible to land a dutiable 
cargo, and in former days they were greatly assisted by the Coastguard. Not only 
is every ship searched for contraband but a complete record is also kept of every 
vessel entering or leaving port. 

A strong force of plain-clothes intelligence officers is also maintained, and these 
men have a wide knowledge of drug traffickers and other undesirable characters. 

Customs officials co-operate with the Emigration Authorities and all Fishing 
licences come within their jurisdiction. 

320 



His Majesty's Customs and Excise 
H.M. Coastguard. 

Before the war the Coastguard formed a magnificent reserve for the Royal Navy 
in the event of emergency and it was a splendid body entirely controlled by the 
Admiralty and conducted entirely on Naval lines. 

In peace time their duties consisted of preventing smuggling, assisting at wrecks, 
looking after the rocket apparatus and generally keeping an eye on the coastline. 

Stations were at frequent intervals and all hoisted the White Ensign. 

After the war, with the demand for economy at the expense of the defence services, 
the Coastguard, as such, was practically abolished and the Navy lost a very valuable 
reserve. 

The present force called coastguards is maintained by the Board of Trade; the 
stations are very few and far between and it exists more in name than in fact. 

Apart from the folly of depriving the service of a fine body of reliable men it is 
questionable whether the move was a wise one from the point of view of economy; 
smuggling has been on the increase and will probably continue to be so, with long 
stretches of the coast virtually unprotected; fast motor boats can quite easily run 
a cargo ashore and with international dope syndicates taking a hand the need is 
rather for an increased organisation of coast watchers even over that of 1914. 



321 



CHAPTER XXIX 



Number of Ships Built in Great Britain and other 
Countries during this century 



Year. 


Great Britain. 


Other Countries. 


Total. 


1901 


639 


899 


1,538 


1902 


694 


956 


1,650 


1903 


697 


953 


1,650 


1904 


712 


931 


1,643 


1905 


795 


781 


L576 


1906 


886 


950 


1,836 


1907 


841 


947 


1,788 


1908 


523 


882 


1,405 


1909 


526 


537 


1,063 


1910 


500 


777 


1,277 


1911 


772 


829 


1,599 


1912 


712 


1,007 


1,719 


1913 


688 


1,062 


1,750 


1914 


656 


662 


1,319 


1915 


327 


416 


743 


1916 


306 


658 


964 



322 



Number of Ships Built this Century 

Year. Great Britain. Other Countries. Total. 



1917 


286 


826 


1,112 


1918 


301 


1,565 


1,866 


1919 


612 


1,871 


2,483 


1920 


618 


1,141 


1,759 


1921 


426 


953 


1,379 


1922 


235 


617 


852 


1923 


222 


479 


701 


1924 


494 


430 


924 


1925 


342 


513 


855 


1926 


197 


403 


600 


1927 


371 


431 


802 


1928 


420 


449 


869 


1929 


489 


523 


1,012 


1930 


481 


603 


1,084 


1931 


148 


448 


596 


1932 


100 


207 


307 


1933 


108 


222 


330 


1934 


173 


363 


536 



23 



CHAPTER XXX 



Merchant Fleets of the Principal Maritime Powers 

"pIGURES are given for vessels of over 100 tons and are approximate, for pur- 
poses of interest only, given only in round figures as the total varies almost daily. 





Steam 


Tonnage 


Motor 

and 

Electric 


Tonnage 


Total 
Ships 


Total 
Tonnage 


British Empire (In- 
cluding Great Lakes) 








1 






8,000 


17,000,000 


1,000 


3,200,000 


9,000 


20,200,000 


Argentina 


230 


250,000 


60 


62,000 


290 


312,000 


Belgium 






150 


340,000 


40 


66,000 


190 


406,000 


Brazil . 






260 


430,000 


30 


50,000 


290 


480,000 


Chili 






80 


140,000 


— 


— 


80 


140,000 


Denmark 






480 


640,000 


220 


400,000 


700 


1,040,000 


Finland 






250 


400,000 


50 


20,000 


300 


420,000 


France . 






1,200 


2,700,000 


170 


240,000 


1,390 


2,940,000 


Germany 






1,450 


3,000,000 


600 


700,000 


2,050 


3,700,000 


Greece . 






570 


1,700,000 


12 


5,000 


582 


1,705,000 


Italy 






800 


2,200,000 


360 


640,000 


1,160 


2,840,000 


Japan 






1,400 


3,250,000 


700 


800,000 


2,100 


4,050,000 


Netherlands 






760 


1,700,000 


600 


840,000 


1,360 


2,540,000 


Norway 






1,400 


2,000,000 


440 


1,900,000 


1,840 


3,900,000 


Poland . 






35 


62,000 


9 


32,000 


44 


92,000 


Portugal 






160 


230,000 


19 


7,000 


179 


237,000 


Spain 






700 


920,000 


150 


240,000 


850 


1,160,000 


Sweden . 






900 


970,000 


300 


560,000 


1,200 


1,530,000 


United States 




2,800 


11,400,000 


400 


750,000 


3,200 


12,150,000 


Yugoslavia 


150 


340,000 


13 


2,000 


163 


342,000 



324 



CHAPTER XXXI 

Tonnage of Various Merchant Fleets in 19 14 

and 1934 



British Empire 
United States 
Japan . 
France 
Italy . 



6-7 per cent decrease 
382-2 per cent increase 
138-5 „ „ 
69-6 „ „ 
101-0 „ „ 



Nearly £30,000,000 annually is paid in subsidies to merchant shipping by Foreign 
Governments. 



325 



CHAPTER XXXII 

Merchant Ships of the World above 30,000 Tons 









Nation- 


Gross 






Name 


Year 


Company 


ality 


Tonnage 


Length 


Speed 


Normandie 


1935 


Comp. Gen. Trans. 


French 


82,799 


962 


30 


Queen Maey 


1936 


Cunard White Star 


British 


80,800 


1,018 

(over all) 




Berengaria 


1912 


Cunard White Star 


British 


52,101 


884 


23* 


Bremen 


1929 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 


German 


51,656 


899 


27* 


Rex 


1932 


Italia 


Italian 


51,062 


817 


27* 


ElJROPA 


1928 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 


German 


49,746 


890 


27* 


CONTE DI SAVOIA 


1932 


Italia 


Italian 


48,502 


786 


27* 


Aqtjitania 


1914 


Cunard White Star 


British 


45,647 


869 


23* 


Ile de France 


1926 


Comp. Gen. Trans. 


French 


43,450 


758 


23 


Empress of Britain 


1931 


Canadian Pacific 


British 


42,348 


733 


24 


Paris 


1921 


Comp. Gen. Trans. 


French 


34,569 


735 


22 


Roma 


1926 


Italia 


Italian 


32,583 


706 


21 


Columbus 


1922 


Norddeutscher Lloyd 


German 


32,565 


750 


22 


Augustus (Motor) 


1927 


Italia 


Italian 


30,418 


711 


19 



326 



CHAPTER XXXIII 



Largest Merchant Ships Owned by Principal 
Maritime Countries 



British Empire . 


Queen Mary- 


80,800 tons gross 


Argentina . 


Juvenal (Tanker) 


13,896 , 


, ,y 


Belgium 


Leopoldville 


11,256 , 






Brazil 


Bage .... 


8,235 






Chili . 


Antofagasta 


4,798 






Denmark 


Frederik VIII . 


11,850 






Finland 


Josenna Thorden (Tanker) 


6,549 






France 


Normandie 


82,799 






Germany 


Bremen 


51,656 






Greece 


Byron 


9,272 , 






Italy . 


Rex .... 


51,062 , 






Japan 


Chichibu Maru (Motor) 


17,498 , 






Netherlands 


Statendam . 


28,291 






Norway 


Kosmos (Oil refinery) . 


17,801 






Poland 


Pilsudski (Motor) 


14,294 






Portugal 


Nyassa 


8,980 , 






Spain 


Cabo Santo Tome 


12,589 , 







327 





Ships and the Sea 




Sweden 


Kungsholm 


20,067 


United States 


Leviathan (Not in commis- 






sion) .... 


58,943 




Columbia .... 


24,578 


Yugoslavia . 


Kraljica Marija . 


10,196 



CHAPTER XXXIV 



Fastest Vessels owned by various Countries 



British Empire . 


. Queen Mary . . (approx.) 32 knots 


Belgium 


. Prince Baudouin 


. 25 „ 


Denmark . 


. Frederik VIII. 


. 18 „ 


France 


. Normandie 


. 30 


Germany . 


. Bremen . 


• 27 


Italy 


. Rex 


. 27-1- „ 


Japan 


. Chichibu Mara 


. 21 ., 


Netherlands 


. Prinses Juliana 


. 221 n 


Norway 


. Venus 


• 19J „ 


Sweden 


. Kungsholm 


. 18 „ 


United States . 


. Lurline . 


. 22 


Yugoslavia 


. Kralj Aleksandar I. . 


. 18 „ 



329 



CHAPTER XXXV 



Oil Tankers owned by Principal Maritime Powers 



British Empire 












450 


Belgium 












9 


Denmark . 












12 


France 












40 


Germany . 












30 


Italy 












70 


Japan 












25 


Netherlands 












80 


Norway 












225 


Spain 












15 


Sweden 












15 


United States 












400 



330 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

World Records 

(Tonnage in round figures) 

Fastest Ship in the World . . . Normandie (France), 30/32 knots 

Fastest Motor Vessel .... Prince Baudouin (Belgium), 25 „ 
Fastest Steam Ship . . . Queen Mary (Great Britain), 32 ,, 

[approx.] 
Fastest Turbo -Electric Vessel . . Normandie (France), 30/32 knots 

Fastest Ship across the Mediterranean Ville d'Alger (France), 21/23 ,, 

Fastest Ship across the Pacific Empress of Japan (Great Britain), 24 „ 

Largest Ship in the World . . Normandie (France), 82,800 tons gross 

Largest Motor Vessel .... Augustus (Italy), 30,400 „ „ 
Largest Steam Ship . . Queen Mary (Great Britain), 80,800 ,, ,, 

Largest Turbo -Electric Vessel . Normandie (France), 82,800 ,, „ 

Largest Ships to Australia 

Orion and Strathmore (Great Britain), 23,400 ,, ,, 
Largest Ship to Canada Empress of Britain ,, „ 42,300 „ „ 

Largest Ship across the Pacific 

Empress of Japan ,, ,, 26,000 „ „ 

Largest Ship to pass through Panama Canal 

Empress of Britain ,, „ 42,500 „ „ 

331 



Ships and the Sea 

Largest Ships to South Africa tons gross 

Athlone Castle and Stirling Castle (Great Britain), 25,500 
Largest Ship to South America . Cap Arcona (Germany), 27,600 
Largest Ship to pass through Suez Canal 

Empress of Britain (Great Britain), 42,500 
Largest Ship to West Coast of South America 

Reina del Pacifico „ „ 17,700 

Largest Cable Ship . . . Dominia „ „ 9,300 

Largest Cross-Channel Ships 

Amsterdam, Prague and Vienna ,, „ 4,200 

Largest Funnel-less Ship . . . India (Denmark), 9,500 

Largest Ore Carriers 

Amerikaland and Svealand (Sweden), 22,800 tons deadweight 
Largest Tanker . . CO. Stillman (Great Britain), 16,400 tons gross 

Vessel with Largest Refrigerated Capacity 

Avelona Star (Great Britain), 647,000 cubic feet in 80 chambers 



Records held by British Ships 
BRITISH RECORDS 
Largest British Ship 

Queen Mary (Cunard White Star Line), 80,800 tons, 1,018 feet long. 
Largest British Motor-Ships 

Britannic, Georgic (Cunard White Star), 27,000 and 28,000 tons 
Largest British Turbo -Electric Vessel 

Queen of Bermuda (Furness) 22^600 gross tonnage 
332 



Records 

Largest British Ship to West Coast S. America 

Reina del Pacifico (P.S.N.C.), 17,700 tons 
Fastest British Liner (in commission) . . . Queen Mary, 32 knots 

[approx.] 



WORLD RECORDS (Held by British Ships.) 

(Excluding records that may have been set up by vessels not at the time engaged 

in their regular service.) 
Fastest Cross-Channel Ships in World 

Cambria, Hibernia and Scotia (L.M.S.), 25 knots 
Fastest Ship on Pacific . . . Empress of Japan (Can. Pac), 23 knots 

First Motor-Ship on direct route to N. Zealand . . Rangitiki (N.Z.S.C.) 

First Oil-fired Ship on direct route to N. Zealand . Remuera (N.Z.S.C.) 
Largest Cross-Channel Ships in W t orld: 

(Tonnage) Amsterdam, Prague and Vienna (L.N.E.R.), 4,200 tons. 
(Length) Cambria, Hibernia and Scotia (L.M.S.), 395 feet. 
Largest Ships from London Britannic, Georgic (Cunard White Star), 28,000 tons 
Largest Motor-Ship to West Coast S. America 

Reina del Pacifico (P.S.N.C.), 17,700 „ 
Largest Ship between any two Ports of Empire 

Empress of Britain (Can. Pac), 42,500 „ 
Largest Ship ever to come to London 

Georgic (Cunard W T hite Star), 28,000 „ 
Largest Steam Ship in World 

Queen Mary (Cunard W r hite Star), 80,800 tons, 1,018 feet long 
333 



Ships and the Sea 

Largest Ship on Pacific . . . Empress of Japan (Can. Pac), 26,600 tons 

Largest Ship to Australia . . . Strathmore (P. & O.), 23,400 ,, 

Largest Ship to Canada . . Empress of Britain (Can. Pac), 42,500 „ 

Largest Ship to come to Manchester . Northumberland (Federal), 11,600 ,, 
Largest Ship to go round World . Empress of Britain (Can. Pac.), 42,500 ,, 
Largest Ship to pass through Panama Canal . . Empress of Britain 

Largest Ship to pass through Suez Canal . . . Empress of Britain 

Largest Ship to South Africa . Stirling Castle (Union Castle), 25,500 tons 

Largest Tanker in World . . CO. Stillman (Imperial Oil), 16,400 „ 

Ship with largest Refrigerating Capacity in World 

Avelona Star (Blue Star), 647,900 cubic feet in 77 chambers 



334 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

Some Hints for Recognition of Liners 

TT adds very greatly to the enjoyment of seeing ships if one is able to identify 

the line or company to which they belong, and even more so if the individual 
ship can be recognised. 

Since the increase of cruising it has become a little more difficult to spot vessels 
immediately, because instead of being on their regular lines or routes they may crop 
up all over the place. A Canadian Pacific Empress may be encountered in the 
Mediterranean or an Orient off the coast of Norway. 

To begin with, the most important thing is the colouring, and then the build 
probably helps to clarify matters a step further. 

Certain companies have hull colouring or funnel markings which are so distinctive 
that there can be no possible doubt of the ownership when their ships are seen. For 
instance, the Union Castle Line hulls are painted a very definite lavender-grey, which 
is almost heliotrope, and this is unique ; the Blue Star funnels are entirely original. 

The House flag will help in port but not otherwise, as it is not flown at sea. 

Another thing that complicates matters is the prevalent fashion for breaking away 
from tradition both in colouring and names, and some ships of a company are painted 
in one colour and some in another, such as the Orient liners; a little time ago the 
company decided to try out a deep cream colour for the hulls and so far two ships 
only have been so painted, the others remaining black. 

335 



Ships and the Sea 

The Peninsular and Oriental introduced the white-painted Strath class, and beautiful 
ships as they may be they do not look like P. & O. liners, but more like Canadian 
Pacific Empresses. 

By far the majority of ships have black hulls, but quite a number have grey and 
a few have green, but these exceptions must be learnt. 

White is increasingly popular and it is stated that a ship so painted is twelve 
degrees cooler than one painted black. All Canadian Pacific Empresses have white 
painted hulls and three buff funnels. 

Many ships have coloured or white bands running right round the hulls, and this 
helps very much in recognising them. All Canadian Pacific Empresses t in addition 
to being white as just mentioned, have a blue band round them, whereas the P. & O. 
Straths, which are also white painted with three buff funnels, do not. 

Before we move away from hulls there is still a further point which helps con- 
siderably and that is the colouring of the boot-topping or the strip of paint along 
the waterline. 

In the two instances just given, the Canadian Pacific have green waterlines and 
the Straths have red. 

The general colour for this boot-topping is red but there are many exceptions, 
among which are pink, green, blue, red with thin white dividing line between the 
red and the black hull, and white. 

The next thing to note is the colour of the upperworks, which in the majority 
of cases is white. The P. & O., with the exception of the white-painted Straths, 
have a deep coffee colour, officially termed " stone," and this to my mind is mag- 
nificent although many people consider it very dingy. A P. & O. with stone- 
coloured uppers, white -banded black hull and large plain black funnels, has an 
atmosphere entirely lacking from her lighter consorts. 

Some years ago some of the Nelson ships, which unfortunately have now been 

336 



Some Hints for Recognition of Liners 

merged into the Royal Mail Line, were given pale green upperworks with a view to 
counteracting the glare of the sun on the white paint. 

Most of the companies associated with the P. & O. had the same stone -coloured 
uppers until a short time ago, but the principal of these, the British India, has now 
reverted to white, although the General Steam Navigation, the Eastern and Australian 
and the Australasian United still keep the stone. 

Some companies may be recognised by the colour of their life-boats, as for example, 
two of the lines just named; the British India have black and the General Steam, 
a rich blue. The Canadian Pacific Empresses have brown boats, either painted or 
polished wood. 

Masts and spars vary in colour. Most companies have a deep reddish-brown, 
called " Mast colour," but some have cream, yellow, grey or white, and this is some- 
times the only difference between them. Both the Anchor and the Henderson 
liners are painted with black hulls, red boot-topping divided by thin white line and both 
have plain black funnels, but the Anchor have brown masts, and the Henderson grey. 

Lamport & Holt and Brocklebank liners have white masts but the former have 
grey derricks and the latter have white. Houlder ships also have all-white masts 
and derricks. 

Funnels are a chief means of identification although if taken without consideration 
to all the points already mentioned they may be a trap because many companies 
have the same funnel colouring; as an example, both the Canadian Pacific ships, 
other than the Empresses, and the Pacific Steam Navigation ships have black hulls 
with green waterlines and buff funnels but the Pacific Steam are all single funnelled 
whereas the others have two apiece. 

The Pacific Steam have as an exception the white -painted Beina del Pacifico, but 
she cannot be mistaken for an Empress because she has only two funnels, she has 
white boats and no blue band round her hull; also she has white masts. 

M 337 



Ships and the Sea 

As soon as you think that you have got the hang of the thing some infernal excep- 
tion comes along and upsets all your ideas. 

Many of the funnels of shipping companies have interesting associations, such as 
those of the Nitrate Producers' Steamship Company, which are painted in the racing 
colours of the late Colonel North, the nitrate king, and those of the Bulk Oil Com- 
pany, which carry the colours of the British Military Cross ribbon because one of the 
directors of the company was awarded this decoration during the Great War. 

Some buff colours are said to have been given because they were considered to 
harmonize with tropical sunsets and the shades of buff and yellow certainly do vary 
pretty considerably. 

When mergers or amalgamations of lines take place the colour of funnels of the 
combined company is sometimes a combination of the two. 

With regard to colouring, almost the last thing to note is the colour of the large 
ventilators both outside and inside the cowls; those grouped round the funnel, the 
stoke-hold or engine-room vents, are usually the same colour as the funnels and more 
often than not this is carried throughout, but in others, such as the Cunard ships, 
they are all white outside and very bright red inside the cowl. 

Royal Mail ships have white ventilators with buff inside and Booth liners have 
black outside with green in. 

Finally the crow's nest, high up on the foremast, may help, as some companies, 
such as the former Wlnte Star and many of the larger P. & O. ships, have white 
painted ones. 

Having taken in all the essential points of colouring the next thing is to note the 
ship's build although unfortunately many ships are again losing their personality 
because of the modern craze for uniformity; companies which formerly went in for 
two tall thin funnels now have one large fat one and so on, but' notwithstanding this 
there are certain guides which may help. 

338 



Some Hints for Recognition of Liners 

All Bibby liners are readily recognised on account of their pink funnels with black 
tops and their four lofty masts. 

Most P. & O. and Royal Mail ships have hydraulic deck cranes instead of the 
more customary derricks, and it is said that the former company adopted them because 
they were less noisy in working and in consequence did not rouse the ire of 
hot-tempered passengers. 

The French Messageries Maritimes have deck cranes of a quite distinctive type, 
as also do the motor liners of the Dutch Rotterdam Lloyd Company. 

The earlier Royal Mail ships have an island bridge ; that is to say there is a break 
between the passenger accommodation and the quarters for the navigating officers. 
Many Harland & Wolff products have the same characteristic. 

Orient and Anchor liners have " cowl- topped " funnels which look like very shallow 
hats. 

From this stage it is only a matter of experience or study to be able to identify 
actual vessels. 

If you see a four-funnelled Cunard ship you know that she must be the Aquitania 
because she is the only one in the fleet. Three of the six " A " class Cunarders may be 
picked out from the other three because they have an island bridge, as described above. 

Number and position of derrick posts, number of funnels and masts, shape and size 
of funnels all have to be taken into consideration but there is much that cannot 
be adequately explained. A seaman will tell you that a ship looks German or looks 
French, but it is difficult to explain why. 

If you are near enough to read a ship's name through glasses you are much nearer 
a solution of the problem of ownership, although here again, look out for traps. I 
have finished up with a list which may be useful and interesting as a general guide but 
remember that there are dozens of exceptions and much depends upon colouring. 
If you see a ship whose name terminates in " I A " do not jump to the conclusion 

339 



Ships and the Sea 

that she is a Cunarder because she might equally be an Anchor, a Donaldson or a 
Donaldson- Atlantic. 

All vessels belonging to a particular line may be named after the same system, but 
it does not follow that all ships so named belong to that particular company; all 
Union Castle ships are " Castles " but all " Castles " do not belong to the Union 
Castle. 



340 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 



Some Systems of Nomenclature Adopted by 
Shipping Companies 



Two or More Words, the First of Which is : — 



American 






United States Line (American) 


Anglo - 






Lawther Latta & Co. 


Baron 






Hogarth & Co. 


Batavier 






W. M. Muller & Co. (Dutch) 


Black . 






American Diamond Lines (American) 


British 






British Tanker Co. 


Cabo San 






Ybarra & Co. (Spanish) 


Cap 






Chargeurs Reunis (French) 


Cap 






Hamburg Sud-Amerikanische (German) 


Cape . 






Lyle Shipping Co. 


Cape St. 






Sun Shipping Co. 


Citta Dl 






Tirrenia (Italian) 


City of (American Citie 


3) Baltimore Mail (American) 




Ocean S.S. Co. of Savannah (American) 


City of (British cities 




mostly) 


Ellerman Lines 








341 



ClUDAD DE 

Clan . 

Djebel 

Duchess of 

El- 

El 

Empress of 

Essex 

GlBEL . 

Golden 
Highland 
Jamaica 
King . 
Kong . 
Kota . 
Lady . 

Manchester 
Mar 
Monte 
Otjed . 
Pacific 
Poelatj 
Port . 
President 

Prince 



Ships and the Sea 

Comp. Trasmediterranea (Spanish) 

Clan Line 

Comp. de Navigation Mixte (French) 

Canadian Pacific Steamships 

Comp. de Navigation Mixte (French) 

Southern Pacific S.S. Co. (American) 

Canadian Pacific Steamships 

Meldrum & Swinson 

M. H. Bland & Co. 

Oceanic & Oriental S.S. Co. (American) 

Royal Mail Lines 

Jamaica Banana Producers' S.S. Co. 

Dodd, Thompson & Co. 

Sondenfjeldske (Norwegian) 

Rotterdam Lloyd (Dutch) 

British & Irish S.P. Co. and Canadian National W. 

Indies 
Manchester Liners 
Urquijo & Aldecoa (Spanish) 
Hamburg Sud-Amerikanische (German) 
Cie. de Navigation Paquet (French) 
Furness Lines 
Nederland Line (Dutch) 
Commonwealth & Dominion Line 
American Mail Line, Dollar S.S. Lines and United States 

Lines (American) 
Canadian National W. Indies 
342 



Princess 

Queen 

Rio 

Saint . 
St. 
San . 



Santa . 

Scottish 

Sea . 

Sheaf 

Sidi . 

Stad 

Temple 

The (followed 

nobility) 
Ulster 
Van 

VlLLE DE 



Some Systems of Nomenclature Adopted by Shipping Companies 

Canadian Pacific Railway 

Thos. Dunlop 

Thompson S.S. Co. 

Comp. Navale de l'Ouest (French) 

North of Scotland & Orkney & Shetlands S.N. Co. 

Eagle Oil & Shipping Co. 

United Fruit Co. (American), and States S.S. Co. 

(American) 
Grace Lines (American) 
Tankers Ltd. 
Dover Navigation Co. 
W. A. Souter & Co. 

Soc. Gen. de Trans. Maritimes (French) 
Halcyon Line (Dutch) 
Lambert Bros. 



by title of 



J. Hay & Son 

Belfast S.S. Co. 

Konink. Paketvaart S.M, (Dutch) 

Nouvelle Comp. Havraise Peninsulaire (French) 



One Word with the Following Prefixes : — 

A (and ending in A) . Yeoward Line and John Brace 

Athel .... United Molasses 
Balt .... United Baltic Corporation 
Bakr .... Barr, Crombie & Co. 
Beaver . . . Canadian Pacific Steamships 

343 



Bel 
Ben 
Blair . 
Cairn . 
Camp . 
Cor 

Dag . 
Dal . 
Ex 

Fern . 
Glen . 
Gulp . 
H (Names 

deities) 
Har 
Hope . 
Ita 

Inver . 
Jala 
Lairds 
Langlee 
Loch 
Lit 
Ma 
Mont 
Mun 
Oil 



of 



Greek 



Ships and the Sea 

C. Smith (Norwegian) 

Ben Line (W. Thomson) 

G. Nisbet & Co. 

Cairns, Noble & Co. 

Comp. Arrendataria del Monopolio (Spanish) 

Cory Colliers Ltd., and Donaldson South American Line 

J. P. Pedersen (Norwegian) 

Campbell Bros, and J. M. Campbell 

American Export Lines (American) 

Fearnley & Eger (Norwegian) 

Glen Line Ltd. 

Gulf Refining Co. (American) 

Houston Line 
J. &. C. Harrison 
A. Stott & Co. 

C. de Nav. Costeira (Brazilian) 
British Mexican Petroleum Co. 
Scindia S. Nav. Co. 
Burns & Laird Lines 
F. Carrick & Co. 
David MacBrayne 
H. E. Moss 

Matson Line (American) 
Canadian Pacific Steamships 
Munson Line (American) 
Arthur Rapp & Co. 
344 



Some Systems of Nomenclature Adopted by Shipping Companies 



Or 
Pen . 

Silver 

Thistle 

Tji 

Tre 

Um 

Use: . 

V (and ending in A) 



Classes of Name. 

African Place Names 
Birds . 
Burmese 

Composers (Italian) 
Counties (English) 
(Scottish) 
Greek Heroes 
Gems . 
Lighthouses 
Indian Ranks 
London Suburbs 

Musical Terms ending in 
New Zealand Names 
(Maori) 



Orient Line 

Perman & Co. 

S. &. J. Thompson 

Allan Black & Co. 

Java-China-Japan Line (Dutch) 

Hain & Co. 

Bullard King & Co. 

R. Jones & Co. 

Gow, Harrison & Co. 



Elder Dempster Lines 
General Steam Navigation Co. 
P. Henderson & Co. 
Adria S.N. Co. (Italian) 
Federal S.N. Co. 
B. J. Sutherland & Co. 
Alfred Holt (Blue Funnel) 
Wm. Robertson & Co. 
Clydo Shipping Co. 
Jas. Nourse 

Watts, Watts & Co., South Metropolitan Gas Co. and 
Wandsworth Gas Co. 
0' Pelton S.S. Co. 



New Zealand S. 

S.S. Co., Ltd. 

345 



Co., Shaw, Savill & Albion and Union 



Painters, Poets, Etc. . 



Ships and the Sea 

Glover Bros., Lamport & Holt Line and (Italian poets and 
composers) Adria S.N. Co. (Italian) 



Professions 






T. & J. Harrison 


Shires (English) . 


Bibby Line 


(Scottish) . 


Turnbull Martin & Co. 


(Welsh) . 


Glen & Shire Line 


Titles of Nobility 


. J. Hay & Son. 


Two or More Words, the Last of Which is: — 


Bay . 


Aberdeen & Commonwealth Line 


Castle 






Union Castle Mail S.S. Co. and J. Chambe 
(North Country Castles) 


City 






Bristol City Line and Reardon Smith & Co. 


Coast . 






Coast Lines Ltd. 


Coombe 






Aid Shipping Co. 


Cords 






A. C, Cords (German) 


Court . 






Haldin & Philipps 


Dollar 






Dollar S.S. Lines (American) 


Fisher 






Jas. Fisher 


Force . 






W. S. Kennaugh & Co.^ 


Grange 






Houlder Bros. 


Hall . 






West Hartlepool S.N. Co. 


Head . 






A. F. Henry & MacGregor & Co., and G. Heyn 


Holt . 






John Holt 


Horn . 






Horn Line (German) 


Kntjdsen 






K. Knutsen 


DE LARRINAGA 




Larrinaga S.S. Co. 








346 



& Co. 



Some Systems of Nomenclature Adopted by Shipping Companies 

Ltjckenbach . . Luckenbach S.S. Co. (American) 

M^rsk . . . A. P. Moller (Danish) 

Mendi . . . Sir Ramon de la Sot a 

Monarch . . . Raeburn & Verel 

Prince . . . Prince Line 

Rickmers . . . Rickmers & Co. (Germany) 

Rose . . . R. Hughes & Co. 

Sang .... Indo-China Nav. Co. 

Schiaffino . . . Schiaffino & Co. (France) 

Socony . . . Standard Vacuum Transportation Co. (American) 

Star .... Blue Star Line 

Wo .... Indo-China Nav. Co. 



Single Words with 
Aas 

Anger 
Aren . 
Bank . 
Beath 

BORG . 

Bridge 
Bury . 
By 
Dam 
Dijk . 
Drecht 
Fels . 



the following Suffixes: — 

Morland & Co. (Norwegian) 
Westfal-Larsen & Co. (Norwegian) 
Transatlantic Co. (Swedish) 
Andrew Weir 
T. L. Duff 

C. K. Hansen (Danish) 
Crosby Son & Co. 
Capper, Alexander 
Ropner & Co. 

Holland-America Line (Dutch) 
Holland-America Line (Gargo vessels) 
Van Ommeren & Co. (Dutch) 
Hansa Line (German) 
347 





Ships and the Sea 


Field . 


Hunting & Son, and E. J. Sutton 


Fjell . 


Olsen & Ugelsted (Norwegian) 


Fjord . 


Norske-Amerika Line (Norwegian) 


Fontein 


Vereenigde Nederland (Dutch) 


Gate . 


. Turnbull Scott & Co. 


Haven 


. Van Uden (Dutch) 


Holm . 


Svenska Amerika and Svenska Amerika-Mexiko Line 




(Swedish) 


IA 


Cunard White Star, Donaldson, and Svenska Lloyd 




(Swedish) 


Ian 


United African 


lo 


. Cunard White Star 


Inge 


Constant Martin 


Ity 


. F. Everard (Begin with A) 


Kerk . 


Vereenigde Nederland (Dutch) 


Land 


Brostrom (Sweden), and Konink. Holland. Lloyd (Dutch) 


Leigh . 


. W. J. Tatem & Co. 


Lite 


Imperial Oil Co. 


Moor . 


Runciman & Co. 


O 


Ellerman's Wilson Line & Pelton S.S. Co., (Musical terms) 


Ore 


Ore Shipping Co. (American) 


Park . 


Denholm 


Pool . 


R. Ropner & Co. 


Rix 


Rix & Sons 


See 


W. Schuchmann (German) 


Side 


. Charlton McAllum & Co. 


Stad « 


A. F. Klaveness (Norwegian) 




348 



Some Systems of Nomenclature Adopted by Shipping Companies 

Stan .... Common Bros., and F. C. Strick 

Ston . . . . W. S. Miller 

Stroom . . . Hollandsche S.M. (Dutch) 

Ton . . . . R. Chapman 

Us . . . W. S. Seager & Co. 

Vard .... Kloster (Norwegian) 

Vati . . . . Bombay S.N. Co. 

Viken . . . . Wallem & Co. (Norwegian) 

Ville .... Comp. Maritime Beige (Passenger ships) (Belgium) 

Wijk .... Erhardt & Dekkers (Dutch) 

Wood . . . Constantine Shipping Co., France Fenwick & Co., and 

John I. Jacobs & Co. 

Worth . . R. S. Dalgliesh 



349 



CHAPTER XXXIX 

Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of all Nations 

(All British Vessels built in Empire unless otherwise stated) 

ALL are drawn to a scale of 300 feet to 1 inch; the tonnage is taken to nearest 
100 tons and the ships are arranged according to recognition, funnel colouring 
being taken first and then number of funnels, spacing and general build. 

Funnels are arranged in alphabetical order of colouring; that is to say, Black 
funnels, then Black funnels with markings, Blue funnels, etc. 

Black funnels 

Caledonia, Transylvania. — Anchor, 
British; 17,000 tons, 578 feet 
overall, twin-screw, 15 J knots. 
Built in 1925 and run in the pas- 
senger service between the Clyde 
and New York. 

Naldera, Narkunda — P. & O., Brit- 
ish; 16,100/16,600 tons, 600 feet 
long overall, twin-screw, 17|- knots. 
Built in 1918 and 1920 and run in 
mail and passenger service between 
Tilbury and Australia or Far East. 
Naldera does not have raised fore- 
castle. 

350 





Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Black funnels 



Champollion. — Messageries Mari- 
times, French; 12,500 tons, 495 
feet long, twin-screw, 17^ knots. 
Built in France in 1924 and runs 
in mail and passenger service 
between Marseilles and the East. 
Mariette Pacha is a sister ship, 
except that she does not have a 
Maier bow and in consequence 
is about two knots slower. 

Viceroy of India.— P. & 0., British; 
19,700 tons, 612 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, turbo -electric vessel of 
20 knots. Built in 1929 and runs 
in mail and passenger service 
between Tilbury and Bombay or 
on pleasure cruises. A very popu- 
lar ship and the first turbo-electric 
P. & O. : can be distinguished from 
other P. & O.'s by her derricks 
instead of deck cranes. 

Maloja, Mooltan. — P. & O., British; 
21,000 tons, 601 feet long, twin- 
screw, 17| knots. Built in 1923 
and run in mail and passenger 
service between Tilbury and Aus- 
tralia. Very similar ships in ap- 
pearance but smaller are Rajputana, 
Ranchi, Ranpura and Rawalpindi. 






351 



Black funnels 



Ships and the Sea 






Moldavia.— P. & O., British; 16,600 
tons, 573 feet long overall, twin- 
screw, 16 knots. Built in 1922 
and runs in tourist service between 
Tilbury and Australia and is also 
a popular cruising ship. As origin- 
ally built she only had one funnel. 
A somewhat similar ship, but much 
lighter looking and with thinner 
funnels is Kaisar-I -Hind. 

Kaisar-I-Hind— P. & O., British; 
11,500 tons, 520 feet long, twin- 
screw, 17 knots. Built in 1914 
and runs in passenger service 
between Tilbury and Bombay and 
is one of the most popular vessels 
in the fleet. During the war she 
was five times attacked by sub- 
marines. 

Andre Lebon. — Messageries Mari- 
times, French; 13,700 tons, 508 
feet long, twin-screw, 14 knots. 
Built in France in 1913 and runs 
in mail and passenger service 
between Marseilles and Far East. 
Very similar ships in appearance 
are Sphinx, Porthos, Bernardin de 
Saint Pierre and Explorateur Gran- 
didier. 



352 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Chella. — Comp. Paquet, French ; 
9,000 tons, 453 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, 20 knots. Built in 
France in 1934, looks like a motor 
ship and runs in the mail and 
passenger service between Mar- 
seilles and Northern Africa. 



Black funnels 




Felix Roussel. — Messageries Mari- 
times, French; 16,800 tons, 562 
feet long, twin-screw motor vessel 
of 15 knots. Built in France in 
1930 and runs in the mail and 
passenger service between Mar- 
seilles and the East. Is being 
altered slightly and may have 
Maier bow fitted. Similar ships 
in appearance but smaller and with 
cruiser sterns, Eridan> Jean Labor -de 
and Marechal Joffre. 




Slamat. — Rotterdam Lloyd, Dutch; 
11,600 tons, 510 feet long, twin- 
screw, 17 knots. Built in Nether- 
lands in 1924 and runs in .mail 
and passenger service between 
Netherlands and Netherlands East 
Indies. Lengthened and speed 

increased in 1931. 




353 



Ships and the Sea 



Black funnels 




Sibajak. — Rotterdam Lloyd, Dutch ; 
12,100 tons, 530 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, motor vessel, 17 knots. 
Built in Netherlands in 1927. 
Runs in mail and passenger service 
between Netherlands and Nether- 
lands East Indies. Very similar 
ship but with derricks instead of 
deck cranes, Indrapoera. 




Baloeran, Dempo. — R otterdam 
Lloyd, Dutch; 17,000 tons, 574 
feet long overall, twin-screw motor 
vessels of 18 knots. Built in 
Netherlands in 1929-30 and run 
in mail and passenger service 
between Netherlands and Nether- 
lands East Indies. 




Amarapoora, Kemmendine, Pegu, 
Sagaing,Yoma.-Henderson, British : 
8,000 tons, 466 feet long, 14 knots. 
Built between 1920 and 1928 and 
run in first-class passenger service 
between Glasgow and Rangoon. 
All ships are- not quite alike and 
Yoma has a raking stem. 



354 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Hilary. — Booth, British: 7,400 tons, 
424 feet long, 15 knots. Built in 
1931 and runs in passenger service 
between Liverpool and Brazil. 
Conducts the well known trip 
1,000 miles up the Amazon and 
can be recognised by half-white 
masts. 

President Doumer. — Messageries 
Maritimes, French; 12,700 tons, 
467 feet long, twin-screw motor 
vessel of 17 knots. Built in 
France in 1934 and runs in mail 
and passenger service between Mar- 
seiUes and the East. 

Cabo San Agustin, Cabo Santo 
Tome. — Ybarra, Spanish; 12,600 
tons, 483 feet longs twin-screw 
motor vessels. Built in Spain 
in 1931 and run in passenger ser- 
vice between Spain and South 
America. Largest Spanish ships 
and identical ship with only one 
funnel is Cabo San Antonio. 

City of Hongkong. — Ellerman Buck- 
nail, British; 9,600 tons, 490 feet 
long overall, 12 knots. Built in 
1924 and runs in passenger service 
between England and South Africa. 



Black funnels 





Black funnels with marking 





355 



Black Sunn eh with markings 



Ships and tbc Sea 






356 



Itanage, Itapage, Itap§, Itaquice. — 

Comp. Costeria, Brazilian; 5,000 
tons, 371 feet long, twin-screw 
motor vessels. Built in France 
and England in 1927 and 1928. 
Run in passenger service on 
Brazilian Coast. 

Tjikarang. — Java-China, Dutch; 
9,500 tons, 484 feet long, 12^ knots. 
Built in Netherlands in 1922 and 
runs between Netherlands East 
Indies and Chinese ports. 

Tjinegara, Tjisadane. — Java-China, 
Dutch; 9,200 tons, 441 feet long, 
motor vessels of 15 knots. Built in 
Netherlands in 1931 and run in 
passenger and cargo service between 
Netherlands East Indies and Chi- 
nese ports. 

Argentina, Brasil, Nordatjernan, 
Uruguay. — Johnson Line, Swedish; 
5,300 tons, 421 feet long, twin- 
screw, motor vessels of 16 knots. 
Built in Sweden in 1935 and run 
in passenger and cargo service 
between Sweden and South America 
or North Pacific ports. Similar 
ships in appearance are Annie 
Johnson, Axel Johnson and Mar- 
garet Johnson. 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Mangalore Mathura. — Brocklebank, 
British; 8,900 tons, 450 feet long, 
13| knots. Built in 1920 and runs 
in cargo service between the Clyde 
and Calcutta. She is typical of 
most Brocklebank ships, which 
can be recognised by their white 
masts. She carries about 14,900 
tons deadweight. 

Talleyrand. — Wilhelmsen, Norwe- 
gian; 6,700 tons, 461 feet long, 
twin-screw, motor vessel of 14| 
knots. Built in Germany in 1927 
and runs in service between Norway 
and United States or Far East. Rep- 
resentative of a very large type of 
ships owned by this company all 
the names of which begin with "T". 
C. O. Stillman. — Imperial Oil, 
British; 16,400 tons, 600 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, 11 knots. Built 
in Germany in 1928 and is the 
largest oil-tanker in the world, 
carrying about 22,700 deadweight. 
Aagtekerk, Almkerk. — United 
Netherlands, Dutch; 6,800 tons, 
493 feet long overall, twin-screw, 
motor vessels of 17 knots. Built 
in Netherlands in 1934 and run 
in cargo service between Nether- 
lands and South Africa. 



Black funnels, coloured bands 







357 



Black funnels, coloured bands 



Ships and the Sea 







Bloemfontein, Jagersfontein. — 

United Netherlands; 10,100 tons, 
487 feet long overall, twin-screw, 
motor vessels of 16 knots. Built in 
Netherlands in 1934 and run in pas- 
senger service between Netherlands 
and S. Africa. Bloemfontein was 
launched by wireless from Pretoria. 
Royal Archer, Royal Fusilier. — 
London & Edinburgh, British; 
2,300 tons, 300 feet long overall, 
14 knots. Built in 1928 and 1924 
and run in passenger and cargo 
service between Leith and London. 
Very popular ships with tourists 
in the summer months. 
Campana. — Transports Maritimes, 
French; 10,800 tons, 511 feet long, 
twin-screw, 15 knots. Built in 
England in 1929 and runs in mail 
and passenger service between 
Marseilles and South America. 
Similar ships in appearance are 
Florida, Alsina and Mendoza. 
President Coolidge, President Hoover. 
— Dollar, American; 21,900 tons, 
653 feet long overall, twin-screw, 
turbo-electric vessels of 21 knots. 
Built in United States in 1931 and 
run in passenger service between 
San Francisco and Manila. 



358 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Black funnels, coloured bands 



President Cleveland, President Lin- 
coln, President Pierce, President 
Taft, President Wilson. — Dollar, 
American; 12,600 tons, 539 feet 
long overall, twin-screw, 18 knots. 
Built in United States in 1921 and 
run in service between San Fran- 
cisco and Far East. Have ''goal- 
post" masts and somewhat similar 
ships are President Adams, Presi- 
dent Garfield, President Harrison, 
President Hayes, President Monroe, 
President Polk and President Van 
Bur en. 

Dunster Grange, Upwey Grange. — 

Houlder, British; 9,500 tons, 431 
feet long, twin-screw, motor vessels 
of 15 knots. Built in 1928 and 1925 
and run in the cargo service between 
London and the River Plate, 
carrying huge quantities of frozen 
and chilled meat. 

Monarch of Bermuda, Queen of 
Bermuda. — Furness, British; 22,500 
tons, 579 feet long overaD, quad- 
ruple screw, turbo-electric vessels 
of 21 knots. Built in 1931 and 
1933 and run in the luxury service 
between New York and Bermuda. 






359 



Black funnels, coloured bands 



Ships and the Sea 







360 



Eastern Prince, Northern Prince, 
Southern Prince, Western Prince. — 
Prince Line, British; 10,900 tons, 
496 feet long, twin-screw, motor 
vessels of 16£ knots. Built in 
1929 and run in passenger and 
cargo service between New York 
and South America. 
Clan Urquhart. — Clan, British ; 
9,600 tons, 526 feet long, 14 knots. 
Built in 1911 and runs in company's 
cargo service British Isles and 
Australasia. Easily recognised by 
her five masts and has a very large 
refrigerating capacity. 
Inanda, Ingoma. — T. & J. Harrison, 
British; 6,000 tons, 407 feet long, 
14 knots. Built in 1925 and 1913 
and run in first-class passenger ser- 
vice between Liverpool and West 
Indies. Ingoma has less enclosed 
promenade decks; their funnel 
colouring gives them the nickname 
of "two of fat and one of lean." 
Collegian, Craftsman, Politician, 
Statesman. — T. & J. Harrison, 
British; 7,900 tons, 450 feet long, 
14-£ knots. Built in 1922 and engaged 
in company's world-wide cargo 
service, carrying about a dozen 
passengers; have "goal-post" masts. 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



California, Pennsylvania, Virginia. 

— American Lines, American; 
17,800 tons, 574 feet long, twin- 
screw, turbo-electric vessels of 
18 knots. Built in United States 
in 1928 and run in passenger service 
between Pacific coast and New 
York. 



Black funnels, coloured bands 




Athenia, Letitia. — Donaldson- 
Atlantic, British; 13,500 tons, 526 
feet long, twin-screw, 15 knots. 
Built in 1923 and 1925 and run 
in passenger service between the 
Clyde and Canada. 




El-Djezair, El-Mansour. — Comp. 
Mixte, French; 5,800 tons, 403 
feet long overall, twin- screw, 20 
knots. Built in France in 1933 
and run in the mail and passenger 
service between Marseilles and 
Northern Africa. Similar ship in 
appearance but with thinner funnels 
El-Kantara. 




361 



Black funnels, coloured bands 






Ships and the Sea 

Pennland, Westernland. — Red Star, 
German; 16,100 tons, 600 feet long 
overall, triple-screw, 16£ knots. 
Built in Ireland in 1922 and 1918 
and run in service between Ham- 
burg and United States. Originally 
under British flag and carry a 
large number of motor cars. 
Taiyo Maru. — Nippon Yusen, Jap- 
anese; 14,500 tons, 600 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, 19 knots. Built 
in Germany in 1911 and runs in 
trans-Pacific service. 
Asama Maru, Tatsuta Maru. — Nip- 
pon Yusen, Japanese; 17,000 tons, 
560 feet long, quadruple -screw, 
motor vessels of 21 knots. Built 
in Japan in 1930 and run in mail 
and passenger service between 
Japan and San Francisco. Largest 
Japanese merchant vessels. 
Hakone Maru, Hakozaki Maru, 
Hakusan Maru, Haruna Maru. — 
Nippon Yusen, Japanese; 10,400 
tons, 495 feet long, twin-screw, 16^ 
knots. Built m Japan between 1921 
and 1923 and run in mail and 
passenger service between Japan 
and Europe. Very similar ships 
in appearance Fushimi Mo.ru, 
Suwa Maru, Katori Maru, Kashima 
362 Maru, Kamo Maru, Atsuta Maru. 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Black funnels, coloured hands 



Terukuni Maru, Yasukuni Maru. — 

Nippon Yusen, Japanese; 11,900 
tons, 507 feet long, twin-screw, 
motor vessels of 18 knots. Built 
in Japan in 1930 and run in pas- 
senger and cargo service between 
Japan and London. 
Chichibu Maru. — Nippon Yusen, 
Japanese; 17,500 tons, 560 feet 
long, twin-screw, motor vessel of 
21 knots. Built in Japan in 
1930 and runs in trans-Pacific 
service A single funnelled edition 
of Asama Maru class. 
Heian Maru, Hikawa Maru, Hiye 
Maru. — Nippon Yusen, Japanese ; 
11,600 tons, 512 feet long, twin- 
screw, motor vessels of 18i knots. 
Built in Japan in 1930 and run in 
passenger service between Japan 
and North Pacific ports. 
Costa Rica. — Royal Netherlands, 
Dutch; 8,700 tons, 472 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, 15| knots. 
Built in Netherlands in 1910 and 
runs in mail and passenger service 
between Netherlands and Central 
America. % Originally- 1 was ['Prinses 
Juliana of Nederland Line and was 
completely rebuilt and a second 
funnel added in 1932. 






363 



Black funnels, coloured bands 



Ships and the Sea 





Colombia. — Royal Netherlands, 
Dutch; 10,800 tons, 457 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, motor vessel 
of 15£ knots. Built in Nether- 
lands and runs in mail and pas- 
senger service between Netherlands 
and Central America. 
Oriente. — Ward Line, American ; 
11,500 tons, 508 feet long, twin- 
screw, turbo-electric vessel of 20 
knots. Built in United States in 
1930 and runs in passenger service 
between New York and Cuba. 
Ilmatar, Wellamo. — Finska, Fin- 
nish; 2,400 tons, 270 feet long, 14£ 
knots, built in Denmark in 1929, 
1927. Run in passenger service be- 
tween Finland and British Isles and 
are strengthened for ice navigation. 
Takachiho Maru. — Osaka, Japan- 
ese; 8,200 tons, 473 feet long over- 
all, twin-screw, 16£ knots. Built in 
Japan in 1934 and runs in passenger 
service between Japan and South 
America. Very similar ships Buenos 
Aires Maru t Rio de Janeiro Maru. 
Tairea, Takliwa, Talamba. — British 
India, British;, 8,000 tons, 450 feet 
long, twin-screw, 16 knots. Built 
in 1924 and run in passenger service 
between India and South Africa. 



364 





Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Black funnels, coloured bands 

Madura, Malda, Mantola, Matiana, 
Modasa, Mulbera. — British India, 
British; 9,100 tons, 465 feet long, 
twin-screw, 13 knots. Built in 1921 
and 1922 and run in passenger service 
between British Isles and Calcutta. 
Very similar ships, but without 
cruiser stern, Manela and Mashobra. 
Venus. — Bergen S.S. Co., Nor- 
wegian; 5,400 tons, 399 feet long, 
twin-screw motor vessel of 19| 
knots. Built in Norway in 1931 
and runs in mail and passenger 
service between Bergen and New- 
castle. The largest and fastest 
ship in the service. 
Hai Chen, Hai Heng, Hai Li. — 
China Merchants, Chinese; 3,400 
tons, 329 feet long. Built in 
England in 1934. Run in passenger 
service around China coasts and 
have English officers. 
Aguila, Alca, Alondra, Ardeola, 
Avoceta. — Yeoward, British; 3,100- 
3,700 tons, 320 feet long, 13 knots. 
Built beWeen 1917 and 1923 
{Ardeola 1912), and run inpassenger 
service between Liverpool and Las 
Palmas. Very popular ships and 
among the very earliest to cater 
for cruising passengers. 

365 



/A \ a 'J 




Blur funnels, black top 



Ships and the Sea 





Antenor, Hector, Patroclus, Sarpe- 
don.— Blue Funnel, British; 11,300 
tons, 499 feet long, twin-screw, 15 
knots. Built between 1923 and 
1925 and run in passenger service 
from Liverpool to the Far East. 

Kraljica Marija. — Jugoslav Lloyd, 
Yugoslavian; 10,200 tons, 515 feet 
long, twin-screw, 15 knots. British 
built in 1906 and runs in passenger 
service between Yugoslavia and 
Adriatic and Mediterranean ports. 
Formerly the Royal Mail Araguaya. 

Princesa Olga. — Jugoslav Lloyd, 
Yugoslavian; 8,500 tons, 450 feet 
long, twin-screw, 15 knots. British 
built in 1915 and runs in passenger 
service between Yugoslavia and 
Adriatic and Mediterranean ports. 
Formerly the Pacific Steam Ebro. 

Nestor, Ulysses. — Blue Funnel,Brit- 
ish; 14,600 tons, 570 feet long, 
twin-screw, 13£ knots. Built in 
1914 and run in passenger service 
(with large cargo capacity) between 
Liverpool and Australia. Nestor 
does not have raking stem and 
both have tremendous funnels. 



366 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels ol All Nations 



Blue funnels, black top 



Adrastus. — Blue Funnel, British ; 
7,900 tons, 459 feet long, 14| knots, 
built in 1923 and runs in company's 
world-wide cargo service. Typical 
of many of the company's ships, 
having distinct sag. 




Vandyck, Voltaire. — Lamport & 
Holt, British; 13,200 tons, 535 feet 
long overall, twin-screw, 15 knots. 
Built in 1921 and 1923 and are 
purely cruising liners. 



Blue funnel, white band, black top 




Jamaica Pioneer, Jamaica Producer, 
Jamaica Progress. — Jamaica Ban- 
ana Producers' S.S. Co., British; 
5,300 tons, 410 feet long, 16 knots. 
Built in 1931-1934 and run in fruit 
and passenger service between 
London and Jamaica, carrying 
about 10,000,000 bananas each trip. 
Producer has a cruiser stern. 



Blue funnel, 2 white bands, black top 




367 



Green funnels, while band, black top 



Ships and the Sea 




Pink funnels, black top 





Santa Elena, Santa Lucia, Santa 
Paula, Santa Rosa. — Grace, Ameri- 
can; 9,100 tons, 508 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, 20 knots. 
Built in United States in 1932 and 
run in passenger service between 
New York and Pacific Coast or 
West Coast of South America. 
Special smoke -deflecting cowl on 
fore -funnel. 

Worcestershire. — Bibby , British ; 
11,500 tons, 483 feet long, twin- 
screw motor vessel. Built in 1931 
and runs in first -class mail and 
passenger service between Liver- 
pool and Rangoon. Derbyshire is 
very similar ship and all Bibby 
vessels have four lofty masts. 

Oxfordshire.— Bibby, British; 8,600 
tons, 474 feet long, twin-screw, 
15 knots. Built in 1912 and runs 
in mail and passenger service 
between Liverpool and Rangoon. 
The only pre-war Bibby left and 
had a very distinguished war record, 
steaming over 172,000 miles as 
hospital ship without any machinery 
defect. 



368 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Yorkshire.— Bibby, British; 10,200 
tons, 482 feet long, twin-screw, 
15 knots. Built in 1920 and runs 
in first-class passenger and mail 
service between Liverpool and 
Rangoon. The only " flush-decked" 
Bibby. 



Pink funnel, black top 




Red funnels, black lop 




Aquitania. — Cunard White Star, British; 45,700 tons, 901 feet long overall, quad- 
ruple-screw, 23 knots. Built in 1914 and runs in mail and passenger service between 
Southampton and New York and is sometimes engaged on cruising. Probably the 
most beautiful ship afloat, she performed sterling war-service both as hospital ship 
and transport: longest British built vessel afloat until Queen Mary; 4th funnel is dummy. 

Arundel Castle, Windsor Castle. — 

Union Castle, British; 19,000 tons, 
630 feet long, twin-screw, 18 knots. 
Built in 1922 and run in mail and 
passenger service between South- 
ampton and Cape Town. Windsor 
Castle carried H.R.H. Prince George 
{Duke of Kent) home from South 
Africa in 1934. 369 




Ships and the Sea 



Red funnels, black top 




Queen Mary. — Cunard White Star, British; 80,800 tons (approx.), 1,018 feet long 
overall, quadruple-screw, 32 knots (approx.)- Built in 1936 and runs in 'mail and 
passenger service between Southampton and New York. The largest British vessel. 
Launched and named by H.M. Queen Mary, she was held up for over two years on 
the stocks on account of economic depression; from keel to masthead measures 234 
feet and to top of first funnel, 180 feet. 



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Normandie. — French Line, French; 82,800 tons, 1,027 feet long overall, quadruple- 
screw, turbo -electric vessel of 30 knots. Built in France in 1935 and runs in mail and 
passenger service between Havre and New York. She is largest vessel in world and 
gained " Blue Riband" for France; suffered excessively from vibration and had to be 
reconstructed aft ; her funnels widen out at the base on either side. 
Slightly altered in appearance since drawing was made. 

370 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Red funnels, black top 




Berengaria. — Cunard White Star, British; 52,000 tons, 909 feet long overall, 
quadruple-screw, 23 knots. Built in Germany in 1912 as Hamburg-Amerika 
Imperator, and runs in mail and passenger service between Southampton and 
New York; her third funnel is a dummy. 

He de France. — French Line, 
French; 43,500 tons, 764 feet long, 
quadruple -screw, 23 knots. Built 
in France in 1926 and runs in mail 
and passenger service between 
Havre and New York. Can be 
distinguished from Paris by wider 
spaced funnels. 

Paris. — French Line, French ; 34,600 
tons. 735 feet long, quadruple - 
screw, 21^ knots. Built in France 
in 1921 and runs in mail and- 
passenger service between Havre 
and New York. A very beautiful 
and popular ship. 

371 





Red funnels, black top 



Ships and the Sea 




Balmoral Castle, Edinburgh Castle. 
— Union Castle, British; 13,400 
tons, 570 feet long, twin-screw, 
17 knots. Built in 1910 and run 
in mail and passenger service 
between Southampton and Cape 
Town. Very beautiful ships and 
similar in appearance to Armadale 
Castle and Ke.nilwor.th Castle. 




Aorangi. — Can. Australasian, Brit- 
ish; 17,500 tons, 600 feet long 
overall, quadruple-screw, motor 
vessel of 18£ knots. Built in 1924 
and runs in mail and passenger 
service between Sydney and Van- 
couver. At time of her build she 
was fastest British motor ship. 




Ville D'Alger, Ville D'Oran.— 

French Line, French; 10,200 tons, 
492 feet long overall, twin-screw, 
23 knots. Built in France in 1935 
and 1936 and run in express service 
"between Marseilles and Algiers 
and are fastest ships across the 
Mediterranean. Especially designed 
for quick conversion to troopers. 



372 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Golombie. — French Line, French ; 
13,400 tons, 480 feet long, twin- 
screw, 15£ knots. Built in France 
in 1931 and runs in cruising service 
between France and the West 
Indies and Central America. Similar 
ship in appearance, also white - 
painted, is Cuba. 



Red funnels, black top 




Warwick Castle, Winchester Castle. 

— Union Castle, British; 20,400 
tons, 652/632 feet long, twin-screw, 
motor vessels of 17 knots. Built 
in 1931 and run in mail and 
passenger service between South- 
ampton and Capo Town. Carnarvon 
Castle is similar but has straight 
stem and boats " sitting " on deck. 




Llangibby Castle. — Union Castle, 
British; 12,000 tons, 486 feet long, 
twin-screw, motor vessel of 15J 
knots. Built in 1929 and runs in 
intermediate passenger service 
between London and South Africa. 
Very similar vessel is Dunbar Castle, 
and both are smaller editions of the 
large motor vessels. 




373 



Red funnels, black top 



Ships and the Sea 




374 



Carinthia & Franconia. — Cunard 
White Star British; 20,300 tons, 625 
feet long overall, twin-screw, 16£ 
knots. Built in 1925 and engaged 
principally in cruising. 



Very similar ships to above, but 
having isolated bridges," are Laconia, 
Samaria and Scythia. 



Champlain. — French Line, French; 
28,100 tons, 641 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, 19 knots. Built in 
France in 1932 and runs between 
Havre and New York. Very similar 
ship in appearance, but without 
cowl to funnel and without second 
mast, is motorship Lafayette. 

Lady o£ Mann. — Isle of Man Line, 
British; 3,100 tons, 364 feet long, 
twin-screw, 23 knots. Built in 
1930 and runs in mail and passenger 
service between Liverpool and 
Douglas. Very similar ships in 
appearance are Ben-My-Chree and 
Mona's Queen, but latter has high 
forecastle extending to bridge front. 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Duntroon. — Melbourne, British ; 
10,300 tons, 470 feet long overall, 
twin-screw motor vessel of 18 
knots. Built in 1935 and runs in 
Australian coastal passenger service. 
" A " Class Cunard White Star, 
British; 14,000 tons, 538 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, 15 knots. 
Built between 1921 and 1925 and run 
in passenger service between British 
Isles, Canada and United States. 
There are two classes, Andania, 
Antonia and Ausonia, which are as 
illustrated, and Alaunia, Ascania 
and Aurania, which have no isolated 
bridge. They are to be increased 
in speed shortly. 

Lancastria. — Cunard White Star, 
British; 16,200 tons, 578 feet long 
overall, twin-serew, 16 J knots. 
Built in 1922 and now engaged 
largely on cruising. 
Gloucester Castle. — Union Castle, 
British; 8,000 tons, 453 feet long, 
twin-screw, 12 knots. Built in 
1911 and engaged in the inter- 
mediate passenger service between 
London and South and East 
Africa. Similar ships are Garth 
Castle, Grantully Castle, Dunluce 
Castle and Durham Castle. 



Bed funnels, black top 





"**&'■. ■ - . ■,. -.■ ~ — ■■ ■: ; . 




375 



Red funnels, black top 



Ships and the Sea 







St. Andrew, St. David.— G.W.R. 
British; 2,700 tons, 327 feet long, 
twin-screw, 21 knots. Built in 
1932 and run in mail and passenger 
service between Fishguard and 
Rosslare. Similar ships are St. 
Helier, St. Julien engaged on the 
Weymouth service and St. Patrick. 

Gibel Dersa. — Bland, British; 1,200 
tons, 300 feet long, twin-screw, 
19 knots. Built in 1897 and 
runs in mail and passenger service 
between Gibraltar and African 
coast. A very well-known vessel 
and formerly Duchess of Devonshire. 

Port Chalmers, Port Wyndham. — 

Port Line, British; 8,500 tons, 492 
feet long overall, twin-screw, motor 
vessels of 16* knots. Built in 1933 
and 1935 and run in cargo service 
between London and Australasia, 
having immense refrigerated space. 

Cadillac, Saranac. — Anglo-American 
Oil, British; 12,100 tons, 530 feet 
long, 11 knots. Built in 1917/1918 
and having a deadweight capacity 
of 17,300 tons for carriage of 
petroleum; new midships sections 
were fitted in 1931. 



376 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Red. funnels with markings and black tops 



Dorset, Durham. — Federal, British; 
10,900 tons, 513 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, motor vessels of 17 
knots. Built in 1934 and have 
nearly 500,000 cubic feet of re- 
frigerated space for the carriage 
of meat from Australia and New 
Zealand. Carry no passengers 
but have accommodation for a 
considerable number of cadets 
and are splendid examples of the 
modern cargo liner. 
Northumberland. — Federal, British ; 
11,600 tons, 531 feet long, twin- 
screw, 15 knots. Built in 1915 and 
runs in refrigerated meat trade 
between British and Australasian 
ports. The largest ship to go up 
Manchester Ship Canal and not 
unlike Westmoreland and Cambridge. 
Now has only two masts. 

Almeda Star, Andalucia Star. — 
Blue Star, British; 14,900 tons, 
579 feet long overall, twin-screw, 
16 knots. Built in 1927, and 
lengthened in 1935, run in passenger 
service between London and South 
America and have large refrigerated 
capacity. Similar ship is Avila Star. 
Andalucia Star has no mainmast. 






377 



Bed funnels with markings and black tops 



Ships and the Sea 




Arandora Star. — Blue Star, British; 
15,300 tons, 535 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, 16 knots. Built in 
1927, altered in 1934 and again in 
1935, when she had mainmast 
removed. Engaged purely on 
cruising and known as " The 
Chocolate Box." 

Slightly altered aft since drawing 
was made. 




Avelona Star. — Blue Star, British; 
13,400 tons, 510 feet long, twin- 
screw, 16 knots. Built in 1927 
and altered very considerably 
several times recently, originally 
having two funnels. Engaged in 
frozen meat trade between British 
Isles and South America and has 
647,000 cubic feet of refrigerated 
space, the largest in any ship. 




Australia Star, Dunedin Star, 
Empire Star, Imperial Star, New 
Zealand Star, Sydney Star. — Blue 
Star, British; 11,100 tons, 517 
feet long, twin- screw, motor vessels. 
Engaged in frozen meat trade 
between Australia and British 
Isles; all built in 1935 and 1936. 



378 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Red funnels, coloured bands, black or blue top* 



Manchester Regiment. — Manchester 
Liners, British; 6,000 tons, 450 feet 
long, 15 knots. Built in 1922 and 
engaged in cargo service between 
Manchester, Canadian and United 
States ports. Has " goal-post " 
masts, accommodation for a few 
passengers and special facilities 
for 512 head of cattle. 
British Advocate. — British Tankers, 
British; 7,000 tons, 440 feet long, 
10 knots. Built in 1922 and runs 
in petroleum trade between Persian 
Gulf and British ports. Repre- 
sentative of a very large class of 
ships owned by this company. 

Patria, Providence. — Fabre Line, 
French; 11,900 tons, 511 feet long, 
twin-screw, 15 knots. Built in 
France 1913 and 1915 and run in 
mail and passenger servicfe between 
Marseilles and Beirut. Sometimes go 
cruising and are then white -painted. 

Manhattan, Washington. — United 
States Lines, American ; 24, 300 tons, 
705 feet long overall, twin-screw, 
20 knots. Built in United States 
in 1932 and 1933 and run in mail 
and passenger service between 
New York and Europe. 






379 



Red funnels, white band, blue top 



Ships and the Sea 




President Harding, President Roose- 
velt. — United Statas Lines, Ameri- 
can; 13,900 tons, 535 feet long over- 
all, twin-screw, 19 knots. Built in 
United States and run in passenger 
service between New York and 
Europe. Have " goal-post " masts. 

Lady Drake, Lady Hawkins, Lady 
Nelson, Lady Rodney, Lady Somers. 

—Can. National, British; 8,000 
tons, 420 feet long, twin-screw, 
14 knots. Built in 1928 and 1929 
and run in passenger trade between 
Canadian and West Indian ports. 

Empress of Britain. — Can. Pacific, 
British; 42,300 tons, 750 feet long 
overall, quadruple-screw, 24 knots. 
Built in 1931 and runs in mail 
and passenger service between 
Southampton and Quebec except 
in winter, when she is engaged on 
world cruising. 

Empress of Japan. — Can. Pacific, 
British; 26,000 tons, 666 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, 24 knots. 
Built in 1930 and runs on mail 
and passenger service between 
Vancouver and Hong Kong, holding 
" Blue Riband " of the Pacific. 



380 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Strathaird, Strathnaver. — P. & O., 
British; 22,500 tons, 666 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, turbo -electric 
vessels of 23 knots. Built in 1931/32 
and run in mail and passenger 
service between Tilbury and Bris- ^ 
bane. Very popular cruising ships U». . . 
known as ' ' Beautiful white sisters ' ' : Jw^ 
only middle funnel is in actual 
use as smoke stack. 



Yellow funnel 




Empress of Australia. — Can. Pacific, 
British; 22,000 tons, 615 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, 18 knots. 
Built in Germany in 1914 and is 
principally engaged on cruising. 
She has been re-engined in recent 
years and was originally known 
as Tirpiiz and is only Canadian 
Pacific liner with an elliptical stern. 




Empress of Canada. — Canadian 
Pacific, British; 21,500 tons, 627 
feet long, twin-screw, 20 knots. 
Built in 1922 and re-engined later. 
Runs in passenger service between 
Vancouver and Hong Kong and 
<jan be distinguished by her tall 
latticework davits. 




381 



Fellow funnels 



Ships and the Sea 




Bremen, Europa. — North German Lloyd, German; 51,000 and 49,800 tons, 
937 feet long overall, quadruple-screw, 26 knots. Built in Germany, 1929 
and 1930 and run in mail and passenger service between Bremen and New 
York. Bremen secured " Blue Riband " from Cunard Mauretania and both 
ships held it for Germany for some years. Funnels were originally 15 feet shorter 
and Bremen carries aeroplane catapult. The largest German ships. 




Columbus. — North German Lloyd' 
German; 32,600 tons, 750 feet long* 
twin-screw, 22 knots. Built in 
Germany in 1922 and runs in 
mail and passenger service between 
Bremen and New York. Funnels 
were lowered to bring her more 
into line with Bremen. 



382 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Orama, Orford, Otranto. — Orient, 
British; 20,000 tons, 660 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, 20 knots. Built 
in 1924, 1928 and 1925 and run in 
mail and passenger service between 
Tilbury and Australia except when 
engaged in cruising. Orontes is 
almost identical but has a raking 
stem, and Oronsay has an additional 
white strake along bridge deck. 



Fellow funnels 




Duchess of Atholl, Duchess of 
Bedford, Duchess of Richmond, 
Duchess of York. — Can. Pacific, 
British; 20,100 tons, 600 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, 18 knots. 
Built in 1928/29 and run in passen- 
ger service between Liverpool and 
Quebec. Most popular ships, and 
sometimes employed on cruises. 
'"Mont" class, Montcalm, Montclare 
and Montrose, are similar in 
appearance but lighter looking 
and have much thinner funnels 
and lattice-work boat-davits. 




383 



lellow funnels 



Ships and the Sea 






384 



Albertville. — Compagnie Maritime 
Beige, Belgian; 10,800 tons, 494 
feet long, twin-screw, 16£ knots. 
Built in France in 1928 and runs 
in passenger service between 
Antwerp and Belgian Congo. 
Leopoldville. — Compagnie Maritime 
Beige, Belgian; 11,300 tons, 479 feet 
long, twin-screw, 16^ knots. Built 
in Belgium in 1929, is- the largest 
Belgian ship and runs in passenger 
and mail service between Antwerp 
and Belgian Congo. 
Rangitane, Rangitata, Rangitiki. — 
N.Z.S. Co., British; 16,700 tons, 
550 feet long overall, twin-screw 
motor vessels of 15 knots. Built 
in 1929 and run in passenger 
service between London and New 
Zealand (via Panama) and have 
huge refrigerating capacity. Recog- 
nised by large winch-houses and 
white-painted derricks. 
Alcantara, Asturias. — Royal Mail, 
British; 22,200 tons, 658 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, 19 knots. 
Built in 1926 as motor vessels and 
converted to steam in 1934/35, when 
funnels were raised 15 feet. Run in 
mail and passenger service between 
Southampton and South America^ 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Conte ROSSO (The Red Count), 
Conte Verde (The Green Count). — 
Lloyd Triestino, Italian; 17,900/ 
18,800 tons. 588 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, 19| knots. Built in 
England in 1922 and 1923 and 
run in fast passenger service 
between Trieste and Far East. 
Helouan, Vienna. — Lloyd Triestino, 
Italian; 7,200 tons, 443 feet long, 
twin-screw, 17 knots. Built in 
Austria in 1912 and normally 
engaged in passenger service to 
Far East. Similar vessels in 
appearance are Esperia and Tevere. 
Victoria. — Lloyd Triestino, Italian; 
13,100 tons, 541 feet long overall, 
quadruple-screw vessel of 22 knots. 
Built in Italy in 1931 and runs 
in passenger service between Trieste 
and Bombay. At time of build was 
fastest motor ship. 
Reina Del Pacifico. — Pacific Steam, 
British; 17,700 tons, 580 feet long 
overall, quadruple screw, motor 
vessel of 19 knots. Built in 1931 
and runs in mail and passenger 
service between Liverpool and 
West Coast of South America. 
Fastest ship to West Coast. 



Fellow funnels 







385 



Fellow funnels 



Ships and the Sea 






386 



Highland Brigade, Highland Chief- 
tain, Highland Monarch, Highland 
Patriot, Highland Princess. — Royal 
Mail, British; 14,100 tons, 535 feet 
long overall, twin-screw, motor 
vessels of 16 knots and run in 
intermediate passenger service 
between London and South America. 
Were formerly in Nelson Line 
Service before latter was merged 
into Royal Mail; after funnel 
covers dome of saloon. 
Amerika, Europa. — East Asiatic 
Co., Danish; 10,100 tons, 465 feet 
long, motor vessels of 14 knots. 
Built in Denmark in 1930 and 
1931 and engaged in the service 
between Denmark and Pacific 
ports. Canada is similar ship, 
but has cruiser stern and these 
three are the only ships in the 
company's fleet to have funnels. 
Rotorua. — N.Z.S. Co., British; 
10,900 tons, 526 feet long, twin- 
screw, 14 knots. Built in 1911 
and runs in tourist passenger 
service between London and New 
Zealand. A • very popular vessel, 
probably on account of her five 
masts, the third of which is now 
cut down. 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Lancashire. — Bibby trooper, Brit- 
ish; 9,500 tons, 482 feet long, twin- 
screw, 15 knots. Built in 1931 
and later converted into Govern- 
ment trooper having capacity for 
1,500 troops. 



[ FeUev) funnel* 




Beaverbrae, Beaverburn, Beaver- 
dale, Beaverford, Beaverhill. — Can. 
Pacific, British ; 10,000 tons, 
503 feet long, twin-screw, 15£ 
knots. Built in 1928 and run in 
cargo service between London and 
Canada. " Goal-post " masts and 
derrick posts and represent finest 
type of cargo liner with all crew 
accommodation amidships. 




tv»/» M*<r< 



Almanzora. — Royal Mail, British; 
15,600 tons, 589 feet long overall, 
triple-screw, 16 knots. Built in 
1914 and runs in the mail and 
passenger service between South- 
ampton and South America. A 
very beautiful vessel and very 
similar to Arlanza. 




387 



Fellow funnels 



Ships and the Sea 




; W^ 7 ' 



Atlantis. — Royal Mail, British ; 
15,100 tons, 589 feet long overall, 
triple-screw, 16 knots. Built in 
1913 and is engaged purely on 
cruising; she has an open-air 
swimming pool between isolated 
bridge and front of passenger 
superstructure and was formerly 
the Andes. 




Orbita, Ordufia. — Pacific Steam, 
British; 15,500 tons, 550 feet long, 
triple-screws, 15 knots. Built in 
1914/15 and run in mail and 
passenger service between Liverpool 
and West coast of South America. 

Strathmore. — P. & O., British; 
23,400 tons, 665 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, 21 knots. Built in 
1935 and runs in mail and passenger 
service between Tilbury and Bom- 
bay and is ako a popular cruiser. 

Abosso. — Elder Dempster, British; 
11,300 tons, 457 feet long, twin- 
screw, motor vessel of 15 knots. 
Built in 1935 and runs in mail and 
passenger service between Liverpool 
and West coast of Africa. 
Hull is now black. 



388 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels o! All Nations 



Gneisnau, Potsdam, Scharnhorst. — 

North German Lloyd, German; 
18,200 tons, 626 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, 21 knots; last two, 
turbo -electric. Built in Germany 
in 1935 and run in passenger 
service between Bremen and Far 
East and are some of fastest ships 
in the service. 



Fellow funnel* 




Stella Polaris. — Bergen S.S. Co., 
Norwegian; 5,000 tons, 3S9 feet 
long, twin-screw, 16 knots. Built 
in Sweden in 1927 and is the only 
motor vessel exclusively designed 
for cruising upon which she is 
entirely employed. 




Orion.— Orient, British; 23,400 tons, 
665 feet long overall, twin-screw, 
21 knots. Built in 1935 and runs 
in mail and passenger service 
between Tilbury and Australia 
and is also employed on cruising. 
She was launched by wireless 
waves from Australia by H.R.H. 
Duke of Gloucester. A sister 
ship, Oreades, is in course of con- 
struction. 




389 



Ships and the Sea 

Yellow funnels, or yeUoiv funnels with markings 



' 





Beljeanne, Belpareil. — Smith, Nor- 
wegian; 7,200 tons, 414 feet long, 
twin-screw, motor vessels of 11 
knots. Built in England in 1 926 and 
designed especially for the transport 
of heavy machinery and railway 
trains. 

Kungsholm. — Swedish American, 
Swedish; 20,100 tons; 595 feet long, 
twin-screw, motor vessel of 18 
knots. Built in Germany in 1928 and 
runs in mail and passenger service 
between Sweden and New York and 
sometimes engaged on cruising. 
Gripsholm. — Swedish American, 
Swedish; 17,900 tons, 574 feet 
long overall, twin-screw, motor 
vessel of 17 knots. Built in 1925 in 
England and runs in passenger ser- 
vice between Sweden and New York, 
and engaged sometimes in cruising. 
Drottningholm.— Swedish American, 
Swedish; 11,100 tons, 540 feet long 
overall, triple-screw, 17 knots. 
British built in 1906 and runs in 
passenger service between Sweden 
and New York and also on cruising. 
An interesting vessel, as she was 
originally the Allan liner Virginian 
one of the first turbine ships on 
the North Atlantic. 



390 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 



Batory, Pilsudski. — Gdynia Ameri- 
can, Polish; 14,400 tons, 514 feet 
long, twin-screw, motor vessels 
of 20 knots. Built in Italy in 1935 
and 1936 and run in mail and 
passenger service between Gdynia 
and New York. 



Yellow funnels with bands and marking 




California. — Libera Triestina, Ital- 
ian; 13,000 tons, 523 feet long, 
twin-screw, 14 knots. Built in 
Scotland in 1920 and normally in 
passenger service between Italy 
and Pacific coast ports but engaged 
as hospital ship at present. Built 
as the Cunard Albania, the first 
after the war. 




Stavangerf jord. — Norwegian Ameri- 
can, Norwegian; 13,200 tons, 550 
feet long overall, twin -screw, 17£ 
knots. Built in England in 1918 
and employed in passenger service 
between Oslo and New York. 




391 



FeUow funnels ivith coloured bands 



Ships and the Sea 






Bergensfjord. — Norwegian Ameri- 
can, Norwegian; 11,000 tons, 530 
feet long overall, twin-screw, 17^ 
knots. Built in England in 1913 
and runs in passenger service 
between Norway and New York. 

Sir James Clark Ross, Vestvold. — 

Rasmussen, Norwegian; 14,400 
tons, 538 feet long, .twin-screw, 
motor vessels of 11 knots. Built 
in England in 1931 and employed 
in whaling trade. 

Foucauld. ■ — Chargeurs Reunis, 
French; 11,000 tons, 483 feet long, 
twin-screw, 14 knots. Built in 
France in 1922 and runs in mail 
and passenger service between 
French ports and ports in West 
Africa. Originally had much less 
passenger superstructure. 

Statendam. — Holland - America, 
Dutch; 28,300 tons, 674 feet long, 
twin-screw, 19 knots. British 
built in 1929 and runs in mail and 
passenger service between Nether- 
lands and £jTew York. Largest 
Dutch merchant ship and known 
as " Queen of the Spotless Fleet." 



392 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Fellow funnels, coloured bands 

Rotterdam. — Holland - America, 
Dutch; 24,100 tons, 651 feet long, 
twin-screw, 17 knots. British 
built in 1908 and runs in passenger 
service between Netherlands and 
New York and sometimes cruising. 




Veendam, Volendam, — Holland- 
America; 15,500 tons, 550 feet 
long, twin-screw, 15 knots. British 
built in 1923 and run in passenger 
service between Netherlands and 
New York. 




Colonial. — Comp. Colonial, Portu- 
guese; 8,300 tons, 450 feet long, 
twin-screw, 12^ knots. Built in 
Germany in 1908 and engaged in 
passenger service between Portugal 
and Portuguese East Africa. Origin- 
ally Assyria of the Anchor Line. 




393 



Ships and the Sea 



Fellow funnels, black top 




Massilia. — Cie. Sud - Atlantique, 
French; 15,400 tons, 577 feet long, 
quadruple -screw, 20 knots. Built 
in France in 1920 and runs between 
French ports and South America. 
Very similar ship in appearance is 
Lutetia. 




Princess Kathleen, Princess Mar- 
guerite. — Can. Pacific Railway, 
British; 5,900 tons, 350 feet long, 
twin-screw, 21 knots. Built in 
1925 and typical of the passenger 
ship on the Pacific coast of Canada. 



394 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

TeUow funnels, black top 

Ciudad de Buenos Aires. — Com- 
pania Argentina, Argentine; 4,000 
tons, 351 feet long, twin-screw, 
160 knots. Runs in passenger 
service on River Plate and was 
built in England in 1914. A sister 
ship is owned by Uruguay and 
named Ciuad de Montevideo. 




Johan de Witt. — Nederland, Dutch; 
10,400 tons, 506 feet long, twin- 
screw, 16 knots. Built in Nether- 
lands in 1920 and runs in passenger 
service between Netherlands and 
Netherlands East Indies. Length- 
ened in 1933. Similar ship, but 
with elliptical stern and without 
Maier bow, Jan Pieterszoon Coen. 




Nieuw Holland, Nieuw Zeeland. — 
Royal Packet, Dutch; 11,100 tons, 
541 feet long, twin-screw, 15 knots. 
Built in Netherlands in 1928 
and run in passenger and mail 
service between Netherlands East 
Indies and Australia. Re-engined 
1935/1936. 




395 



Yellow funnels, black top 



Ships and the Sea 







Duke of Argyll, Duke of Lancaster, 
Duke of Rothesay. — L.M.S. Railway, 
British; 3,600 tons, 350 feet long, 
twin-screw, 21 knots. Built in 1928 
and conduct the mail and passenger 
service between Heysham and 
Belfast. Similar ship but with 
more enclosed superstructure and 
prominent cranes, Duke of York. 
Biarritz, Maid of Orleans. — South- 
ern Railway, British; 2,400 tons, 
341 feet long, twin-screw, 24 knots. 
Built in 1915 and 1918 and run 
in mail and passenger service 
between Dover and Calais. 
Amsterdam, Prague, Vienna. — 
L. & N.E. Railway, British; 4,200 
tons, 366 feet long overall, twin- 
screw, 21 knots. Built in 1929 
and 1930 and run in mail and 
passenger service between Harwich 
and the Hook. 

Dinard, St. Briac. — Southern Rail- 
way, British; 2,300 tons, 316 feet 
long, twin-screw, 18 knots. Built 
in 1924 and run in mail and 
passenger service between South- 
ampton and Havre and are 
engaged on cruises in the summer. 
Very similar ships are Hantonia, 
Lorina and Normannia. 



396 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Fellow funnels, black top 



Prince Charles, Prince Leopold, 
Prinses Astrid, Prinses Josephine 
Charlotte. — Belgian State Railways, 
Belgian; 2,900 tons, 347 feet long, 
twin-screw, 23 knots. All built 
in Belgium 1930 /31 and run in 
mail and passenger service between 
Ostend and Dover. 
Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Marnix 
van sint Aldegonde. — Nederland, 
Dutch; 19,000 tons, 600 feet long 
overall, twin-screw, motor vessels 
of 19 J knots. Built in Netherlands 
in 1930 and run in mail and pass- 
enger service between Netherlands 
and Netherlands East Indies. 
Georgic. — Cunard White Star, Brit- 
ish; 27,800 tons, 712 feet long over- 
all, twin-screw, motor vessel, 18 
knots. Built in 1932 and runs in 
the passenger service between 
London and New York. Largest 
ship to sail from London and very 
much like Britannic, but latter 
does not have rounded bridge -front. 
Ceramic. — Shaw, Savill, British ; 
18,500 tons, 675 feet long overall, 
triple-screw, 15 knots. Built in 
1913 and runs in passenger and 
cargo service between Liverpool 
and New Zealand. 




397 



v funnels, black top 



Ships and the Sea 




Manunda. — Adelaide, British; 9,100 
tons, 445 feet long overall, twin- 
screw, motor vessel of 17£ knots. 
Built in 1929 and runs in Australian 
coastal passenger trade. 

Mataroa, Tamaroa. — Shaw, Savill, 
British; 12,400 tons, 500 feet long, 
twin-screw, 15 knots-. Built in 
1922 and run in passenger service 
between London and New Zealand 
(via Panama). Originally in Aber- 
deen Line service as Diogenes and 
Sophocles. 




Op Ten Noort, Plancius. — Royal 
Packet, Dutch; 6,100 tons, 425 
feet long, twin-screw, 15 knots. 
Built in Netherlands in 1927 and 
1923 and run in passenger service 
in Netherlands East Indies. Similar 
ship with shorter funnel is Ophir. 




398 



Houtman. — Royal Packet, Dutch; 
5,000 tons, 392 feet long, 12£ knots. 
Built in Netherlands in 1913 and 
runs in service, between Netherlands 
East Indies and South Africa. 
Similar to a considerable number 
of ships of this company. 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Yellow funnels, black lop 



Akaroa. — Shaw, Savill, British; 
15,000 tons, 570 feet long overall, 
triple-screw, 15 knots. Built in 
1914 and reconstructed in 1932 
and runs in passenger service 
between London and New Zealand 
(via Panama). Formerly Euripides 
of Aberdeen Line. 

Hampton Ferry, Shepperton Ferry, 
Twickenham Ferry. — Southern Rail- 
way, British; 2,900 tons, 360 feet 
in length overall, twin-screw, 16£ 
knots. Built in 1934 and run in 
ferry service between Dover and 
Dunkirk. Funnels are abreast, 
one on either beam, and there 
is accommodation for forty wagons 
and twenty -five cars. 

Canterbury. — Southern Railway, 
British; 2,900 tons, 330 feet long, 
twin-screw, 21 knots. Built in 
1929 and runs in cross channel 
service between Dover and Calais 
or Folkestone and Boulogne. Very 
similar ships are Isle of Thanet 
and Maid of Kent, but latter have 
boats sitting on the deck. Other 
ships not dissimilar, but smaller, 
are Worthing, Brighton and Brittany. 






399 



TeUoto funnels, black top 



Ships and the Sea 




Inchanga, Incomati, Isipingo. — 

Weir, British; 7,400 tons, 435 feet 
long overall, twin-screw, motor 
vessels of 15 knots. Built in 1934 
and run in passenger service 
between South Africa, India and 
Burma. 




Ariguani, Carare, Cavina, Bayano, 
Camito. — Elder & Fyffes, British; 
6,700 tons, 425 feet long, twin- 
screw, 14 knots. Built in 1926 
except last two (1911/15), and 
run in passenger and fruit trade 
between Avonmouth and West 
Indies and Central America. Typical 
of most Fyffes steamers. 




Waipawa, Wairangi, Waiwera.— 
Shaw, Savill, British; 10,800 tons, 
536 feet long overall, twin-screw, 
motor-vessels of 17 knots. Built 
in 1934 and run in cargo service 
with a few passengers between 
London and New Zealand. Have 
over half .million cubic feet of 
refrigerated space for frozen meat 
cargoes. 



400 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Yellow funnels, black top 



Christiaan Huygens. — Nederland, 
Dutch; 15,700 tons, 551 feet long, 
twin-screw, motor vessel of 17 knots. 
Built in Netherlands in 1927 and 
runs in mail and passenger service 
between Netherlands and Nether- 
lands East Indies. 

Prince Baudouin. — Belgian State 
Railways; 3,100 tons, 357 feet long, 
twin-screw, motor vessel. Built 
in Belgium in 1934 and runs in 
mail and passenger service between 
Ostend and Dover, being first motor 
vessel in that service and the 
fastest motor vessel afloat. Sister 
ship, Prince Albert, is in course 
of construction. 

Faraday. — Siemens, British; 4,500 
tons, 394 feet long, twin-screw. 
Built in 1923, and is a cable-laying 
and repairing ship. 









Byron. — National Nav. Co., Greek; 
9,300 tons, 470 feet long, twin- 
screw, 15| knots. Built in England 
in 1914 and runs in Greek trans- 
Atlantic service, being largest 
vessel in Greek merchant fleet. 




401 



Fellow funnel, bands and markings, black top. 



Ships and the Sea 




President Grant, President Jackson, 
President Jefferson, President 
McKinley, President Madison. — 
American Mail, American; 14,100 
tons, 535 feet long overall, twin- 
screw, 18 knots. Built in United 
States in 1921 and run in passenger 
service between Pacific Coast and 
Far East. Have " goal-post " 
masts. 




Umtali, Umtata. — Bullard King, 
British; 8,400 tons, 468 feet long, 
twin-screw, 15 knots. Built in 
1936 and run in passenger service 
between London and Natal. 




Antigua, Chiriqui, Peten, Quirigua, 
Talamanca,Veragua. — United Fruit, 
American; 7,000 tons, 416 feet 
long, twin-screw, turbo-electric 
vessels of 18 knots. Built in 1918 
and run in passenger and fruit 
trade between New Orleans and 
West Indian* and Central American 
ports. Belong to the " Great White 
Fleet." 



402 




Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Yellow funnels, bands and black top 

City of Tokio. — Ellerman, British; 
7,000 tons, 422 feet long, 12 knots. 
Built in 1921, engaged in company's 
world-wide cargo trade and typical 
of many vessels in fleet. 

Reliance. — Hamburg - Amerika, 
German; 19,800 tons, 590 feet long, 
triple-screw, 17 knots. Built in 
Germany in 1920 and engaged in 
cruising. Her sister, Resolute, was 
sold to Italy as a transport in 1935. 

Deutschland, Hansa. — Hamburg- 
Amerika, German; 21,100 tons, 
602 feet long, twin-screw, 19£ 
knots. Built in Germany in 1923 
and run in service between Ham- 
burg and New York. Lengthened 
recently and speed increased by 
over three knots. Hansa was 
originally named Albert Ballin. 

Hamburg, New York. — Hamburg- 
Amerika, German; 22,700 tons, 
645 feet long overall, twin-screw, 
19£ knots. Built in Germany in 
1926 and 1927 and run in service 
between Hamburg and New York. 
Altered in same way as Deutschland 
class and are practically two-masted 
editions of that class. 

403 





Fellow funnels, coloured bands and black top 



Ships and the Sea 






404 



Milwaukee, St. Louis. — Hamburg- 
Amerika, German; 16,700 tons, 
547 feet long, twin-screw, motor 
vessels of 16 knots. Built in 
Germany in 1929 and 1928 and 
engaged largely in cruising, St. 
Louis being white -painted. 

Oceana. — Hamburg-Amerika, Ger- 
man; 8,800 tons, 440" feet long, 
twin-screw, 12 knots. Built in 
Germany in 1912 and is engaged 
on workers' cruises. 

Mecklenburg, Oranje Nassau, Prinses 
Juliana. — Zeeland S.S. Co., Dutch; 
2,900 tons, 364 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, 22£ knots. Built in 
Netherlands in 1922/1920 except 
Oranje Nassau which was British 
built in 1909, and run in mail 
and passenger service between 
Flushing and Harwich. 

Ubena, Watussi. — German East 
African, German; 9,600 tons, 
464 feet long, 16 knots. Built in 
Germany in 1928 and run in 
passenger service between Germany 
and South and East Africa. 
Lengthened by 18 feet recently 
and speed raised. 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

Fellow funnels, blue top 



Lurline, Mariposa, Monterey. — Mat- 
son, American; 18,000 tons, 632 
feet long overall, twin-screw, 22 
knots. Built in United States in 
1932 and run in mail and passenger 
service between Pacific coast 
ports and Australasia, and being 
heavily subsidised they are gravely 
hazarding the British services. 




Malolo. — Matson, American; 17,300 
tons, 554 feet long, twin-screw, 
22 knots. Built in United States 
in 1927 and runs in passenger 
service between Pacific coast ports 
and Honolulu. May be white - 
painted or very dark brown. 




Maui. — Matson, American; 9,800 
tons, 484 feet long, twin-screw, 
16 knots. Built in United States 
in 1917 and runs in passenger 
service between Pacific coast ports 
and Honolulu. Interesting as 
being one of the few passenger 
liners with engines aft and similar 
ships in appearance are Matsonia, 
Manulani and Manuhai. 




405 



Ships and the Sea 

WhUe funnels and white funnels with black top 




Aramis. — Messageries Maritimes, 
French; 17,500 tons, 544 feet long, 
twin-screw, motor vessel of 15£ 
knots. Built in France in 1932 
and runs in the mail and passenger 
service between Marseilles and 
the Far East. Painted white all 
over and is the flagship of the 
geries fleet. 





Innisfallen. — City of Cork, British ; 
3,000 tons, 321 feet long, twin- 
screw, motor vessel of 18 knots. 
Built in 1930 and runs in passenger 
service between Cork and Liverpool. 

Cote D'Argent, Cote D'Azur— Soc. 
Gerance, French; 3,000 tons, 326 
feet long, twin-screw, 21 knots. 
Built in France in 1930 and run in 
mail and passenger service between 
Calais and Dover. 




Francesco Crispi, Giuseppe Mazzini. 
— Tirrenia, Italian; 7,500 tons, 447 
feet long, twin-screw, 14 J knots. 
Built in Italy in 1926 and engaged 
in passenger .service between Italy 
and East Africa. 



406 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels 



Citta di Genova, Citta di Napoli, 
Citta di Palermo, Citta di Tunisi. — 
Tirrenia, Italian; 5,400 tons, 412 
feet long, twin-screw, motor vessels 
of 17 knots. Built in Italy in 1929 
and 1930 and engaged in service 
between Italian ports and ports 
across the Mediterranean. 



of All Nations 

White funnels, black top 




El Coston. — SouthernPacific, Amer- 
ican; 7,300 tons, 427 feet long, 
15 J knots. Built in United States 
in 1924 and runs in passenger service 
between New York and Gulf ports. 
Formerly was the Bienville but was 
renamed after being almost des- 
troyed by fire. 



While funnels, black top and markings 




Britannia, Suecia. — Swedish Lloyd, 
Swedish; 4,200 tons, 374 feet long 
overall, 17 knots. British built 
in 1929 and run in passenger service 
between Sweden and London. 
Strengthened for navigation in ice. 




407 



Ships and the Sea 

White funnels, green band and red top 




Rex. — Italia, Italian; 51,100 tons, 880 feet long overall, quadruple-screw, 28 
knots. Built in Italy in 1932 and runs in mail and passenger service 
between Italy and New York. Gained " Blue Riband " from German liners 
and held it until advent of Normandie in 1935. 




Conte di Savoia (Count of Savoy). — Italia, Italian; 48,500 tons, 815 feet long 
overall, quadruple -screw, 28 knots. Built in Italy in 1932 and runs in mail 
and passenger service between Italy and New York. Largest ship fitted with 
Gyro-stabiliser to diminish rolling. 

408 



Conte Grande (The Great Count). — 
Italia, Italian; 25,700 tons, 652 
feet long overall, twin-screw, 20 
knots. Built in Italy in 1928 
and normally engaged in mail 
and passenger service between 
Italy and South America. Very 
similar ship is the British built, 
Conte Biancamano (The White 
Count). 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 

White funnels, green band, red top 




Duilio, Giulio Cesare. — Italia, 
Italian; 23,600 /21,900 tons, 636 
feet long overall, quadruple -screw, 
21 knots. Built in Italy and in 
England in 1923 and 1921 and 
engaged in passenger service 
between Italy and South Africa. 




Augustus. — Italia, Italian; 30,400 
tons, 710 feet long overall, quad- 
ruple-screw, motor vessel of 19 
knots. Built in Italy in 1927 and 
runs in mail and passenger service 
between Italy and South America. 
World's largest motor vessel and 
very similar in appearance to the - 
steamer Roma. 




409 



White fitnnels, red top 




Ships and the Sea 

Saturnia, Vulcania. — Italia, Italian ; 
23,900 tons, 631 feet long overall, 
twin-screw, motor vessels of 18/21 
knots. Built in Italy in 1927 and 
1928 and run in service between 
Italy and United States. Bather 
similar ships, but with cruiser 
sterns and raking stems, Oceania 
and Neptunia. 




Cap Arcona. — Hamburg - South 
America, German; 27,600 tons, 
643 feet long, twin-screw, 20 knots. 
Built in Germany in 1927 and runs 
in mail and passenger service 
between Hamburg and South 
America. Largest and fastest 
ship in the service and has a 
full-sized tennis court abaft the 
funnels. 




Monte Olivia, Monte Sarmiento, 
Monte Pascoal, Monte Rosa. — 

Hamburg-South America, German; 
13,800 tons, twin-screw, motor 
vessels of 14£ knots. Built in 
Germany in 1924 (first pair) and 
1930 (second pair) and engaged in 
passenger service between Hamburg 
and South America or else on 
cruising. 



410 



Some Well Known Merchant Vessels of All Nations 
Jutlandia— East Asiatic Co., Danish, 
8,500 tons, 461 feet long overall, 
twin-screw motor vessel of 15 knots. 
Engaged in passenger and cargo ser- 
vice between Denmark and Pacific 
Coast or Far East. 




Afrika, Java, Malaya. — East Asiatic 
Co., Danish; 8,600 tons, 446 feet 
long, twin-screw, motor-vessels of 
12 knots. Carry a few passengers 
and are engaged in service between 
Denmark and the Far East. Similar 
ships in appearance are Danmark 
and India. 




Brimanger, Heranger, Hindanger, 
Villanger. — Westfal-Larsen, Nor- 
wegian; 4,900 tons, 398 feet long, 
twin-screw, motor vessels of 13 
knots. Built in England, except 
Heranger, which is Danish built, 
and run in service between Norway 
and North Pacific ports. 




411 



CHAPTER XL 

Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

(Tonnage to nearest 100 tons) 

The number in brackets following the Company's name refers to number of 
House Flag and Funnel illustrated in colour. 

ABERDEEN & COMMONWEALTH LINE, THE (British) [207] 
London, E.C.3. 

Passenger Ships (One class only). 
Esperance Bay. '22. 14,200 tons. Jervis Bay. '22. 14,200 tons. 

Hobsons Bay. '22. 14,200 tons. Largs Bay. '22. 14,200 tons. 

Moreton Bay. '22. 14,200 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Green with white band. Boot-topping : Red. 

Ventilators : Buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. Names ; Australian " Bays." 
As the Australian Commonwealth Line the vessels had black hulls and the inside of 

cowls was blue. They formerly had heavy lattice -work boat-handling gear. 

Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. London to Brisbane via Port Said, Aden, 

Colombo, Fremantle, Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. 

ADELAIDE STEAMSHIP COMPANY LTD., THE (British) [246] 
Adelaide, South Australia. 
Motor Ships. 

300 tons. Minnipa. '27. 2,000 tons. 

Momba. '26. 3,000 tons. 

10,000 tons. Moonta. '31. 2,700 tons. 

9,100 tons. Mulcra. '25. 1,200 tons. 
Mundalla. '26. 3,000 tons. 
412 



Katoora. 


'27, 


(Engines aft.) 




Manoora. 


'35, 


Manunda. 


'29, 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Adelaide S.S. Co.- 


-(Could.) 














Steamers. 






Aldinga. 


'20. 


3,100 tons. 


Dilga. 


'20. 


3,300 tons. 


Allara. 


'24. 


3,300 tons. 


Dundula. 


'20. 


3,300 tons. 


Arkaba. 


'24. 


4,200 tons. 


Goondi. 


'23. 


300 tons. 


Aroona. 


'18. 


3,100 tons. 


Noora. 


'24. 


1,100 tons. 


Baruga. 


'18. 


4,300 tons. 
Steamers 


Quorna. 

(with engines aft). 


'12. 


600 tons. 


Broadway. 


'21. 


700 tons. 


Oorama. 


'21. 


1,100 tons. 


(3 masts.) 






(3 masts.) 












Terka. 


'25. 


400 tons. 


Kapara. 


'14. 


800 tons. 


Tolga. 


'25. 


400 tons. 


Nalpa. 


'18. 


700 tons. 


Toorie. 


'25. 


400 tons. 



Ulooloo. '24. 3,200 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 
Buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. Names : Australian names, mostly ending in " A." 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Adelaide to Spencer's Gulf and West Coast 
Ports. Queensland Ports to Sydney, Newcastle, Melbourne, Adelaide, Albany and 

Fremantle. 



AMERICAN LINE S.S. CORPORATION. (U.S.A.) 
(Panama Pacific Line.) 
(International Mercantile Marine Co.) 
New York. 



California. '28. 17,800 tons. 

Virginia. '28. 

413 



Pennsylvania. '29. 
18,300 tons. 



[11] 



18,300 tons. 



Ships and the Sea 

American Like — (Contd.) 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black except " Columbia" which has white. 

Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : Black except " Columbia " which has white. 

Services : — Passenger and Cargo, New York to Havana, Panama Canal, San Diego, 

Los Angeles and San Francisco. 



AMERICAN MAIL LINE, LTD. (U.S.A.) [27] 

Seattle, Wash. 

Passenger Ships. 
President Grant. '21. 14,100 tons. President Jefferson. '20. 14,200 tons. 

President Jackson. '21. 14,100 tons. President McKinley. '21. 14,100 tons. 

President Madison. '21. 14,200 tons. 
Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with white band. Boot-topping : Red. 

Ventilators : Black. Masts and Derricks : Buff. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Seattle and Victoria to Yokohama, Kobe, 
Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila and Honolulu. Cargo only. Seattle and Puget 
Sound ports to Yokohama, Kobe, Osaka, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Taku Bar, Dairen, 
Tsingtao, Chefoo, Amoy, Cebu, Iloilo, Zamboanga and Davao. 



ANCHOR LINE (1935) LTD. (British) [23] 

Glasgow, C.I. 



Britannia. 
Caledonia 





Passenger Ships. 






'26. 


8,800 tons. California. 


'23. 


16,800 tons 


'25. 


17,000 tons. Cameronia. 
414 


'20. 


16,300 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Anchor Line — ( 


Contd.) 










Castalia. 


'06. 


6,600 tons. 


Transylvania. 


'23. 


17,000 tons. 


Elysia. 


'08. 


6,700 tons. 


Tuscania. 


'22. 


17,000 tons, 



Cargo Vessel. 

Tarantia. '11. 5,000 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red with white 

dividing line. Ventilators : Black. (Small vents white.) Inside of Cowls : Red. 

Names : Roman Provinces terminating in " IA." Most vessels also have " cowl 

topped " funnels. 
Services :-Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Glasgow and Liverpool to New York and 
Boston. Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester and Newport to Gibraltar, Marseilles, 
Port Said, Suez, Port Sudan, Bombay and Karachi. 



Appalachee. 
Chesapeake. 
Cheyenne. 

Cadillac. 

Housatonic. 



ANGLO-AMERICAN OIL COMPANY LTD. (British) 

(Subsidiary of Standard Oil Co.) 

" Esso " Oil. 

(Sea going fleet.) 

London, S.W.I. 

Motor Ships. 

'30. 8,800 tons. Comanchee. '36. 

'27. 9,000 tons. Robert F. Hand. '33. 

'30. 8,800 tons. Schuylkill. '28. 

Steamers. 
'17. 12,000 tons. Iroquois '07. 

'19. 5,600 tons. Kennebec. '19. 

Saranac. '18. 12,100 tons. 

415 



[152] 



6,800 tons. 

12,200 tons. 

9,000 tons. 

9,200 tons. 
5,500 tons. 



Ships and the Sea 

Anglo -American Oil Co. — (Vontd.) 

Distinguishing Featubes : — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red. Names : Mostly 

North American Indian names. All have engines aft. 
Services: — Petroleum trade. Between Gulf ports, Dutch West Indies and United 
Kingdom, Continent and Black Sea. 



ANGLO-SAXON 



PETROLEUM COMPANY LTD. 

" Shell " Oil. 
London, E.C.3. 
Motor Ships. 



(British) 



[241] 



Acavus. 


'35. 


8,100 tons. 


Cowrie 


'31. 


8,200 tons. 


Alexia. 


'35. 


8,100 tons. 


Elax. 


'27. 


7,400 tons. 


Amastra. 


'35. 


8,100 tons. 


Elona. 


'36. 


6,200 tons. 


Anadara. 


'35. 


8,100 tons. 


Goldmouth. 


'27. 


7,400 tons. 


Ancylus. 


'35. 


8,100 tons. 


Goldshell. 


'31. 


8,200 tons. 


Amis. 


'35. 


8,100 tons. 


Harpa. 


'31. 


3,000 tons. 


Bullmouth. 


'27. 


7,500 tons. 


Horn Shell. 


'31. 


8,300 tons. 


Bulysses. 


'27. 


7,500 tons. 


Mactra. 


'36. 


6,200 tons. 


Caprella. 


'31. 


8,200 tons. 


Ortinashell. 


'91. 


2,600 tons. 


Capsa. 


'31. 


8,200 tons. 


Patella. 


'27. 


7,500 tons. 


Cardita. 


'31. 


8,300 tons. 


Pecten. 


'27. 


7,500 tons. 


Cardium. 


'31. 


8,300 tons. 


Sepia 


'36. 


6,300 tons. 


Circe Shell. 


'31. 


8,200 tons. 


Simnia 


'36. 


7,400 tons. 


Clam. 


'27. 


7,400 tons. 


Spondilus. 


'27. 


7,400 tons. 


Cliona. 


'31. 


8,400 tons. 


Standella. 


'36. 


6,300 tons. 


Conch. 


'31. 


8,400 tons. 


Telena. 


'27. 


7,400 tons. 


Conus. 


'31. 


8,300 tons. 


Trigonia. 


'16. 


7,500 tons. 


Corbis. 


'31. 


8,300 tons. 


Trocas. 


'27. 


7,400 tons. 



416 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Anglo-Saxon Pet. Co. — (Contd.) 

Steamers. 



Dolium. 


'22. 


1,100 tons. 


President 






(Bunker 


vessel at Suez) 


Gomez. 


'22. 


1,100 tons. 


Havre. 


'05. 


2,100 tons. 


San Camilo. 


'27. 


2,500 tons. 


Ormer. 


'15. 


1,400 tons. 


Scalaria. 


'21. 


5,700 tons. 


Paludina. 


'21. 


5,900 tons. 


Solen. 


'22. 


5,700 tons. 


Pinna. 


'10. 


6,100 tons. 


Spirila. 


'22. 


5,700 tons. 


Pleiodon. 


'22. 


5,900 tons. 


Turbo. 


'12. 


4,800 tons. 








Volsella. 


'06. 


2,000 tons. 



Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 
White or Buff. Inside of Cowls : Buff. Names : Mostly names of " Shells." 
Services: — Transport of Petroleum and Products; no Accommodation for Passengers. 



BELFAST STEAMSHIP COMPANY, LTD. (British) 
(Ulster Imperial Line.) 
Belfast. 

Passenger Ships. 



[162] 



Ulster Monarch (M.V.). 


'30. 


3,700 tons. 


Ulster Prince (M.V.). 


'29. 


3,700 tons. 


Ulster Queen (M.V.). 


'30. 


3,700 tons. 


Ulster Castle. 


'20. 


1,200 tons. 


Ulster Star. 


'04. 


600 tons. 



417 



Belfast S.8. Co.— (Contd.) 



Ships and the Sea 

Cargo Ship. 



Ulster Hero. '24. 500 tons. (Engines aft.). 
Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with six-inch white band along top 
strake. Boot-topping : Green (salmon-pink below water-line). Names : Have first 

word " Ulster "; originally ended in " Ic." 

Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Belfast to Liverpool and Manchester. 

Liverpool to Londonderry. 



BERGENSKE DAMPSKIBSSELSKAB, A/S. DET. (Norwegian) 

Bergen. 



[22 & 24] 







Motor 


Vessels. 




Canis. 


'88. 


900 tons. 


Rigel. '24. 


3,800 tons. 


(Engines aft.) 






Saturnus. '30. 


1,000 tons. 


Cometa. 


'21. 


3,800 tons. 


Stella Polaris. '27. 


5,000 tons. 


Crux. 


'23. 


3,800 tons. 


Tellus. '25. 


900 tons. 


Estrella. 


'20. 


3,900 tons. 
Venus. 

Steam 


Uranus. '25. 
'31. 5,400 tons. 

Ships. 


900 tons. 


Ara. 


'19. 


1,000 tons. 


Clio. '22. 


600 tons 


Arcturus. 


'10. 


1,300 tons. 


Columba. '29. 


1,100 tons 


Ariadne. 


'30. 


2,000 tons. 


Corvus. '21. 


1,300 tons 


Capella. 


'85. 


900 tons. 


Cygnus. '21. 


1,300 tons 


Castor. 


'20. 


1,700 tons. 


Delfinus. *12. 


1,300 tons 



418 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Bergenske Dampskibsselskab, A/S. Det. — (Cotttd.) 



Diana. 


'04. 


1,200 tons. 


Meteor. 


'04. 


3,700 tons. 


Edna. 


'05. 


900 tons. 


Midnatsol. 


'10. 


1,000 tons. 


Iris. 


'01. 


1,200 tons. 


Mira. 


'91. 


1,200 tons. 


Irma. 


'05. 


1,400 tons. 


Neptun. 


'30. 


1,600 tons. 


Jupiter. 


'15. 


2,500 tons. 


Nordsteirnen. 


'82. 


900 tons. 


Kem. 


'25. 


1,700 tons. 


Nova. 


'25. 


1,400 tons. 


Keret. 


'27. 


1,700 tons. 


Pallas. 


'22. 


600 tons. 


Kora. 


'06. 


800 tons. 


Polarlys. 


'12. 


1,100 tons. 


Leda. 


'20. 


2,600 tons. 


Pollux. 


'21. 


1,700 tons. 


Leo. 


'24. 


1,400 tons. 


Sirius. 


'85. 


900 tons. 


Luna. 


'11. 


1,000 tons. 


Spica. 


'15. 


500 tons. 


Lynx. 


'25. 


1,400 tons. 


Ursa. 


'11. 


1,000 tons. 


Lyra. 


'12. 


1,500 tons. 


Vaga. 


'24. 


1,600 tons. 


Mercur. 


'83. 


900 tons. 
Vesta. 


Vela. 
'20. 1,300 tons 


'30. 


1,200 tons. 



Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black except " Meteor " and " Stella Polaris " 
which are white. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : Black except above ships 

which have buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Services : — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Bergen to Newcastle. Trondhjem, Bergen, 
Stavanger and Rotterdam. North Norway to Hamburg. Norwegian coastal 
services. Bergen to Reykjavik, Trondhjem and Bergen to London, Preston, Man- 
chester and Glasgow. Bergen and Trondhjem to French ports. Bergen and 
Trondhjem to Belgian ports. Baltic and South Norway ports. Continent to 
Canadian ports. Pleasure cruising. 



419 



Ships and the Sea 



Cheshire. 
Derbyshire. 



BIBBY BROTHERS & COMPANY (British) 
(Bibby Line Ltd.) 
Liverpool. 

Passenger Ships (Motor) 

'27. 10,600 tons. Shropshire. '26. 

'35. 11,700 tons. Staffordshire. '29. 

Worcestershire. '31. 11,500 tons. 



[137] 



10,600 tons. 
10,600 tons. 



Oxfordshire. 



'12. 



Passenger Ships (Steam). 

8,600 tons. Yorkshire. '20. 



10,200 tons. 



Dorsetshire. 



'20. 



Troopers (Motor). 
9,600 tons. Somersetshire '21. 



9,600 tons. 



Trooper (Steam). 

Lancashire. '17. 9,500 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with gold band except Troopers, 

which have white hulls with broad blue band. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 

White. Inside of Cowls : White. Names : All English " Shires." All passenger 

vessels have four masts and tall funnel. 
Services: — First-class Passenger only, Mail and Cargo. London, Middlesbrough, 
Continent and Liverpool to Gibraltar, Marseilles, Port Said, Port Soudan, Southern 
India, Colombo and Rangoon. Passengers embark at Liverpool and return to 

London or Plymouth. 
420 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Gibel Dersa. '97. 

Gibel Dris. '17. 

(Engines aft; 3 masts 



BLAND, M. H., & COMPANY LTD. (British) 
(Bland Line.) 
Gibraltar. 
1,200 tons. Gibel Kebir. '87. 

700 tons. Gibel Zerjon. 



'03. 



[170] 



600 tons. 
1,400 tons. 



Rescue. 



'04. 



Tugs and Salvage Craft. 
400 tons. Zweena. 



'01. 100 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with white band. Boot-topping : Red. 

Names : (Passenger vessels); all have prefix " Gibel " (-hill). 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Gibraltar to Tangiers, Casablanca, Melila, Ceuta, 
Tetuan, Larache, Kenitra, Rabat, Mazagan, Sam, Mogador, Spain and Mediterranean. 
Also own about fifty lighters, tenders, etc., from 30-600 tons deadweight. 





BLUE STAR LINE LTD., THE (British) 


[189] 




London, E.C.3. 






Passenger Ships. 




Almeda Star. 


'26. 14,900 tons. Arandora Star. '27. 15,300 tons. 


Andalucia Star. 


'27. 14,900 tons. (Cruising liner.) 
AvilaStar. '26. 14,400 tons. 





Cargo Ships. 

(Motor). 

(Most of which have limited passenger accommodation.) 

Australia Star. '35. 10,800 tons. Empire Star. '36. 10,800 tons. 

Dunedin Star. '35. 10,800 tons. Imperial Star. '35. 10,700 tons. 

421 







Ships and the Sea 




Blue Star Line — (Contd.) 








New Zealand 






Tuscan Star. '30. 


11,400 tons. 


Star. 


'35. 


10,700 tons. 






Sydney Star. 


'36. 


11,000 tons. 

Cargo 


Building. '36. 
Ships. 








(Steam). 






(Most of which have limited 


passenger accommodation.) 




Afric Star. 


'26. 


11,900 tons. 


Rodney Star. '27. 


11,800 tons. 


Avelona Star. 


'27. 


10,700 tons. 


Sultan Star. '30. 


. 12,300 tons. 


Fresno Star. 


'19. 


8,000 tons. 


Tacoma Star. '19. 


7,900 tons. 


Gothic Star. 


'99. 


5,700 tons. 


Trojan Star. '16. 


9,000 tons. 


Napier Star. 


'27. 


10,100 tons. 


Viking. '20. 


6,400 tons. 






(Eastmans Ltd.) 








Doric Star. 


'21. 10,100 tons. 








(Union Cold Storage Co. Ltd.) 




Albion Star. 


'19. 


7,900 tons. 


Norman Star. '19. 


7,000 tons. 


Celtic Star. 


'18. 


5,600 tons. 


Royal Star. '19. 


7,900 tons. 


Gaelic Star. 


'17. 


5,600 tons. 


Stuart Star. '26. 


11,900 tons. 


Ionic Star. 


'17. 


5,600 tons. 


Tudor Star. '19. 


7,200 tons. 






Britanica. 


'13. 1,400 tons. (Engines aft.) 


Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black except "Arandora," which 


is white with 


carmine band, 


Boot-topping : Red, except " Arandora Star," which has green and 



which also has white mast. Ventilators : Stoke-hold, black; deck, white (passenger 
liners); brown (cargo ships). Inside of Cowls : Red. Names : With one exception all 
" Stars." Many of the ships at one time had cowl top funnels, but these have mostly 

been removed. 
Services: — Fast Passenger and Cargo. U.K. tc South American ports via Lisbon 
and Madeira. Passenger and Cargo. U.K. and Continent to Penang, Port Swetten- 

422 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Blue Star Line — (Contd.) 

ham, Singapore, Hong Kong. Shanghai, Kobe, Yokohama, Tientsin, Australia 
and New Zealand. Glasgow, Liverpool, Middlesbrough and London to South 
and East African ports. Cruises. To Norway, Mediterranean, West Indies, etc. 



BOOTH STEAMSHIP CO. LTD. 

Liverpool. 
Passenger Ships. 



[1] 



Anselm. *35. 5,000 tons. Hilary. '31. 

Cargo Vessels. 
Basil. '28. 4,900 tons. Clement. '34. 

Benedict. '30. 4,900 tons. Crispin. '35. 

Boniface. '28. 4,900 tons. Dunstan. '25. 

Polycarp. '18. 3,600 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red. 
masts white ; top masts brown ; extreme tops white with gold truck, 
white. Ventilators : Black (small vents are white). Inside of 

Names : All bear names of Saints. 
Services : — Passenger and Cargo. Liverpool, London and Continent to Para, Manaos. 
Iquitos, Maranam, Parnahyba and Ceara, calling at Oporto, Lisbon and Madeira. New 
York to above ports, and other South American ports; also cruises 1,000 miles up 

the Amazon River. 



7,400 tons. 

5,100 tons. 
5,100 tons, 
5,200 tons. 

Masts : Lower 

Derricks : All 

Cowls : Green. 



423 



Ships and the Sea 



BRITISH INDIA STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY, LTD. (British) 

London, E.G. 3. 

" B.I." 



[114] 







Passenger 


Ships (Motor). 






Dilwara. 


'3(5. 


11,100 tons. 


Dumana. 


'23. 


8,400 tons. 






(transport. 


) Dumra. 


'22. 


2,300 tons. 


Domala. 


'21. 


8,400 tons. 
Passenger 


Dwarka. 

Ships (Steam). 


'22. 


2,300 tons. 


Angora. 


'11. 


4,200 tons. 


Ellora. 


'11. 


5,100 tons. 


Arankola. 


'11. 


4,200 tons. 


Erinpura. 


'11. 


5,100 tons. 


Aronda. 


'12. 


4,200 tons. 


Ethiopia. 


'22. 


5,600 tons. 


Bamora. 


'14. 


3,200 tons. 


Karagola. 


'17. 


7,100 tons. 


Bandra. 


'14. 


3,200 tons. 


Karanja. 


'31. 


9,900 tons. 


Bankura. 


'12. 


3,200 tons. 


Karapara. 


'15. 


7,100 tons. 


Barala. 


'12. 


3,200 tons. 


Karoa. 


'15. 


7,100 tons. 


Barjora. 


'12. 


3,200 tons. 


Kenya. 


'30. 


9,900 tons. 


Baroda. 


'11. 


3,200 tons. 


Khandalla. 


'23. 


7,100 tons. 


Barpeta. 


'14. 


3,200 tons. 


Madura. 


'21. 


9,100 tons. 


Chakdina. 


'14. 


3,100 tons. 


Malda. 


'22. 


9,100 tons. 


Chakla. 


'14. 


3,100 tons. 


Manela. 


'21. 


8,300 tons. 


Chantala. 


'20. 


3,100 tons. 


Mantola. 


'21. 


9,000 tons. 


Chilka. 


'22. 


4,400 tons. 


Mashobra. 


'20. 


8,300 tons. 


Egra. 


'11. 


5,100 tons. 


Masula. 


'19. 


7,300 tons. 


Ekma. 


'11. 


5,100 tons. 


Matiana. 


'22. 


9,000 tons. 


Elephanta. 


'11. 


5,100 tons. 


Modasa. 


'21. 


9,000 tons. 


EUenga. 


'11. 


5,100 tons. 


Mulbera. 


'22. 


9,100 tons. 



424 



British India — (Contd.) 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Mundra. 


'20. 


7,300 tons. 


Tairea. 


'24. 


7,900 tons. 


Neuralia. 


'12. 


9,200 tons. 


Takada. 


'14. 


6,900 tons. 


(Trooper.) 






Takliwa. 


'24. 


8,000 tons. 


Nevasa. 


'13. 


9,200 tons. 


Talamba. 


'24. 


8,000 t©ns. 


(Trooper.) 






Talma. 


'23. 


10,000 tons. 


Rajula. 


'26. 


8,500 tons. 


Tilawa. 


'24. 


10,000 tons. 


Rohna. 


'26. 


8,500 tons. 


Varela. 


'14. 


4,700 tons. 


Santhia. 


'25. 


7,800 tons. 


Varsova. 


'14. 


4,700 tons. 


Shirala. 


'25. 


7,800 tons. 


Vasna. 


'17. 


4,700 tons. 


Sirdhana. 


'25. 


7,800 tons. 


Vita. 


'14. 


4,700 tons. 


Sir Harvey 












Adamson. 


'14. 


1,000 tons. 









Dalgoma. 



Australia. 

Binfield. 

Chinkoa. 

Chyebassa. 

Cranfield. 

Devon. 

Gairsoppa. 

Gamaria. 

Gambada. 

Gambhira. 



Cargo Vessels 
(Some of which have passenger accommodation.) 

(Motor). 
'23. 6,000 tons. Durenda. 





Cargo Vessels (Steam). 


'12. 


7,500 tons. 


Gandara. 


'19. 


5,200 tons. 


Garada. 


'13. 


5,200 tons. 


Garbeta. 


'07. 


6,300 tons. 


Garmula. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


Gazana. 


'15. 


9,000 tons. 


Gharinda, 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


Goalpara. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


Gogra. 


'18. 


5,300 tons. 


Golconda, 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


Gurna. 



:2. 


7,200 tons. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 



425 



British India — (Contd.) 



Ships and the Sea 



Haresfield. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


Nirvana. 


'14. 


6,000 tons. 


Hatarana. 


'17. 


7,500 tons. 


Nowshera. 


'19. 


6,000 tons. 


Hatimura. 


'18. 


6,700 tons. 


Nuddea. 


'19. 


7,900 tons. 


Hatipara. 


'18. 


7,800 tons. 


Ormara. 


'14. 


4,800 tons. 


Homeheld. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


Ozarda. 


'13. 


4,800 tons. 


Howra. 


'22. 


6,700 tons. 


Queda. 


'25. 


7,800 tons. 


Juna. 


'27. 


2,200 tons. 


Querimba. 


'25. 


7,800 tons. 


Kistna. 


'24. 


1,500 tons. 


Quiloa. 


'25. 


7,800 tons. 


Kola. 


'24. 


1,500 tons. 


Sirsa. 


'26. 


- 5,800 tons. 


Nagina. 


■21. 


6,600 tons. 


Surada. 


'20. 


5,800 tons. 


Nalgora. 


'22. 


6,600 tons. 


Tanfteld. 


'16. 


4,500 tons. 


Nardana. 


'19. 


8,000 tons. 


Warfield. 


'17. 


6,100 tons. 


Naringa. 


'23. 


6,600 tons. 


Warialda. 


'18. 


3,100 tons. 


Nerbudda. 


'19. 


7,900 tons. 


Warina. 


'18. 


3,100 tons. 


Nirpura. 


'21. 


6,000 tons. 


Warora. 


'18. 


2,300 tons. 






Winkfield. 


'19. 5,300 tons. 





Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with white band. Boot-topping : Red. 
Ventilators : Black, except small vents which are same colour as paint on respective 
decks. Inside of Cowls ; Black. Upperworks : Stone colour on main upper deck : 
white on all decks above. Boats : Black. Davits : Mostly Black. Masts : Lower 
masts, black; top masts and derricks, full mast colour. Names : Nearly all end in 

"A"; mostly Indian or Oriental names. 
Services : — Passenger and Cargo Home Line Services. Antwerp, Middlesbrough and 
London to Calcutta, by " M " class steamers. Antwerp, Middlesbrough and London 
to Karachi and Bombay. Antwerp, Middlesbrough and London to East African 
ports. London to Australia. Coastal Services. Bombay to Kathiawar Coast and 

426 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

British India — (Contd.) 

Karachi. Bombay to Karachi and Persian Gulf. Bombay to Seychelles, East and 
South Africa. Burma to Ceylon, India and East Africa. Calcutta to Rangoon. 
Calcutta to Rangoon, Penang, Port Swettenham and Singapore. Calcutta to Ran- 
goon, Straits, China and Japan. Calcutta to Chittagong, Arracan and Burma. 
Calcutta to Persian Gulf. Calcutta to Australia and New Zealand. Calcutta and/or 
Rangoon to Colombo and Mauritius. Calcutta to Coast ports, Bombay and Karachi. 
Colombo to Tuticorin. Madras to Negapatam, Port Swettenham and Singapore. 
Rangoon to Mergui. Rangoon to Madras. Rangoon to Coromandel Coast ports. 
Singapore to Bangkok. Other services as trade requires. 

BRITISH & IRISH STEAM PACKET COMPANY LTD. (British) [135] 
(Controlled by Coast Lines Ltd., Dublin). 
" B. & I." 

Passenger Ships. 
Lady Cloe. '16. 1,300 tons. Lady Leinster. '12. 

Lady Connaught. '06. 1,900 tons. Lady Louth. '23. 

Lady Munster. '06. 1,900 tons. 

Cargo Vessels. 
(Most of which have accommodation for passengers.' 



2,300 tons. 
1,900 tons. 



Lady Carlow. '98. 900 tons. 

Lady Cavan. '06. 700 tons. 

Lady Emerald. '19. 1,400 tons. 

Lady Galway. '94. 1,000 tons. 

Lady Wimborne, 
Distinguishing Features : — Hulls 
Boot-topping : Green. 



Lady Martin. '13. 1,200 tons. 

Lady Meath. '29. 1,600 tons. 

Lady Patricia. '19. 1,400 tons. 

Lady Wicklow. '95. 1,000 tons. 

15. 1,500 tons. 

Black with 6 in. white band along top strake. 
Names : All have prefix " Lady." 
427 



Ships and the Sea 

British and Irish — (Contd.) 

Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Dublin to London, Dublin to Plymouth 
and Southampton. Dublin to Liverpool. Dublin to Manchester. Dublin to 

Preston. 



BRITISH TANKER COMPANY LTD. (British) 
London, E.C.2. 
"B.P." Oil. 



[192] 







Motor Ships. 






British Aviator. 


'24. 


7,000 tons. 


British Motorist. 


'24. 


6,900 tons. 


British Chemist. 


'25. 


7,000 tons. 


British Petrol. 


'25. 


6,900 tons. 


British Courage. 


'28. 


7,000 tons. 


British Pluck. 


'28. 


1,000 tons. 


British Diplomat. 


'26. 


6,500 tons. 


British Prestige. 


'31. 


7,100 tons. 


British Dominion. 


'28. 


6,500 tons. 


British Pride. 


'31. 


7,000 tons. 


British Energy. 


'31. 


7,200 tons. 


British Reliance. 


'28. 


7,000 tons. 


British Faith. 


'28. 


7,000 tons. 


British Renown. 


'28. 


7,000 tons. 


British Freedom. 


'28. 


7,000 tons. 


British Resource. 


'31. 


7,200 tons 


British Glory. 


'28. 


7,000 tons. 


British Science. 


'31. 


7,100 tons. 


British Honour. 


'28. 


7,000 tons. 


British Splendour. 


'31. 


7,100 tons. 


British Hope. 


'28. 


7,000 tons. 


British Strength. 


'31. 


7,100 tons. 


British Justice. 


'28. 


7,000 tons. 


British Thrift. 


'28. 


700 tons. 


British Loyalty. 


'28. 


7,000 tons. 


British Union. 


'27. 


7,000 tons. 




British Valour. '27 


7,000 tons. 










Steamers. 






British Admiral. 


'17. 


6,800 tons. 


British Architect. 


'22. 


7,400 tons. 


British Advocate. 


'22. 


7,000 tons. 


British Ardour. 


'28. 


7,100 tons. 


British Ambassador. 


'24. 


6,900 tons. 

428 


British Captain. 


'23. 


7,000 tons. 



British Tankers — (Conid.) 

British Chancellor. 
British Chivalry. 
British Colonel. 
British Colony. 
British Commander. 
British Commerce. 
British Commodore. 
British Consul. 
British Corporal. 
British Councillor. 
British Duchess. 
British Emperor. 
British Empress. 
British Endeavour. 
British Engineer. 
British Ensign. 
British Enterprise. 
British Fortune. 
British Fusilier. 
British General. 
British Governor. 
British Grenadier. 
British Gunner, 
British Hussar. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



'21. 7,100 tons. 

'29. 7,100 tons. 

'21. 7,000 tons. 

'27. 6,900 tons. 

'22. 6,900 tons. 

'22. 4,200 tons. 

'23. 6,900 tons. 

'24. 6,900 tons. 

'22. 7,000 tons. 

'22. 7,000 tons. 

'24. 6,000 tons. 

'16. 3,600 tons. 

'17. 6,800 tons. 

'27. 4,600 tons. 

'22. 7,000 tons. 

'17. 7,000 tons. 

'21. 4,200 tons. 

'30. 4,700 tons. 

'23. 6,900 tons. 

'22. 7,000 tons. 

'26. 6,900 tons. 

'22. 6,900 tons. 

'22. 6,900 tons. 

'23. 6,900 tons. 
British Yeoman. 



British Industry. '27. 
British Inventor. '26. 
British Isles. '17. 

British Judge. '21. 
British Lady. '23. 

British Lord. '22. 

British Mariner. '22. 
British Merchant. '22. 
British Officer. '22. 
British Premier. '22. 
British Princess. '17. 
British Progress. '27. 
British Sailor. '18. 
British Scout. '22. 
British Sergeant. '22. 
British Soldier. '13. 
British Sovereign. '17. 
British 

Statesman. '22. 
British Tommy. '21. 
British Trader. '21. 
British Venture. '30. 
British Viscount. '21. 
British Workman. '22. 
'23. 7,000 tons. 



4,300 tons. 
7,100 tons. 
7,100 tons. 
6,700 tons. 
6,100 tons. 
6,100 tons. 
7,000 tons. 
7,000 tons. 
7,000 tons. 
5,900 tons. 
7,000 tons. 
4,900 tons. 
5,600 tons. 
1,500 tons. 
5,900 tons. 
5,600 tons. 
3,700 tons. 

7,000 tons. 
1,400 tons. 
4,200 tons. 
4,700 tons. 
6,900 tons. 
7,000 tons. 



429 



Ships and the Sea 

British Tankers — (Contd.) 

(Managers of the following vessels on behalf of Admiralty.) 



British Beacon. 


'18. 


6,900 tons. 


War Bharata. 


'20. 


5,600 tons. 


British Lantern. 


'18. 


6,900 tons. 


War Nawab. 


'19. 


5,600 tons. 


British Light. 


'17. 


6,700 tons. 


War Nizam. 


'18. 


5,600 tons. 


British Star. 


'18. 


6,900 tons. 


War Sudra. 


'20. 


5,600 tons. 


DlSTIN GUISHTNG 


Features :- 


— Hulls : Ver 


y dark " topside g 


rev"; a 


/ppear almost 



black at sea; vessels used to be painted a lighter grey. Boot-topping : Red. Masts, 

Derricks, etc. : White. Names : All have first word " British." 
The old House Flag and funnel used to be different, being changed a few years ago 
as a compliment to the Iranian Government, introducing the National Colours and 
the Iranian Lion. The old funnel used to be black with a white band between two 
red, and the white broadened in the centre so as to form a disc on which were the 
letters, B TCin black, the centre letter being taller than the others. The House 

Flag was the same as the funnel device. 
Services: — Petroleum Trade. Between Persian Gulf — U.K. and Continent. Most 
vessels have accommodation for about eight passengers or supernumeraries. 



BROCKLEBANK, THOS. & JNO., LTD (British) 
(Anchor-Brocexebank Line.) 
Liverpool. 



[42] 



Magdapur. 


'20. 


8,600 tons. 


Mahsud. 


'17. 


7,600 tons. 


Mahanada. 


'14. 


7,200 tons. 


Maidan. 


'25. 


7,900 tons. 


Mahout. 


'25. 


7,900 tons. 


Maihar. 


'17. 


7,600 tons. 


Mahratta. 


'17. 


6,700 tons. 


Maimyo. 


• '18. 


5,800 tons. 


Mahronda. 


'25. 


7,900 tons. 


Makalla. 


'18. 


6,800 tons. 


Mahseer. 


'25. 


7,900 tons. 


Malakand. 


'19. 


7,600 tons. 



430 



BRO CELEB ANK- 

Manaar. 
Mandasor. 
Mangalore. 
Manipur. 

Markhor. 



-(Contd.) 



Seme Well Known Shipping Companies 



Marwarri. 


'35. 


8,000 tons. 


Masirah. 


'19. 


6,600 tons. 


Matheran. 


'19. 


7,700 tons. 


Mathura. 


'20. 


8,900 tons. 


Matra. 


'26. 


7,900 tons. 



'17. 7,200 tons. 

'20. 5,100 tons. 

'20. 8,900 tons. 

'20. 8,700 tons. 

'29. 7,900 tons. 

Stockwell. '14. 5,800 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with 22 in. white band on topsides. 
Boot-topping : Red. Masts, Derricks, etc. : All white. Ventilators : Black (small 
vents white). Inside of Cowls : Red. Names : Mostly Indian names beginning 
with " M." Funnels : Mostly " cowl-topped." House Flag : Flown from foremast, 

not from mainmast. 
Services: — Cargo, with no Accommodation for Passengers. Swansea, Newport, 
Manchester, Glasgow and Liverpool to Calcutta. Continental Ports, Middlesbrough 
and London to Colombo, Madras and Calcutta. Calcutta and Colombo to Boston, 
New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. United States Ports to London 

and Avonmouth. 



Umkuzi. 
Umona. 
Umtali. 



BULLARD, KING & COMPANY LTD. (British) 
(Natal Line.) 
London, E.C.3. 

Passenger Ships. 
'03. 5,200 tons. Umtata. 

'10. 3,800 tons. Umvoti. 

'36. 8,400 tons. Umvuma. 



[255] 



'36. 


8,400 tons. 


'03. 


5,200 tons. 


'14. 


4,400 tons. 



431 



BuiiLARD, Kino — (Conld.) 



Ships and the Sea 

Cargo Vessel. 
Umlazi. '18. 4,300 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Dove-grey. Boot-topping : Red. Venti- 
lators : Black. Inside of Cowls : Red. Names : Zulu names with prefix " Um." 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. London to Port Natal, Lourenco Marques and 
Beira calling at Cape Town occasionally. Natal, South and East African ports to 
Bombay, Calcutta and Madras calling at Colombo. 



BURNS & LAIRD LINES LTD. (British) 
London, S.W.I. 

Passenger Ships. 



[150] 



Laird's Isle. 


'11. 


1,800 tons. 


Lairdshill. 


'21. 


1,800 tons. 


Lairdscastle. 


'24. 


1,900 tons. 


Lairdsloch. 


'06. 


1,500 tons. 


Lairdsglen. 


'14. 


1,300 tons. 


Lairdsmoor. 


'19. 


1,600 tons. 


Lairdsgrove. 


'98. 


1,200 tons. 
Cargo 


Lairdsrose. 

Vessels. 


'02. 


1,100 tons. 


Lairdsben. 


'93. 


700 tons. 


Lairdsferry. 


'18. 


700 tons. 


Lairdsbrook. 


'20. 


800 tons. 


Lairdsheather. 


'98. 


500 tons. 


(Engines aft.) 






Lairdspool. 


'96. 


600 tons. 



Lairdsrock. '98. 1,200 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red. Names : All 

have prefix " Lairds." Boats : Some black, some white. 
Services : — Passenger and Cargo. Ardrossan to Belfast. Ayr to Belfast and Larne. 
Glasgow to Belfast, Ballina, Coleraine, Sligo and West Port. Glasgow to Greenock, 
Dublin to Londonderry. Heysham to Londonderry. 
432 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



CANADIAN PACIFIC STEAMSHIPS LTD. (British) 
(Owners: Canadian Pacific Kail way Co.) 
London, S.W.I. 



[216] 



Passenger Ships 
Duchess Of Atholl. '28. 20,100 tons. 
Duchess of Bedford. '28. 20,100 tons. 
Duchess of Richmond.'28. 20,000 tons. 
Duchess of York. '29. 20,000 tons. 



(Atlantic Service). 
Empress of Australia. '14. 
Empress of Britain. '31. 
Montcalm. '21. 

Montclare. '22. 



Empress of Asia. 
Empress of Canada. 



Montrose. '22. 

Passenger Ships 
'13. 16,900 tons. 

'22. 21,500 tons. 



16,400 tons. 



(Pacific Service). 
Empress of Japan. 
Empress of Russia. 



'30. 
'13. 



21,800 tons. 
42,300 tons. 
16,400 tons. 
16,400 tons. 



26,000 tons. 
16,800 tons. 



Cargo Vessels (Atlantic). 
Beaverbrae. '28. 10,000 tons. Beaverdale. '28. 10,000 tons. 

Beaverburn. '27. 9,900 tons. Beaverford. '28. 10,000 tons. 

Beaverhill. '28. 10,000 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : All " Empresses," white with blue riband, 
remainder of fleet, black. Boot-topping : Green. Ventilators : Buff. Inside of 
Cowls : Red. Boats : Most " Empresses " have brown painted boats. Names : 

" Beavers," " Duchesses," " Empresses " and " Monts." 
These ships can be distinguished from those of the Pacific Steam Nav. Co., which 
also have same colouring, by the fact that all the latter have single funnels except 
" Reina del Pacifico," which is white-painted but cannot be mistaken for an " Em- 
press " on account of her two small " motor ship " funnels. 
p 433 



Ships and the Sea 

Canadian Pacific — (Contd.) 

Services : — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Liverpool, Belfast, Glasgow, Southampton 
to Quebec and Montreal (in summer) and to St. John, New Brunswick (in winter). 
Vancouver to Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, Nagasaki, Shanghai, Manila and Hong 
Kong. Vancouver to Australia and New Zealand via Suva and Fiji (in conjunction 
with Canadian Australian Line — U.S.N.Z.). Cargo Service only. London and 
Continent to Quebec and Montreal. 



CARRON COMPANY, THE (British) 
(Royal Charter, 1773.) 
Carron, Falkirk. 



[25] 



Carron. '94. 1,000 tons. Forth. '27. 1,100 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls ; Black. Boot-topping : Red. Vessels carry 
a cannon-ball just below the truck of mainmast. Names : Vessels have been named 
after " Rivers " since middle of last century; " Carron " is fifth of that name and 
" Forth " is the third holder. 
Services : — Scotland to London (via Grangemouth) and vice versa. 



CHARGEURS REUNIS, COMPAGNIE FRANQAISE DE NAVIGATION A 







Paris. 




L^J 






Passenger Ships. 






Ango. 


'13. 


7,100 tons. 


Brazza (M.V.). 


'23. 


10,200 tons. 


Asie. 


'14. 


8,600 tons. 


Cap Padaran. 


'22. 


8,000 tons. 


Aurigny. 


'18. 


9,600 tons. 


Cap St. Jacques. 


'22. 


8,000 tons. 


Belle Isle. 


'18. 


9,600 tons. 


Cap Tourane. 


'23. 


8,000 tons. 


Bougainville. 


'13. 


7,100 tons. 









434 



Chargettes REUiins — (Contd.) 

Cap Varella. '21. 8,000 tons. 

D'Entrecasteaux. '22. 7,300 tons. 

Desirade. '21. 9,600 tons. 

Dupleix. '14. 7,100 tons. 

Eubee. '21. 9,600 tons. 

Forbin. '22. 9,300 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Aden. 

Adrar. 

Bangkok. 

Baoule. 

Dahomey. 

Dalny. 

Fort Archambault. '18. 



Distinguishing 



'18. 8,000 tons. 

'20. 5,900 tons. 

'19. 8,100 tons. 

'21. 5,900 tons. 

'21. 5,900 tons. 

'14. 6,700 tons. 

5,500 tons. 
Linois. 
Features: — Hulls : 



Formose. '21. 

Foucauld. '22. 

Groix. '22. 

Jamaique. '22. 

Kerguelen. '22. 

Lipari. '22. 
Cargo Vessels. 

Fort Binger. '19. 



10,000 tons. 
11,000 tons. 
10,000 tons. 
10,000 tons. 
10,100 tons. 
10,000 tons. 



Fort de Douaumont. '18. 
Fort de Souville. '18. 
Fort de Troyon. '19. 
Fort de Vaux. '18. 

Fort Lamy. '19. 

Fort Medine. '19. 

'07. 7,500 tons. 

Black. Boot-topping 



5,200 
5,300 
5,200 
5,200 
5,200 
5,200 
5,400 



tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons. 



Red. Ventilators : 
China, South 



White. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. From French ports to Indo 
America and French West Coast of Africa. 

(COMPAGNIE DES TRANSPORTS MaRITIMES DE L'AFRIQUE 

OCCIDENTALE FRANCAISE.) [5] 

Kakoulima. '32. 3,700 tons. Kindia. '19. 2,000 tons. 

Katiola. '36. 3,800 tons. Kolente. '32. 3,700 tons. 

Kilissi. '34. 3,700 tons. Building. '36. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Grey. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 
Black. Inside of Cowls : Red. 

435 



Ships and the Sea 

Chargeurs Reunis — (Contd.) 

Services : — Fruit Trade. From West Coast of Africa to Europe. The first specially 
designed banana carriers for France. The Chargeurs Reunis company also controls 
the Compagnie de Navigation Sud-Atlantique (q.v.). 



CLAN LINE STEAMERS LTD., THE 

(Cayzer Irvine & Co., Ltd.) 
London, E.C.3. 



British) 



[56] 



Clan Alpine. 


'18. 


5,400 tons. 


Clan Macinnes. 


'20. 


4,700 tons. 


Clan Cameron. 


'36. 


tons. 


Clan Maciver. 


'21. 


4,500 tons. 


Clan Chisholm. 


'36. 


tons. 


Clan Mackay. 


'14. 


6,600 tons. 


Clan Colquhoun. 


'18. 


7,900 tons. 


Clan Mackellar. 


'13. 


6,400 tons. 


Clan Farquhar. 


'18. 


8,000 tons. 


Clan Mackenzie. 


'17. 


6,600 tons. 


Clan Keith. 


'14. 


5,700 tons. 


Clan Mackinlay. 


'18. 


6,400 tons. 


Clan Macalister. 


'30. 


6,800 tons. 


Clan Macnab. 


'20. 


6,100 tons. 


Clan Macarthur. 


'35. 


10,300 tons. 


Clan Macnair. 


'21. 


6,100 tons. 


Clan Macaulay. 


'36. 


10,300 tons. 


Clan 






Clan Macbean. 


'18. 


5,100 tons. 


Macnaughton. 


'21. 


6,100 tons. 


Clan Macbeth. 


'13. 


4,600 tons. 


Clan Macneil. 


'22. 


6,100 tons. 


Clan Macbrayne. 


'16. 


4,800 tons. 


Clan Macphee. 


'11. 


6,600 tons. 


Clan Macbride. 


'12. 


4,900 tons. 


Clan Macpherson. 


'29. 


6,900 tons. 


Clan Macdougall 






Clan Macquarrie. 


'13. 


6,500 tons. 


(M.V.). 


'29. 


6,800 tons. 


Clan Mactaggart. 


'20. 


7,600 tons. 


Clan Macfadyn. 


'23. 


6,200 tons. 


Clan Mactavish. 


'21. 


7,600 tons. 


Clan Macfarlane. 


'22. 


6,200 tons. 


Clan Macvicar. 


'18. 


5,800 tons. 


Clan Macgillivray. 


'11. 


6,500 tons. 


Clan Macwhirter. • 


'18. 


5,900 tons. 


Clan Macilwraith. 


'24. 


4,800 tons. 


Clan Matheson. 


'19. 


5,600 tons. 


Clan Macindoe. 


'20. 


4,600 tons. 

436 


Clan Monroe. 


'18. 


5,900 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Clan Like — (Contd.) 












Clan Morrison. 


'18. 


5,900 tons. 


Clan Robertson. 


'20. 


8,000 tons. 


Clan Murdoch 


'19. 


5,900 tons. 


Clan Ross. 


'14. 


5,900 tons. 


Clan Murray. 


'18. 


6,000 tons. 


Clan Skene. 


'18. 


5,200 tons. 


Clan Ogilvy. 


'14. 


5,800 tons. 


Clan Stuart. 


'16. 


5,800 tons. 


Clan Ronald. 


'17. 


5,500 tons. 


Clan Urquhart. 


'11. 


9,600 tons. 




Building. 


'36. 






Distinguishing 


Features :- 


—Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : 


Red. 


Masts and 


Derricks : Grey. 


Ventilators 


: Engine room, black; deck, grey 


. Inside of Cowls : 



White. Names : All " Clans." 
Services: — Cargo. No Accommodation for Passengers. Newport, Glasgow and 
Liverpool to Mossell Bay, Algoa Bay and E. London. Newport, Glasgow and 
Liverpool to Natal, Lorenco Marques and Beira, also to Mauritius, Red Sea and E. 
African ports. Newport, Glasgow, Manchester and Liverpool to Bombay, Malabar 
Coast and Tuticorin, Colombo, Madras and Calcutta. Australia, India, South Africa, 
E. African ports (via Suez) to U.K., Continent and U.S.A. 
Joint services with Ellerman, Strick and Harrison Lines. 







CLYDE SHIPPING COMPANY LTD. 


(British) 


[27] 






Glasgow, 


C.5. 






Aranmore. 


'20. 


1,100 tons. 




Longships. 


'17. 


1,600 tons. 


Ballycotton. 


'11. 


1,300 tons. 




Pladda. 


'07. 


1,300 tons. 


Copeland. 


'23. 


1,500 tons. 




Rockabiil. 


'31. 


1,400 tons. 


Eddystone. 


'27. 


1,600 tons. 




Sanda. 


'11. 


1,000 tons. 


Fastnet. 


'28. 


1,400 tons. 




Skerries. 


'21. 


1,300 tons. 


Goodwin. 


'17. 


1,600 tons. 




Toward. 


'23. 


1,600 tons. 






Tuskar. 


'20. 1,200 tons. 










437 









Ships and the Sea 

Clyde Shipping Co. — (Contd.) 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Flesh. Deck-houses : 

Brown (grained). Ventilators : Brown (grained). Inside of Cowls : Red. Boats : 

Black. Names : All names of well known lighthouses or lightships. 
Also own a fleet of fourteen steam tugs the names of which all have prefix " Flying," 

e.g. " Flying Condor," etc. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Glasgow, Greenock, Belfast and Waterford to 
Plymouth, Southampton, Newhaven and London. Glasgow, Greenock, Belfast 
and Waterford to Cork and Limerick. Belfast and Dublin to Waterford, Cork. 
Waterford to Liverpool, Bristol and Cardiff. Glasgow and Greenock to Antwerp and 

Ghent. 



COAST LINES LTD. (British) 
Liverpool. 
Carmarthen Coast. '21. 1,000 tons. Southern Coast. 

Highland Coast. '12. 1,100 tons. Western Coast. 

Killarney. '93. 1,800 tons. Yorkshire Coast. 

(Cruising yacht.) 

Vessels with engines aft. 
Motor. 



'11. 
'19. 
'13. 



[33] 

1,900 tons. 

1,400 tons. 

700 tons. 



Anglian Coast. 


'35. 


1,600 tons. British Coast. 


'34. 


800 tons. 


Atlantic Coast. 


'34. 


900 tons. Ocean Coast. 


'35. 


1,600 tons. 




Pacific Coast. '35. 1,600 tons 










Steam. 






Anglesey Coast. 


'11. 


900 tons. Cardigan Coast. 


'13. 


800 tons. 


Ayrshire Coast. 


'22. 


800 tons. Cheshire Coast. * 


'15. 


1,100 tons. 


Cambrian Coast, 


'22. 


800 tons. Durham Coast. 
438 


'12. 


800 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Coast Lines — (Contd.) 












Eastern Coast. 


'22. 


1,200 tons. 


Northern Coast. 


'21. 


1,200 tons. 


Fife Coast. 


'33. 


400 tons. 


Orkney Coast. 


'09. 


800 tons. 


Gloucester Coast. 


'13. 


900 tons. 


Scottish Coast. 


'22. 


800 tons. 


Hampshire Coast. 


'11. 


800 tons. 


Somerset Coast. 


'20. 


1,400 tons. 


Lancashire Coast. 


'20. 


1,100 tons. 


Suffolk Coast. 


'17. 


900 tons. 


Monmouth Coast. 


'24. 


900 tons. 


Welsh Coast. 


'15. 


1,100 tons. 



Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with exception of " Killarney " which 

is grey and which has buff funnels. Boot-topping : Red with white dividing line. 

Names : Nearly all have suffix, " Coast." 

Services : — Passenger and Cargo. Most British Coastal ports. 



COLONIAL, COMPANHIA DE NAVEGACAO. (Portuguese) [?] 
Lisbon. 



Benguela. 


'05. 


4,300 tons. 


Joao Belo. 


'05. 


6,400 tons. 


Buzi. 


'03. 


1,300 tons. 


Loanda. 


'00. 


5,100 tons. 


Cassequel. 


'01. 


4,800 tons. 


Lobito. 


'06. 


2,700 tons. 


Colonial. 


'08. 


8,300 tons. 


Malange. 


'04. 


3,200 tons. 


Ganda. 


'07. 


4,300 tons. 


Mouzinho. 


'07. 


8,400 tons. 


Guine. 


'05. 


2,700 tons. 


Pungue. 


'00. 


4,000 tons. 




s 


Sena. 


'22. 1,200 tons. 





Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Grey. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 

Buff. ■ Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Services : — Passenger and Cargo. Lisbon to West and East African ports. Lisbon 
to West African ports only. Cargo only. Lisbon to North European and Africa. 

439 



Ships and the Sea 

COMMONWEALTH & DOMINION LINE LTD. (British) 
(Port Line.) 
(Cunard Cargo Service.) 
London, E.C.3. 



[173] 



Port Alma. 
Port Chalmers. 
Port Dunedin. 
Port Fairy. 
Port Fremantle. 



'28. 
'34. 
'25. 

'28. 
'27. 



Motor Ships. 
8,000 tons. Port Gisborne. 



8,500 tons. 
7,500 tons. 
8,000 tons. 
8,100 tons. 



Port Hobart. 
Port Huon. 
Port Townsville. 
Port Wyndham. 



'27. 
'25. 
'27. 
'35. 
'35. 



Steamers. 



8,000 tons. 
7,400 tons. 
8,000 tons. 
8,500 tons. 
8,700 tons. 



Port Adelaide. '19. 8,400 tons. Port Hardy. '23. 8,700 tons. 

Port Auckland. '22. 8,300 tons. Port Hunter. '22. 8,400 tons. 

PortBowen. '19. 8,300 tons. Port Melbourne. '14. 9,120 tons. 

Port Campbell. '22. 8,300 tons. Port Napier. '12. 8,500 tons. 

Port Caroline. '19. 8,300 tons. Port Nicholson. '18. 8,400 tons. 

Port Darwin. '18. 8,100 tons. Port Sydney. '14. 9,100 tons. 

Port Denison. '18. 8,000 tons. Port Wellington. '24. 7,900 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Silver Grey. Boot-topping : Bed. Venti- 
lators : Mast Colour (Brown). Names : Australasian " Ports." 
Services : — All ships have Accommodation for a few Passengers. London to Australia 
and New Zealand. New York to Australia and New Zealand. West Coast Ports 
U.K. to New Zealand direct (via Panama). 



440 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



CUNARD WHITE STAR LTD. 

Liverpool. 

Passenger Ships. 
Cunard Ships. 



(British) [172 and 249] 



Alaunia. 
Andania. 
Antonia. 

Aquitania. 
Ascania. 
Aurania. 
Ausonia. 

Berengaria. 

Distinguishing 



'25. 14,000 tons. 

'22. 14,000 tons. 

'21. 13,900 tons. 

'14. 45,600 tons. 

'25. 14,000 tons. 

'24. 14,000 tons. 

'21. 13,900 tons. 

'12. 52,100 tons. 

Scythia. 
Features: — Hulls : 



Carinthia. '25. 

(Cruising ship.' 
Franconia. '23. 

(Cruising ship. 
Laconia. '22. 

Lancastria. '22. 
Queen Mary. '36. 
Samaria. '21. 

'20. 20,000 tons. 

Black. Boot-topping : Red 



20,300 tons. 

20,200 tons. 

19,700 tons. 
16,200 tons. 
80,800 tons. 
19,600 tons. 



with white 
derricks and 



dividing line. Ventilators : White. Inside of Cowls : Red. 

steampipes by funnels : Golden brown. Names : Roman provinces ending in " ia." 

White Star Ships. 
Britannic (M.V.). '30. 26,900 tons. Laurentic. '27. 18,700 tons. 

Georgic (M.V.). '32. 27,800 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with gold band. Boot-topping : Red. 
Ventilators : White. Inside of. Cowls : White. Crows nests : White. Names : 

End in " ic." 
Services: — Mail and Passenger to United States. Southampton via Cherbourg to 
New York (Express service). Southampton, Liverpool, Cobh, Galway, Glasgow 

441 



Ships and the Sea 

Cunard White Star — (Contd.) 

and Belfast to New York and Boston via Havre. Mail and Passenger to Canada. 
Southampton, Liverpool, London, Glasgow, Belfast and Havre to Quebec and 
Montreal (Summer), Halifax N.S. and St. John N.B. (Winter). Cruises, West 
and North Africa, Canaries, Madeira, Spain, Portugal, Egypt, Italy, Mediterranean 
Ports, Norwegian Fjords, and Round the World. 



Tanganjika. 
Ubena. 
Usambara. 
Building. 



DEUTSCHE OST AFRIKA LINIE (German) 
(German East Africa Line.) 
Hamburg. 



[31] 



'24. 
'22. 

'28. 
'22. 
'36. 



Passenger Ships. 

' 00 , ' > (May run in Hamburg- Amerika colours.) 

9,600 tons. Usaramo. '20. 7,800 tons. 

8,700 tons. Ussukuma. '20. 7,800 tons. 

16,000 tons. (Probably 3 ships of same size.) 



Muansa. 
Rufidji. 
Urundi. 

Features: — Hulls : 



(Coastal ship.) 



Cargo Vessels 
'11. 
'21. 
'20. 
Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Silver 
and Derricks : Deep cream. Ventilators 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. To and from West Africa, Angola, South- 
West African ports, South African ports and East African ports, via Mediterranean, 

Suez and Canary Islands. 
442 



5,500 tons. 

1,400 tons. 

5,800 tons, 
grey. Boot-topping : Red. Masts 
• Buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



DOLLAR STEAMSHIP LINES INC., LTD. (U.S.A.) 

San Francisco, Cal. 



[9] 



Passenger Ships. 



President Adams. 


'21. 


10,500 tons. 


President Johnson. 


'04. 


15,500 tons. 


President Cleveland. 


'21. 


14,100 tons. 


President Lincoln. 


'21. 


14,200 tons. 


President Coolidge. 


'31. 


21,900 tons. 


President Monroe. 


'20. 


10,500 tons. 


President Fillmore. 


'04. 


15,600 tons. 


President Pierce. 


'21. 


14,100 tons. 


President Garfield. 


'21. 


10,500 tons. 


President Polk. 


'21. 


10,500 tons. 


President Harrison. 


'21. 


10,500 tons. 


President Taft. 


'21. 


14,100 tons. 


President Hayes. 


'20. 


10,500 tons. 


President Van 






President Hoover. 


'30. 


21,900 tons. 


Buren. 


'20. 


10,500 tons. 




President Wilson. 


'21. 14,100 tons. 










Cargo Vessels. 






Diana Dollar. 


'21. 


7,000 tons. 


Melville Dollar. 


'21. 


7,000 tons. 



Margaret Dollar. '21. 7,000 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with thin red band. Boot-topping : 
Red. Ventilators : Black. Inside of Cowls : Red. Masts and Derricks : Buff. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. New York to Havana, Cristobal, Balboa, Los 
Angeles, San Francisco, Honolulu, Yokohama, Kobe, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Manila, 
Singapore, Penang, Colombo, Suez, Port Said, Alexandria, Naples, Genoa, Marseilles, 
Boston and New York. Trans-Pacific Service* 



443 



Ships and the Sea 



DONALDSON ATLANTIC LINE LTD. (British) 
Glasgow, C.l. 



[84] 



Athenia. 
Distinguishing 
dividing line. 



Passenger Ships. 
'23. 13,500 tons. Letitia. '25 

Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : 



13,500 tons. 

Red with white 
Inside of Cowls : Red. 



Ventilators : Black (small vents brown). 
Names : Have suffix " la." 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Glasgow to Halifax, Nova Scotia and St. John 
(N.B.) in winter. Glasgow to Quebec and Montreal in summer. 



DUBROVACKA PAROBRODSKA PLOVIDBA a.d. (Yugo-Slavian) 
(Ragusa Steam Nav. Co. Ltd.) 
Dubrovnik. 



[1 & 8] 



Bosanka. 


'05. 


3,500 tons. 


Nikola Pasic. 


'27. 


4,800 tons. 


Dubac. 


'01. 


2,800 tons. 


Petka. 


'96. 


500 tons, 


Dubravka. 


'05. 


3,800 tons. 


Pracat. 


'CO. 


2,300 tons. 


Dubrovnik. 


'09. 


1,000 tons. 


Prinoc Andre j. 


'30. 


5,000 tons. 


Durmitor. 


'13. 


5,600 tons. 


Sipan. 


'31. 


300 tons. 


Federiko Glavic. 


'23. 


5,300 tons. 


Srebreno. 


'01. 


3,300 tons. 


Kralj 






Srgj. 


'05. 


3,600 tons. 


Aleksandar I. 


'32. 


2,500 tons. 


Sveti Vlaho. 


'28. 


6,000 tons. 


Kumanovo. 


'07. 


1,400 tons. 









444 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

DUBROVACKA — (Co)ltd.) 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Passenger ships white, cargo ships black. 

Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : Buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Dubrovnik (Gravosa) to Cattaro (Kotor), 
Split (Spalato), other Adriatic ports and Trieste. Cargo only. Dubrovnik to Bari, 
principal Adriatic ports, Greece, Anatolia, Egypt, Syria and Asia Minor. 



DUNDEE, PERTH & LONDON SHIPPING CO. LTD., THE (British) 

"D.P. & L." 

Dundee. 



[143] 



Dundee. 



Passenger Ships. 
'34. 1,500 tons. London. '21. 

Perth. '15. 2,200 tons. 

Cargo Vessels (Excluding lighters, etc.). 



1,500 tons. 



700 tons. 



Arbroath (M.V.). '35. tons. Gateshead. '19. 

(Engines aft.) (Engines aft.) 

Broughty. '21. 500 tons. Gowrie. '09. 700 tons. 

(Engines aft.) Lochee. '18. 1,100 tons. 

(Engines aft.) 
Louga. '98. 900 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red with white divid- 
ing line. Masts and Derricks : Light brown. Upperworks ; Cream in passenger 

ships, brown in others. Boats : White. 
Services : — Passenger and Cargo. Dundee to London, calling at Southend. Dundee 
to Hull. Dundee to Newcastle. Dundee and Leith to Southampton and 

445 



Ships and the Sea 

Dundee, Perth — (Contd.) 

Portsmouth. Aberdeen to Hull. Aberdeen to Newcastle. Kirkcaldy to Newcastle 

and Hull. 
River Services: — Dundee and Leith to Perth. 



EAGLE OIL & SHIPPING CO. LTD. (British) 

(Anglo -Mexican Petroleum Co., Ltd.) 
London, E.C.2. 

Motor Vessels (Cruiser sterns). 



[126] 



San Adolfo. 


'35. 


7,400 tons. 


San Ambrosio. 


'35. 


7,400 tons. 


San Alberto. 


'35. 


7,400 tons. 


San Andres. 


'35. 


7,400 tons. 


San Alvaro. 


'35. 


7,400 tons. 


San Arcadio. 


'35. 


7,300 tons. 


San Amado. 


'35. 


7,300 tons. 


San Dario. 


'18. 


1,100 tons. 








(Elliptical stern.) 








Steam 


Ships. 






San Casto. 


'28. 


2,500 tons. 


San Roberto. 


'22. 


5,900 tons. 


San CI audio. 


'28. 


2,700 tons. 


San Salvador. 


'24. 


5,800 tons. 


San Fabian. 


'22. 


13,000 tons. 


San Silvistre. 


'13. 


6,200 tons. 


San Felix. 


'21. 


13,000 tons. 


San Tiburcio. 


'21. 


6,000 tons. 


San Fernando. 


'19. 


13,100 tons. 


San Tirso. 


'13. 


6,200 tons. 


San Florentine 


'19. 


12,800 tons. 


San Ubaldo. 


'21. 


6,000 tons. 


San Gaspar. 


'21. 


12,900 tsns. 


San Valerio. 


'13. 


6,500 tons. 


San Leon. 


'21. 


6,100 tons. 


San Zeferino. 


'14. 


6,400 tons. 


San Melito. 


'14. 


12,400 tons. 


San Zotico. 


'19. 


5,600 tons. 


San Quirino. 


'23. 


5,800 tons. 


Shell Mex IV. 


'21. 


400 tons. 






Shell Mex V. 


'21. 400 tons. 








446 







Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Eagle Oil — (Contd.) 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : 
ricks, Superstructure and Boats : Buff. Names : Nearly all " 

in " o." 

Services. — Petroleum Trade. Between Mexican Gulf ports and U.K 

Accommodation. 



Bed. Masts, Der- 
San " and mostly end 



No Passenger 



Aba. 
Abosso. 
Accra. 
Adda. 



ELDER DEMPSTER LINES LTD. 

Liverpool. 



(British) 



[215] 





Passenger Ships. 






(Motor.) 




'18. 


8,000 tons. Apapa. 


'27. 9,300 tons, 


'35. 


11,000 tons. Calabar. 


'35. 3,000 tons 


'26. 


9,300 tons. 


(Coastal service.) 


'22. 


7,900 tons. 





Alfred Jones. 

Dagomba. 

Daru. 

David Livingstone. 

Deido. 

Dixcove. 



Cargo Vessels. 
(Motor.) 
(Limited passenger accommodation.) 



'30. 3,800 tons. 

'28. 3,900 tons. 

'27. . 3,800 tons. 

'29. 3,800 tons. 

'28. 3,900 tons. 

'27. 3,800 tons. 

William Wilberforce. 
447 



Dunkwa. 
Edward Blyden. 
Macgregor Laird. 
Mary Kingsley. 
Mary Slessor. 
Mattawin. 



'27. 
'30. 
'30. 
'30. 
'30. 
'23. 



'30. 



3,800 tons. 



3,800 tons. 
3,800 tons. 
3,800 tons. 
3,800 tons. 
3,800 tons. 
7,000 tons. 



Ships and the Sea 



Elder Dempster- 


-(C'ontdti 












Cargo Vessels (Steam). 




Bassa. 


'18. 


5,300 tons. 


Eboe. '12. 


4,900 tons. 


Bereby. 


'18. 


5,200 tons. 


Egba. '14. 


5,000 tons. 


Biafra. 


'19. 


5,400 tons. 


Egori. '14. 


5,000 tons. 


Bodnant. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


Ilorin. '20. 


800 tons. 


Boma. 


'20. 


5,400 tons. 


(Tender.) 




Calgary. 


'21. 


7,200 tons. 


New Brooklyn. '20. 


6,500 tons. 


Calumet. 


'23. 


7,300 tons. 


New Brunwsick. '19. 


6,500 tons. 


Cochrane. 


'21. 


7,200 tons. 


New Columbia. '20. 


6,600 tons. 


Ebani. 


'12. 


4,900 tons. 
New Toronto. 


New Texas. '19. 
'19. 6,600 tons. 


6,600 tons. 



Distinguishing Features: — Hulls: Black (formerly Grey). Boot-topping: Red. 
Ventilators : Buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. Names : Mostly West African place 

names or names of persons prominent in the development of West Africa. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Liverpool, London, Hull, Cardiff and 
Continent to West and South- West African ports. New York and Montreal to 
West and South-West African ports. Liverpool to Montreal, New Orleans and 

Galveston. 



ELDERS & FYFFES LTD. (British) 
(Fyffes Line.) 
London, W.C.2. 



448 



[237] 



Araeataca. 


'24. 


5,400 tons. 


Camito. 


'15. 


6,700 tons. 


Ariguani. 


'26. 


6,700 tons. 


Carare. 


'25. 


6,800 tons. 


Barranca. 


'06. 


4,100 tons. 


Gasanare. 


' '24. 


5,400 tons. 


Bayano. 


'17. 


6,700 tons. 


Cavina. 


'24. 


6,900 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Elders & Fyffes — (C'ontd.) 

3,900 tons. 

5,400 tons. 

5,400 tons. 

5,400 tons. 

5,400 tons. 

5,400 tons. 

5,400 tons. 

5,400 tons. 
Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Silver Grey. Boot-topping ; Bed. Ventilators : 
Buff. Inside of Cowls : White. Names : Spanish or South American place names. 
Services : — First Class Passenger, Mail and Cargo. Avonmouth, Liverpool, Swansea 
and Continent to Jamaica, Central America, Barbados, Trinidad, Panama and 

Costa Rica. 



Chagres. 


'27. 


5,400 tons. 


Pacuare. 


'05. 


Corrales. 


'29. 


5,400 tons. 


Patia. 


'22. 


Cristales. 


'26. 


5,400 tons. 


Samala. 


'28. 


Manistee. 


'20. 


5,400 tons. 


Sulaco. 


'26. 


Matina. 


'29. 


5,400 tons. 


Tetela. 


'26. 


Mazatec. 


'29. 


5,500 tons. 


Tilapa. 


'28. 


Mopan. 


'29. 


5,400 tons. 


Tortuguero. 


'21. 


Nicoya. 


'29. 


5,400 tons. 


Tucurinca. 


'26. 







ELLERMAN LINES LTD. (British) 
(The City Line Ltd.) 
Glasgow, C.2. 


[260j 
[262] 






Passenger Ships. 




City of Bagdad. 
City of Canterbury. 
City of Exeter. 
City of London. 
City of Marseilles. 


'19. 

'22. 
'14. 
'07. 
'13. 


7,500 tons. 
8,300 tons. 
9,600 tons. 
9,000 tons. 
8,300 tons. 


City of Nagpur. '22. 
City of Paris. '22. 
City of Simla. '21. 
City of Venice. '24. 
City of York. '04. 


10,100 tons. 
10,900 tons. 

9,500 tons. 

8,800 tons. 

7,800 tons. 



449 



Ships and the Sea 

Ellerman — ( Conld. ) 

Cakgo Vessels. 
(Some of which have accommodation for few passengers.) 
City of Birmingham. '17. 5,300 tons. 

City of Delhi. 
City of^Dieppe. 
City of Mandalay. 
City of Oran. 

Services: — Glasgow and Liverpool to Colombo, Madras and Calcutta, returning 
to London. Glasgow and Liverpool to Bombay and Karachi. (Joint service with 

Hall Line.) 



'25. 


7,400 tons. 




'29. 


8,000 tons. 


(Maier bow. 


'25. 


7,000 tons. 




'15. 


7,400 tons. 









(Hall Line Ltd.) 








Liverpool. 








Passenger Ships. 








City of Baroda. 


'18. 7,100 tons. 








City of Cairo. 


'15. 8,000 tons. 








Cargo Vessels. 




(Some 


of \i 


r hich have accommodation for few passengers.) 




City of Adelaide. 


'20. 


6,600 tons. 


City of Canton. '16. 


6,700 tons. 


City of Auckland. 


'15. 


8,300 tons. 


City of Cardiff. '18. 


5,700 tons. 


City of Athens. 


'23. 


4,600 tons. 


City of Christiana. '21. 


4,900 tons. 


City of Barcelona. 


'30. 


5,700 tons. 


City of Corinth. '18. 


5,300 tons. 


City of Bath. 


'26. 


5,100 tons. 


City of Dundee. '21. 


5,300 tons. 


City of Bedford. 


'24. 


6,400 tons. 


City of Dunkirk. '12. 


5,900 tons, 


City of Brisbane. 


'20. 


7,100 tons. 


City of Durban. '21. 


5,900 tons, 


City of Bristol. 


'12. 


6,700 tons. 

450 


City of Eastbourne.'23. 


5,600 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

City of Norwich. 

City of Pittsburgh. 

City of Rangoon. 

City of Roubaix. 

City of Salisbury. 

City of Shanghai. 

City of Singapore. 

City of Sydney. 

City of Tokio. 

City of Wellington.' 

City of Winchester.'17. 

City of Worcester. 

City of Yokohama.'22. 

Kioto. 

Malatian. 

Serbino. 
'14. 3,400 tons. 

ool to Marmagao and Malabar Coast via 

Suez. Newport, Glasgow and Liverpool to South Africa (in conjunction with Harrison 

Line). Newport, Glasgow and Liverpool to Port Said, Red Sea ports and East 

African ports. Middlesbrough and Continent to Rangoon. Indian ports to United 

Kingdom and Continent. 



E LLERiiAif — ( Contd . ) 






City of EvansviUe. 


'22. 


6,500 tons. 


City of Florence. 


'18. 


6,900 tons. 


City of Glasgow. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


City of Guildford. 


'19. 


5,200 tons. 


City of Hankow. 


'15. 


7,400 tons. 


City of Hereford. 


'27. 


5,100 tons. 


City of 






Johannesburg. 


'20. 


5,700 tons. 


City of Khios. 


'25. 


5,600 tons. 


City of Kobe. 


'24. 


4,400 tons. 


CityofLille(M.V.). 


'28. 


6,600 tons. 


City of Lyons. 


'26. 


7,100 tons. 


City of Manila. 


'16. 


7,500 tons. 


City of Manchester. 


'35. 


8,900 tons. 


City of Melbourne. 


'19 


6,600 tons. 


City of Newcastle. 


'15. 


6,900 tons. 




Volturno. 


Services : — London, 


Glass 


'ow and Liverp 



'13. 


6,700 tons. 


'22. 


7,400 tons. 


'14. 


6,600 tons. 


'28. 


7,100 tons. 


'24. 


5,900 tons. 


'17. 


5,800 tons. 


'23. 


6,600 tons. 


'30. 


7,000 tons. 


'21. 


7,000 tons. 


.'25. 


5,700 tons. 


.'17. 


7,100 tons. 


'27. 


5,500 tons. 


,'22. 


7,300 tons. 


'18. 


3,300 tons. 


'14. 


3,500 tons. 


'19. 


4,100 tons. 



(Eleerman & Papayanni Lenses Ltd.) 
Liverpool. 
Algerian. '24. 2,300 tons. Assyrian. 

Andalusian. '18. 3,100 tons. City of Lancaster. 

451 



'14. 

'24. 



[260] 

3,000 tons. 
3,000 tons. 



Ships and the Sea 



Ellerman — ( Contd.) 








City of Leicester. 


'26. 


3,400 tons. 


Flaminian. 


City of Oxford. 


'26. 


2,800 tons. 


Lesbian. 


Darino. 


'17. 


1,300 tons. 


Lisbon. 


Destro. 


'20. 


3,600 tons. 


Mardinian. 


Dido. 


'20. 


3,600 tons. 


Maronian. 


Egyptian. 


'20. 


2,900 tons. 


Oporto. 


Estrellano. 


'20. 


2,00i» tons. 


Palmella. 


Fabian. 


'19. 


3,100 tons. 


Roumelian. 



'17. 


2,700 tons. 


'23. 


2,400 tons. 


'20. 


2,000 tons. 


'19. 


2,400 tons. 


'13. 


3,400 tons. 


'28. 


2,400 tons. 


'20. 


1,600 tons. 


'14. 


2,700 tons. 



Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Liverpool and Swansea to Genoa, Leghorn, 
Naples, Palermo, Messina, Catania, Dubrovnik, Bari, Ancona, Trieste, Fiume and 
Venice. Liverpool and Swansea to Gibraltar, Malta, Patras, Pireaus, Volo, Salonica, 
Smyrna, Constantinople, Bourgas, Varna and Constantza. Liverpool and Swansea 

to Lisbon and Oporto. 



(Westcott & Laurance Line Ltd.) 
London, E.C.3. 



[263] 



Bulgarian. '04. 2,100 tons. Castilian. '19. 3,100 tons. 

Cressado. '13. 1,200 tons. 

Services: — Cargo. Leith, Tyne, Antwerp and London to Gibraltar, Malta and 
Alexandria. Leith, Tyne, Antwerp and London to Piraeus, Salonica, Smyrna, 

Constantinople, Bourgas, Varna, Constantza, Sulina, Galatz and Braila. 
Distinguishing Features (of all above lines) : — Hulls : Passenger ships, light 
grey; Cargo ships, darker grey (1935 change from black). Boot-topping: Red. 
Ventilators : Lower part buff; upper part white. Inside of Cowls : White. Names : 
Mostly " Cities " or races with suffix " Ian." Many ships have short topmasts set 
" warship " fashion; little rake on funnels. 

452 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

FABRE, CYPRIEN. (French) [14] 

(Compagnis Franc aise de Navigation a Vapeur.) 
Formerly Compagnie Generate de Navigation a Vapeur. 
Marseilles. 

Passenger Ships. 

Banfora. '14. 9,500 tons. Providence. '15. 12,000 tons. 

Patria. '13. 11,900 tons. Sinaia. '22. 8,600 tons. 

Cargo Vessels (with passenger accommodation). 
Canada. '12. 9,700 tons. Chelma. '20. 5,000 tons. 

Edea. '36. 4,900 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black, passenger ships when cruising may 
have white hulls. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : White. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Marseilles to Naples, Palermo and New 
York. Marseilles to Algeria, Palermo, Naples and Monaco. Marseilles to Lisbon, 
Azores, New York. Marseilles to West Coast of Africa. Marseilles to Alexandria, 

Beyrough and Jaffa. 

FEDERAL STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY LTD. (British) [184] 
London, E.C.3. 

Passenger Ships. 
(These two vessels are actually painted in The New Zealand Shipping Co's colours 

and are operated by them.) 
Rangitata (M.V.). '29. 16,700 tons. Roturua. '11. 10,900 tons. 

453 



Federal — (Contd.) 



Ships and the Sea 



Cargo Vessels. 



10,900 tons. 

10,600 tons. 

10,900 tons. 

10,900 tons. 

10,900 tons. 

10,900 tons. 

11,000 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red with white dividing 
line. Ventilators : Black (small vents white). Inside of Cowls : Red. Boats : Some 

vessels have black-painted boats. Names : English " Counties." 
Services: — (Outwards) U.K. and U.S.A. to Australia and New Zealand. (Home- 
wards) Australia and New Zealand to Mediterranean, U.K., Continent and U.S.A. 



Cambridge. 


'16. 


Cornwall. 


'20. 


Cumberland. 


'19. 


Dorset (M.V.). 


'34. 


Durham (M.V.). 


'34. 


Hertford. 


'17. 


Huntingdon. 


'20. 



Kent. 


'20. 


8,600 tons. 


Middlesex. 


'20. 


8,600 tons. 


Norfolk. 


'18. 


10,900 tons. 


Northumberland. 


'15. 


11,600 tons. 


Somerset. 


'18. 


8,800 tons. 


Surrey. 


'19. 


8,800 tons. 


Westmoreland. 


'17. 


' 9,000 tons. 



Arcturus. 

Ariadne. 

Ilmatar. 



Argo. 
Ariel. 



FINSKA ANGFARTYGS AKTIEBOLAGET. (Finnish) 
(Finland S.S. Co.) 
Helsingfors. 



[1] 



'14. 
'29. 



'21. 
'29. 



Passenger Ships. 
2,200 tons. Oihonna. '98. 

2,400 tons. Viola. '93. 

2,400 tons. Von Dobeln. '76/29. 

Wellamo. '27. 2,000 tons. 



Cargo Vessels. 
1,800 tons. Baltic. 

2,200 tons. Capella. 

454 



'97. 



1,100 tons. 
300 tons. 
700 tons. 



1,100 tons. 
1,100 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Fl>-8KA — (Contd.) 

Castor. 


'06. 


1,200 tons. 


Ostrobotnia. 


'21. 


1,300 tons. 


Ceres. 


'89. 


1,000 tons. 


Pallas. 


'21. 


1,400 tons. 


Clio. 


'97. 


1,000 tons. 


Patria. 


'23. 


• 700 tons. 


Fennia. 


'97. 


1,200 tons. 


(Engines aft.) 






Finlandia. 


'20. 


1,100 tons. 


Polaris. 


'12. 


1,600 tons. 


Frej. 


'00. 


600 tons. 


Pollux. 


'98. 


1,300 tons. 


Hektos. 


'03. 


2,100 tons. 


Poseidon. 


'99. 


800 tons. 


Hesperus. 


'22. 


1,700 tons. 


Primula. 


'04. 


900 tons. 


Iris. 


'84. 


400 tons. 


Regulus. 


'21. 


1,800 tons. 


Juno. 


'20. 


1,300 tons. 


Roland. 


'22. 


1,800 tons = 


Lapponia. 


'98. 


1,200 tons. 


Rhea. 


'21. 


1,400 tons. 


Leda. 


'08. 


1,300 tons. 


Sirius. 


'29. 


2,200 tons. 


Leo. 


'20. 


1,300 tons. 


Suomen Neito. 


'21. 


1,200 tons. 


Maud. 


'33. 


1,400 tons. 


Suomen Poika. 


'21. 


1,200 tons. 


Mira. 


'98. 


800 tons. 


Tower Dale. 


'21. 


5,600 tons. 


Norma. 


'07. 


1,500 tons. 


Vega. 


'06. 


1,000 tons. 


Orion. 


'35. 
Vi 


2,600 tons. 
rgo. '06. 


Vesta. 

1,100 tons 


'89. 


1,000 tons. 



Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Passenger ships white, cargo ships brown. 
Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : Some black, some brown. Inside of Cowls : Red. 

Deck houses : Brown. Funnels : Have cowl tops. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Finland to Hull, Copenhagen, Stettin, Ltibeck, 
Danzig, Gdynia, Tallin (Reval), Stockholm, Antwerp, Rouen, Rotterdam, London 
and Mediterranean ports. Cargo only. Finland to United Kingdom, France, Spain, 
Italy, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands, Scandinavia, Denmark and Estonia. 
Helsingfors to South America. Helsingfors to South Africa. 
455 



Ships and the Sea 



FORENEDE DAMPSKIBS SELSKAB, DET. (Danish) 

(United Shipping Co.) 

(Danish America Line.) 

(Scandinavian American Line. Founded 1880.) 

Copenhagen. 

Motor Vessels. 



[3] 



Argentina. 




'21. 


5,400 tons. 


Jylland. 


'26. 


2,800 tons, 


Arizona. 




'22. 


6,400 tons. 


Lousiana. 


'21. 


6,500 tons. 


C. F. Tietgen. 




'28. 


1,800 tons. 


Marocco. 


'36. 


1,500 tons. 


California. 




'13. 


4,600 tons. 


Odense. 


'24. 


600 tons. 


Dronning Alexandrine. 


'27. 


1,900 tons. 


Oregon. 


'16. 


4,800 tons. 


England. 




'32. 


2,800 tons. 


Parkeston. 


'25. 


2,800 tons. 


Esbjerg. 




'29. 


2,800 tons. 


Tunis. 


'36. 


1,600 tons. 


Fredericia. 




'30. 


700 tons. 
Steam 


Vistula. 

Ships. 


'30. 


1,200 tons. 


A. P. Bernstorff. 


'13. 




2,300 tons. 


Botnia. 


'91. 


1,300 tons. 


Aalborghus. 


'14. 




1,500 tons. 


Brasilien. 


'21. 


5,300 tons. 


Aarhus. 


'12. 




1,600 tons. 


Broholm. 


'25. 


1,300 tons. 


Alabama. 


'21. 




4,600 tons. 


Brynhild. 


'07. 


2,200 tons. 


Alexandra. 


'31. 




1,500 tons. 


C. P. A. Koch. 


'93. 


1,100 tons. 


Algarve. 


'21. 




1,300 tons. 


Charkow. 


'13. 


1,000 tons. 


Beira. 


'99. 




1,300 tons. 


Cimbria. 


'97. 


1,100 tons. 


Bellona. 


'23. 




800 tons. 


Dagmar. 


.'03. 


2,500 tons. 


Bergenhus. 


'22. 




1,400 tons. 


Delaware. 


'19. 


2,300 tons. 



456 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Fokeitede — ( Contd . ) 












Diana. 


'11. 


900 tons. 


Kong Haakon. 


'06. 


1,800 tons. 


Douro. 


'89. 


800 tons. 


M. G. Melchoir. 


'85. 


1,000 tons. 


Dronning Maud. 


'06. 


1,800 tons. 


Magnus. 


'06. 


1,300 tons. 


Ebro. 


'20. 


1,100 tons. 


Maine. 


'05. 


2,200 tons. 


Egholm. 


'24. 


1,300 tons. 


Margrethe. 


'14. 


2,400 tons. 


Flora. 


'09. 


1,200 tons. 


Maryland. 


'21. 


4,900 tons. 


Frederik VIII. 


'13. 


11,800 tons. 


Minsk. 


'11. 


1,200 tons. 


Frigga. 


'22. 


1,100 tons. 


Nevada. 


'17. 


3,800 tons. 


Frode. 


'18. 


2,100 tons. 


Nidaros. 


'90. 


1,000 tons. 


Garonne. 


'99. 


1,500 tons. 


Niels Ebbesen. 


'99. 


900 tons. 


Georgia. 


'20. 


2,300 tons. 


Odin. 


'10. 


600 tons. 


Gorm. 


'16. 


2,200 tons. 


Olaf. 


'97. 


1,900 tons. 


Halfdan. 


'19. 


1,400 tons. 


Primula. 


'96. 


1,500 tons. 


Harald. 


'03. 


2,000 tons. 


Rhone. 


'15. 


1,000 tons. 


Hebe. 


'12. 


1,000 tons. 


Rota. 


'23. 


800 tons. 


Hellig Olav. 


'03. 


9,900 tons. 


Saga. 


'04. 


900 tons. 


Hindsholm. 


'22. 


1,500 tons. 


Sigrun. 


'04. 


1,300 tons. 


Hroar. 


'23. 


1,400 tons. 


Skjold. 


'04. 


1,300 tons. 


Island. 


'15. 


1,800 tons. 


Sleipner. 


'15. 


1,000 tons. 


Ivar. 


'17. 


2,100 tons. 


Svanhild. 


'19. 


2,100 tons. 


J. C. Jacobsen. 


'90. 


1,200 tons. 


Svanholm. 


'22. 


1,300 tons. 


Jolantha. 


'84. 


700 tons. 


Svava. 


'04. 


1,200 tons. 


Katholm. 


'21. 


1,500 tons. 


Taarnholm. 


'05. 


1,400 tons. 


Kentucky. 


'05. 


2,100 tons. 


Tennessee. 


'21. 


2,300 tons. 


Kjobenhavn. 


'18. 


1,700 tons. 


Thyra. 


'23. 


1,100 tons. 


Knud. 


'00. 


1,900 tons. 


Tjaldur. 


'98. 


600 tons. 


Koldinghus. 


'12. 


700 tons. 









457 



Ships and the Sea 



FORENKDE — (Contd.) 

Tomsk. 


'11. 


1,200 tons. 


Uffe. 


'06. 


1,900 tons. 


Trondjhem. 


'23. 


1,400 tons. 


Vidar. 


'15. 


1,400 tons. 


Tula. 


'11. 


1,300 tons. 


Virginia. 


'20. 


4,100 tons. 


Tyr. 


'90. 


800 tons. 


Ydun. 


'10. 


600 tons 



Distinguishing Features :- 
Red. Masts and Derricks : 



-Hulls : Some black, some light grey. Boot-topping : 
Light brown or cream. Ventilators : Black. Inside 
of Cowls : Red. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Scandinavian and Baltic ports to Canada and 
United States, East Coast and Gulf ports. Scandinavian ports to Argentine, Brazil, 
Las Palmas, Teneriffe and Madeira. Danish and Baltic ports to English, Belgian, 
French, Spanish, Italian and North African ports. Esbjerg to Parkeston Quay 
(Harwich) daily mail and passenger. Copenhagen to Faroe Islands via Leith, Iceland 
and Norway. Copenhagen to Danish ports. 






FRAISSINET, COMPAGNIE. (French) 
(Compagnie Marseillaise de Navigation a Vapeur.) 
Marseilles. 
Passenger Ships. 



[20] 



Cap Corse. 


'29. 


2,400 tons. 


lie de Beaute. 


'30. 


2,600 tons 


Corte n. 


'11. 


1,700 tons. 


Pascal Paoli. 


'31. 


3,200 tons 


Cyrnos (M.V.). 


'28. 


2,400 tons. 


Sampiero Corso. 


'30. 


tons. 


Fraissinet. 


'36. 


4,900 tons. 


Touareg. 


'24. 


5,100 tons. 


General Bonaparte. 


'22. 


2,800 tons. 


Ville D'Ajaccio. 


• '29. 


2,400 tons. 


Hoggar. 


'23. 


5,100 tons. 









458 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Fraissinet — {Contd.) 

Cargo Vessels (With Passenger Accommodation). 
Cap des Palmes(M.V.)'35. 3,200 tons. Oueme. '12. 4,000 tons. 

Muirton. '20. 5,000 tons. Tombouctou. '19. 5,300 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls: Some black, some white. Boot-topping : Red. 

Ventilators : White. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Marseilles to Corsica (daily). Marseilles to 
Constantinople, Bourgas, Constantza, Sulina, Galatz and Braila. Marseilles to 
Senegal, French Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Dahomey, Nigerian ports and 

Cameroons. 



FURNESS LINES (British) 
(Furness, Withy & Co., Ltd.) 
London, E.C.3. 



[58] 



El Argentine. 
Pacific Grove. 
Pacific President. 



Motor Ships. 
'28. 9,500 tons. Pacific Ranger. 

'28. 7,100 tons. Pacific Shipper. 

'28. 7,100 tons. Pacific Trader. 

Turbo-Electric Passenger Vessels. 



Monarch of Bermuda.' 31. 



El Uruguayo. 
La Rosarina. 


'11. 
'12. 


8,400 tons. 
8,300 tons. 

459 



22,400 tons. Queen of Bermuda. 
Steamers. 

London Citizen. 



'29. 
'24. 
'24. 



'18. 



London Corporation. '22. 



6,900 tons. 
6,300 tons. 
6,300 tons. 



'33. 22,600 tons. 



5,400 tons. 
5,400 tons. 



Ships and the Sea 

Fcrness — (Contd.) 

(Johnston Warren Lines Ltd.) 

Incorporating Johnston Line Ltd., Neptune Steam Navigation Co. Ltd. 

(at one time known as Columbia S.N. Co. Ltd.) and Warren Line (Liverpool) Ltd. 

Liverpool. 



Newfoundland. 

Aviemore. 

Dromore. 

Incemore. 



Fort Amherst. 



Passenger Ships. 
'25. 6,800 tons. Nova Scotia. 

Cargo Vessels. 
'20. 4,100 tons. Jessmore. 

'20. 4,100 tons. Kenmore. 

'21. 4,100 tons. London Exchange. 



Quernmore. 



'23. 



3,800 tons. 



'36. 



(Red Cross Line.) 
Passenger Ships. 
3,500 tons. Fort Townshend. 



'26. 6,800 tons. 



'21. 
'23. 
'21. 



4,100 tons. 
3,800 tons. 
5,400 tons. 



'36. 3,500 tons. 



Norfolk & North American Steam Shipping Co. Ltd. 

(Registered 1893.) 

Furness House, Leadenhall Street, London, E.C.3. 



Pacific Enterprise. 
Pacific Exporter. 



Motor Ships. 
'27. 6,700 tons. Pacific Pioneer. '28. 6,700 tons. 

'28. 6,700 tons. Pacific Reliance. '26. 6,700 tons. 



Distinguishing Features (of above lines which all fly the- same House Flag and 
have same funnel) : — Hulls : Black with exception of " Monarch of Bermuda " 
and " Queen of Bermuda," which are grey. Boot-topping ; Red (above two vessels 

460 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

FtTRNESS — ( CotUd. ) 

have green with a dividing line of white). Ventilators : Some white, some black. 
Inside of Cowls : Red. Names : Prefix " London " and " Pacific " and suffix 
" more." Boats : The two vessels mentioned above have brown coloured boats. 
Most of the cargo liners have accommodation for a limited number of passengers. 
Services: — Hull and London/St. John, N.B., /Halifax, N.S./Hull and London/Mon- 
treal (Summer)/Halifax. Liverpool/Halifax, N.S./St. John's, N.F./Boston. Glasgow/ 
Halifax, N.S./St. John's N.F./Boston. Glasgow and Manchester/Los Angeles/San 
Francisco/Victoria/Vancouver/Seattle/Tacoma/Portland. London/Philadelphia/New 
York/Halifax (Winter six months). London/Philadelphia/New York (Summer six 
months). Leith and Dundee/Philadelphia/New York. Antwerp/Swansea/Liverpool/ 
Piraeus, etc. /Danube. 



GDYNIA-AMERIKA LINJE ZEGLUGOWE SP0LKA AKCYJND. (Polish) [2] 
(Gdynia- Amebic a Shipping Lines Ltd.) 
Warsaw. 

Passenger Ships (Motor). 

Batory. '36. 14,400 tons. Pilsudski. '35. 14,400 tons. 

Passenger Ships (Steam). 
Kosciuszko. '15. 6,500 tons. Polonia. '10. 7,500 tons. 

Pulaski. '12. 6,300 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black with white band. Boot-topping : Red. 
Ventilators : Buff. Inside of Cowls : Green. Masts and Derricks : Light brown. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Gdynia to Copenhagen, Halifax and New York. 
Constantza to Instanbul, Jaffa, Haifa and Piraeus. Goynia to S. America. 

461 



Ships and the Sea 

GENERAL STEAM NAVIGATION CO. LTD., THE. (Bkitish) 
(G.S.N.C.) 

London, E.C.3. 



[8] 



Crested Eagle. 


'25. 


1,100 tons. 


Isle of Arran. 


'92. 


300 tons. 


Golden Eagle. 


'09. 


800 tons. 


Laguna Belle. 


'96. 


600 tons. 






Royal Eagle. 


'32. 1,500 tons. 




Cargo Vessels 


(Some of which have passenger 


accommodation. ) 


Adjutant. 


'22. 


1,900 tons. 


Merel. 


'25. 


1,100 tons. 


Albatross. 


'24. 


1,900 tons. 


Philomel. 


'35. 


2,100 tons. 


Cormorant. 


'27. 


1,200 tons. 


Peregrine. 


'21. 


900 tons. 


Falcon. 


'27. 


1,300 tons. 


Roek. 


'25. 


1,000 tons. 


Grebe. 


'26. 


900 tons. 


Starling. 


'30. 


1,300 tons. 


Groningen. 


'28. 


1,200 tons. 


Stork. 


'36. 


2,100 tons. 


Hirondelle. 


'25. 


900 tons. 


Swift. 


'30. 


900 tons. 


Leeuwarden. 


'29. 


1,200 tons. 


Woodcock. 


'27. 


1,800 tons. 


Mavis. 


'30. 


900 tons. 
Vessels (with 


Woodlark. 

engines aft). 


'28. 


1,500 tons. 


Alouette. 


'20. 


600 tons. 


Laverock. 


'09. 


1,200 tons. 


Auk. 


'20. 


1,400 tons. 


Oriole. 


'21. 


500 tons. 


Blackcock. 


'21. 


500 tons. 


Ortolan. 


'20. 


500 tons. 


Conifer. 


'20. 


500 tons. 


Petrel. 


'20. 


1,500 tons. 


Fauvette (M.V.). 


'35. 


600 tons. 


Ptarmigan. 


'20. 


500 tons. 


Gannet. 


'21. 


1,400 tons. 


Seamew. 


• '15. 


1,300 tons. 


Kingfisher. 


'13. 


300 tons. 


Sheldrake. 


'20. 


500 tons. 


Lapwing. 


'20. 


1,400 tons. 


Teal. 


'21. 


1,400 tons. 



462 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

General Steam — (Contd.) 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black with white band except passenger ships 
which have plain black with top strakes white. (" Royal Eagle " and " Crested 
Eagle " painted cream 1935 with green boot-topping.) Boot-topping : Red (with 
white dividing line in passenger ships). Upperworks : Brown. Ventilators : (cargo 
ships); Outside, Black; Inside, Red. Boats : Blue in cargo ships; brown or white 
in passenger vessels. Names : Mostly names of " Birds." Passenger ships have buff 
funnels or buff with narrow black tops. " Isle of Arran " has red funnel with black 

top. 

Services: — Tourist. London to East Coast ports (in Summer only). Cargo (some 

ships having accommodation for few passengers). U.K. ports to most Continental 

and Mediterranean Ports. 



GRACE STEAMSHIP CO. INC. (U.S.A.) 
New York City. 

Passenger Ships (Motor). 
Santa Barbara '28. 8,100 tons. Santa Inez. 

Santa Catalina (M.V.)'24. 2,400 tons. Santa Maria. 

Santa Rita. '29. 4,600 tons. 

Passenger Ships (Steam). 
Santa Clara. '30. 8,200 tons. Santa Isabel. 

Santa Elena. '32. 9,100 tons. Santa Lucia. 

Cargo Ships. 
Capac. '19. 5,600 tons. Condor. 

Charcas. '19. 5,600 tons. Coya. 

463 



[18] 



'29. 

'28. 
is. 


4,700 tons, 
8,100 tons. 


'15. 
'33. 


5,600 tons. 
9,100 tons. 


'20. 
'19. 


4,700 tons. 
5,000 tons. 



Grace — (Contd.) 



Corinto. 
Santa Cecilia. 
Santa Monica (M.V.) 



'05. 
'18. 
'24. 



Ships and the Sea 

(Panama Mail S.S. Co., Inc.) 

Passenger Ships. 
2,000 tons. Santa Paula. 

4,900 tons. Santa Rosa. 

2,400 tons. Santa Teresa. 



'32. 
'32. 
'18. 



9,100 tons. 
9,100 tons. 
4,900 tons. 



(New Orleans & South American S.S. Co. Inc.) 
Cacique. '18. 2,700 tons. Chipana. '20. 3,300 tons. 

Chincha. '20. 3,200 tons. Curaca. '20. 3,300 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red, possibly with 
white dividing line. Ventilators : White. Inside of Cowls : Red. Masts and Derricks : 

White. 

Services: — Passengers and Cargo. New York to Colombia, Panama, El Salvador, 
Guatemala, Mexico and California. (Calling at Havana, East bound.) New York 
to Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile. (Calling at Havana North bound.) 

HAMBURG-AMERIKANISCHE PACKETFAHRT ACTIEN GESELLSCHAFT 

(Hamburg -Amerika Linie.) (German) [30] 

(H.A.P.A.G.) 
Hamburg. 

Passenger Ships (Motor). 

12,000 tons. Milwaukee. '29. 16,700 tons. 

12,000 tons. Orinoco. '28. 9,700 tons. 

9,800 tons. St. Louis. '28. 16,700 tons. 

464 



Caribia. 


'32. 


Cordillera. 


'33. 


Iberia. 


'28. 



Hamb urq -Amekika — ( Contd . ) 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Passenger Ships (Steam). 



Cobra. 

Deutschland. 

Hamburg. 

Hansa. 

Kaiser. 

Konigin Luise. 

New York. 



A nub is. 

Assuan. 

Burgenland. 

Duisburg. 

Ermland. 

Friesland. 

Havelland. 

Heidelberg. 

Hermonthis. 

Isis. 

Kulmerland. 

Leverhusen. 

Magdeburg. 

Munsterland. 

Oakland. 



'26. 
'23. 

'26. 
'23. 
'05. 
'35. 

'27. 

(Most 
'22. 
'23. 
'28. 
'28. 
'22. 
'25. 
'21. 
'25. 
'35. 
'22. 
'28. 
'28. 
'25. 
'21. 
'29. 



2,100 tons. Njassa. '23. 8,800 tons. 

21,000 tons. (May run in Deutsche Ost Afrika colours) 

22,100 tons. Oceana. '12. 8,800 tons. 

21,100 tons. Reliance. '14/20. 19,300 tons. 

1,900 tons. Tanganyika. '22. 8,500 tons. 

(May run in Deutsche Ost Afrika colours) 

22,300 tons. Tannenberg. '35. 4,000 tons. 



Cargo Vessels (Motor), 
of which have passenger accommodation.) 



5,100 tons. 
5,100 tons. 
7,300 tons. 
7,400 tons. 
6,500 tons. 
6,300 tons. 
6,300 tons. 
6,500 tons. 
4,700 tons. 
4,500 tons. 
7,400 tons. 
7,400 tons. 
6,200 tons. 
6,400 tons. 
6,800 tons. 
Vogtland. 



Osiris. 

Palatia. 

Patricia. 

Phoenicia. 

Phrygia. 

Portland. 

Ramses. 

Rendsburg. 

Rhakotis. 

Rhein. 

Rheinland. 

Roda. 

Ruhr. 

Sauerland. 

Seattle. 



'22. 

'28. 
'28. 
'28. 
'28. 
'28. 
'26. 
'26. 
'28. 
'26. 
'27. 
'28. 
'25. 
'28. 
'28. 



4,500 
4,000 
4,000 
4,100 
4,100 
7,100 
8,000 
6,200 
6,800 
6,000 
6,600 
6,800 
6,000 
7,100 
7,400 



tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons, 
tons. 



'24. 
465 



7,100 tons. 



Hamburg-Amerika — ( Conid. ) 



Ships and the Sea 

Cargo Vessels (Steam). 



Abessinia. 


'20. 


1,600 tons. 


Hessen. 


'21. 


8,100 tons. 


Alemania. 


'21. 


1,400 tons. 


Hindenburg. 


'21. 


7,900 tons. 


Alexandria. 


'20. 


1,600 tons. 


Idarwald. 


'23. 


5,000 tons. 


Altona. 


'21. 


5,900 tons. 


Ionia. 


'22. 


3,100 tons. 


Amasis. 


'23. 


7,100 tons. 


Isterlohn. 


'22. 


3,700 tons. 


Ammon. 


'22. 


7,100 tons. 


Itauri. 


'22. 


6,800 tons. 


Antiochia. 


'21. 


3,100 tons. 


Karnak. 


'26. 


7,200 tons. 


Baden. 


'22. 


8,100 tons. 


Kellerwald. 


'23. 


5,000 tons. 


Bayern. 


'21. 


9,000 tons. 


Kreta. 


'23. 


2,400 tons. 


Bitterfeld. 


'30. 


7,700 tons. 


Kurmark. 


'30. 


7,000 tons. 


Boehum. 


'22. 


6,100 tons. 


Kyphissia. 


'23. 


3,000 tons. 


Cassel. 


'22. 


6,000 tons. 


Leuna. 


'27. 


6,900 tons. 


Cerigo. 


'22. 


1,100 tons. 


Livadia. 


'22. 


3,100 tons. 


Dortmund. 


'26. 


5,100 tons. 


Lubeck. 


'22. 


3,700 tons. 


Durazzo. 


'22. 


1,200 tons. 


Luneburg. 


'14. 


5,800 tons. 


Essen. 


'22. 


5,200 tons. 


Mecklenburg. 


'21. 


7,900 tons. 


Feodosia. 


'22. 


3,100 tons. 


Menes. 


'26. 


5,600 tons. 


Frankenwald. 


'22. 


5,100 tons. 


Naumburg. 


'20. 


5,900 tons. 


Freiburg. 


'23. 


5,200 tons. 


Neumark. 


'29. 


7,900 tons. 


Gera. 


'23. 


5,200 tons. 


Niederwald. 


'21. 


4,500 tons. 


Hagen. 


'21. 


5,900 tons. 


Nordmark. 


'30. 


7,700 tons. 


Halle. 


'21. 


5,900 tons. 


Oldenburg. 


'23. 


8,500 tons. 


Hamm. 


'21. 


5,900 tons. 


Oliva. 


. '21. 


7,900 tons. 


Hanaus. 


'21. 


5,900 tons. 


Preussen. 


'22. 


8,200 tons. 


Havenstein. 


'21. 


8,000 tons. 


Saarland. 


'24. 


6,900 tons. 



466 



Hamburg -Amertka — ( Contd . ) 

Sachsen. 
Scheer. 

Sesostris. 

Stassfurt. 

Steigerwald. 

Syra. 

Distinguishing 

and " Reliance ' 

Inside of Cowls : 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



'22. 8,100 tons. 

'15. 8,100 tons. 

'22. 4,000 tons. 

'30. 7,400 tons. 

'21. 4,500 tons. 

'23. 2,400 tons. 

Features : — Hulls : 
which are white. 

Red. Masts and Derricks : Yellowish, 
of arms of Hamburg. 
Services : — Passenger, Mail and Cargo. To East and West coasts of North America, 
United States and the Gulf, Cuba, Mexico, Central America, West Indies, Cristobal 
Colon and West coast of Central America and Mexico via Panama, West coast of 
South America via Panama and Straits of Magellan, Far East, i Passenger and Cargo. 
To Netherlands East Indies, Australia via the Cape, the Levant and Pleasure Cruises. 
Cargo only. To Canada, West Indian Islands and South Africa. 



Tacoma. '30. 


8,300 tons. 


Tirpitz. '22. 


8,000 tons. 


Troja. '22. 


2,400 tons. 


Uckermark. '30. 


7,000 tons. 


Vancouver. '30. 


8,300 tons. 


Wasgenwald. '22. 


5,000 tons. 


Black except " Milwaukee," 


" Oceana " 


Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : White. 



On each bow is the coat 



HAMBURG-SUDAMERIKANISCHE DAMPFSCHIFFFAHRTS GESELLSCHAFT. 

(German) [33] 
(Hamburg South American Line.) 
Bremen. 



Passenger Ships (Motor). 
General Osorio. '29. 11,600 tons. Monte Pascoal. '31. 

Monte Olivia. '25. 14,000 tons. Monte Rosa. '31. 

Monte Sarmiento. '24. 14,000 tons. 

467 



14,000 tons. 
14,000 tons. 



Hamburg-Sudamerika — ( Contd. ) 



Ships and the Sea 

Passenger Ships (Steam) 



Antonio Deltino. 


'21. 


14,000 tons. 


General San 






Cap Arcona. 


'27. 


27,600 tons. 


Martin. 


'22. 


11,300 tons. 


Cap Norte. 


'22. 


14,000 tons. 


La Corufia. 


'22. 


7,500 tons. 


Espana. 


'22. 


7,500 tons. 


Madrid. 


'22. 


8,800 tons. 


General Artigas. 


'23. 


11,300 tons. 


Vigo. 


'22. 


7,500 tons. 






Cargo Vessels (Motor). 






Bahia. 


'27. 


4,500 tons. 


Pernambuco. 


'25. 


4,500 tons. 






Cargo Vessels (Steam). 






Alrich. 


'27. 


5,000 tons. 


Miinster. 


'21. 


4,600 tons. 


Amassia. 


'20. 


3,200 tons. 


Paraguay. 


'20. 


4,000 tons. 


Berengar. 


'11. 


5,000 tons. 


Parana. 


'21. 


6,000 tons. 


Eifel. 


'18. 


4,600 tons. 


Rapot. 


'23. 


6,000 tons. 


Entrerios. 


'23. 


5,000 tons. 


Rio de Janeiro. 


'14. 


5,500 tons. 


Eupatoria. 


'21. 


3,200 tons. 


Taunus. 


'19. 


4,600 tons. 


Georgia. 


'22. 


3,000 tons. 


Tenerife. 


'22. 


5,000 tons. 


Grandon. 


'12. 


6,000 tons. 


Uruguay. 


'22. 


5,800 tons. 


Hohenstein. 


'27. 


4,600 tons. 


Westerwald. 


'21. 


4,500 tons. 


Holstein. 


'11. 


5,000 tons. 


WiteU. 


'13. 


6,100 tons. 


Ludwigshafen. 


'23. 


6,000 tons. 


Witram. 


'12. 


6,100 tons. 


Distinguishing 


Features: — Hulls : 


Black. Boot -topping 


: Red. 


Ventilators : 


White. Inside of 


Cowls : 


Red. Masts . 


Extreme tops, white. Boats 


: Some have 






brown-painted boats. 






Services : — Mail, 


Passenger and Cargo. 


Hamburg to Boulogne, Spain, Portugal, 






Brazil, Uruguay, Argentine. 







468 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



HARRISON, T. & J (British) 

(Charente S.S. Co. Ltd.) 

Liverpool. 



[64] 







Passenger Ships. 






Inanda, 


'25. 


6,000 tons. 
Cargo 


Ongoma. 

Vessels. 


'13. 


5,700 tons. 




(Most 


of which have passenger accommodation.) 




Actor. 


'17. 


5,500 tons. 


Explorer. 


'35. 


6,200 tons. 


Astronomer. 


'17. 


8,400 tons. 


Governor. 


'18. 


5,600 tons 


Auditor. 


'24. 


5,400 tons. 


Historian. 


'24. 


5,100 tons 


Chancellor. 


'16. 


4,600 tons. 


Huntsman. 


'21. 


8,200 tons 


Collegian. 


'23. 


7,900 tons. 


Inventor. 


'35. 


6,200 tons 


Colonial. 


'26. 


5,100 tons. 


Logician. 


'28. 


6,000 tons 


Comedian. 


'29. 


5,100 tons. 


Magician. 


'25. 


5,100 tons 


Contractor. 


'30. 


6,000 tons. 


Merchant. 


'34. 


4,600 tons 


Counsellor. 


'26. 


5,100 tons. 


Musician. 


'19. 


4,700 tons 


Craftsman. 


'22. 


7,900 tons. 


Observer. 


'28. 


5,900 tons 


Custodian. 


'28. 


5,900 tons. 


Patrician. 


'17. 


5,700 tons 


Defender. 


'15. 


8,300 tons. 


Planter. 


'27. 


5,900 tons 


Designer. 


'28. 


5,900 tons. 


Politician. 


'23. 


7,900 tons 


Diplomat. 


'21. 


8,200 tons. 


Rancher. 


'27. 


5,900 tons 


Director. 


'26. 


5,100 tons. 


Recorder. 


'30. 


6,000 tons 


Dramatist. 


'20. 


5,400 tons. 


Scholar. 


'22. 


3,900 tons 



469 



Ships and the Sea 



Harrison Lixe- 


-(Contd.) 


Senator. 




'17. 3,700 tons. Tactician. '28. 


Specialist. 




'17. 4,300 tons. Traveller. '22. 


Statesman. 




'23. 7,900 tons. Wanderer. '25. 
Wayfarer. '25. 5,100 tons. 

Ships taken over from Leyland Line in 1934. 


Atlantian. 




'28. 6,500 tons. Davisian. '22. 


Dakarian. 




'21. 6,400 tons. Daytonian. '22. 


Darian. 




'22. 6,400 tons. Delilian. '23. 
Dorelian. '23. 6,400 tons. 


Distinguishing 


Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Pink 



6,000 tons. 
4,000 tons. 
5,100 tons. 



6,400 tons. 
6,400 tons. 
6,400 tons. 

below water, 
Black round funnel, others white. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Vessels have very tall " cowl-topped " funnels with no noticeable rake. Names : 
Passenger liners have prefix " In," a reminder of the old Ronnie's Aberdeen Line. 
Cargo ships all names of professions or occupations, with exception of " D " class, 

taken over from Leyland Line. 
Services: — Liverpool to Calcutta, New Orleans, Galveston, Brazil, British West 
Indies, Venezuela, Curacao, Colombia, Cristobal, Central America, Bahamas, Jamaica, 
Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, Mexico and Charente. Liverpool, Glasgow and 
Newport to South Africa, Red Sea ports and East Africa. Glasgow to West Indies, 
Demerara, Jamaica and Mexico. London and Middlesbrough to South Africa. 
London and Middlesbrough to West Indies, Demerara and Guianas. 



470 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

HENDERSON, P. & CO. (British) 
(Henderson Line.) 
(British and Burmese Steam Navigation Co. Ltd.) 
Glasgow, C.2. 



Amarapoora. '20. 

Bhamo. '08. 

Burma. '14. 

Chindwin. '10. 



Passenger Ships. 

8,000 tons. Kemmendine. 

5,400 tons. Pegu. 

7,600 tons. Sagaing. 

6,400 tons. Yoma. 



[19] 



'24. 


7,800 tons 


'21. 


8,000 tons 


'25. 


8,000 tons 


'23. 


8,200 tons 



Cargo Vessels. 
Arracan. '11. 5,500 tons. Irrawaddy. '28. 3,900 tons. 

Henzada. '34. 4,200 tons. Mandalay. '11. 5,500 tons. 

Martaban. '34. 4,200 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Bed with white 
dividing line. Masts and Derricks : Grey. Ventilators : Grey (except those along- 
side funnel which are black). Inside of Cowls : Bed. Names : Burmese. 
Services: — Passenger (First-class only). Glasgow and Liverpool to Rangoon via 
Marseilles and Egypt calling at Palma. Cargo. Glasgow to Brazil, Canada and 
U.S.A. United Kingdom to New Zealand. 



471 



Antenor. 



Ships and the Sea 

HOLT, ALFRED & COMPANY (British) 
(" Blue Funnel Line.") 
Liverpool. 
(China Mutual Steam Navigation Co. Ltd.) 

Passenger Ships. (First Class only.) 
'25. 11,200 tons. Patroclus. '23. 

Ulysses. '13. 14,700 tons. 

Cargo Vessels. 

(Most of these ships carry a limited number of passengers.] 

(Motor.) 



[127] 



11,300 tons. 



Idomeneus. 


'26. 


7,900 tons. 


Memmon. 


'31. 


7,300 tons. 


Maron. 


'30. 


6,700 tons. 


Stentor. 


'26. 


6,600 tons, 






Cargo Vessels (Steam). 






Asphalion. 


'24. 


6,300 tons. 


Laomedon. 


'12. 


6,700 tons. 


Atreus. 


'11. 


6,700 tons. 


Lycaon. 


'13. 


7,600 tons. 


Autolycus. 


'22. 


7,800 tons. 


Meriones. 


'22. 


7,700 tons. 


Demodocus. 


'12. 


6,600 tons. 


Neleus. 


'11. 


6,700 tons. 


Diomed. 


'22. 


10,400 tons. 


Perseus. 


'23. 


10,300 tons. 


Eurylochus. 


'12. 


5,700 tons. 


Philoctetes. 


'22. 


11,400 tons. 


Eurypylus. 


'12. 


5,800 tons. 


Protesilaus. 


'10. 


9,500 tons. 


Ixion. 


'12. 


10,200 tons. 


Rhesus. 


'11. 


6,700 tons. 






Troilus. 


'21. 7,600 tons. 





472 



Holt— (Contd.) 



Aeneas. 

Anchises. 

Ascanius. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



(Ocean S.S. 
Passenger Ships. 
'10. 10,100 tons. 

'11. 10,000 tons. 

'10. 10,000 tons. 



Co. Ltd.) 

(First Class only.) 

Hector. '24. 

Nestor. '13. 

Sarpedon. '23. 



11,200 tons. 
14,600 tons. 
11,300 tons. 



Gorgon (M.V.] 



'33. 



3,500 tons. 



Cargo Vessels. 
(Most of these vessels carry a limited number of passengers.) 

(Motor.) 



Agamemnon. 


'29. 


7,900 tons. 


Eurymedon. 


'24. 


6,200 tons. 


Ajax. 


'31. 


7,800 tons. 


Medon. 


'23. 


5,900 tons 


Centaur. 


'24. 


3,100 tons. 


Menestheus. 


'29. 


7,800 tons 


Clytoneus. 


'30. 


6,700 tons. 


Myrmidon. 


'30. 


6,400 tons 


Deucalion. 


'30. 


7,800 tons. 


Orestes. 


'26. 


7,900 tons. 


Dolius. 


'24. 


6,000 tons. 


Peisander. 


'25. 


6,200 tons 


Eurybates. 


'28. 


6,400 tons. 


Prometheus. 


'23. 


6,300 tons 






Cargo Vessels (Steam). 






Achilles. 


'20. 


11,400 tons. 


Cyclops. 


'06. 


9,100 tons 


Adrastus. 


'23. 


7,900 tons. 


Eumaeus. 


'20. 


7,700 tons 


Agapenor. 


'14. 


7,600 tons. 


Euryades. 


'13. 


5,800 tons 


Antilochus. 


'06. 


9,100' tons. 


Glaucus. 


'21. 


7,600 tons 


Automedon. 


'22. 


7,600 tons. 


Helenus. 


'13. 


7,600 tons 


BeUerophon. 


'06. 


9,000 tons. 


Menelaus. 


'23. 


10,300 tons. 


Calchas. 


'21. 


10,300 tons. 


Mentor. 


'14. 


7,600 tons. 



473 



Ships and the Sea 



Holt — (Contd.) 

Phemius. 


'21. 


Pyrrhus. 


'14. 


Rhexenor. 


'22. 


Talthybius. 


'12. 



7,600 tons. 

7,600 tons. 

8,000 tons. 

10,200 tons. 

Tyndareus. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : 

Some black and some white. Inside 

Names : Greek mythological heroes, 



Teiresias. 
Teucer. 
Theseu3. 
Titan. 



'14. 
'06. 

'08. 
'06. 



7,600 tons. 
9,100 tons. 
6,700 tons. 
9,100 tons. 



'16. 11,300 tons. 

Black. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 
of Cowls : Blue. Davits : Mostly black. 
Most ships have a distinct sheer, sit rather 



low in the water, have raking stem and a very large funnel without any noticeable rake. 
Services: — Passenger (First-class only) and Cargo. Liverpool, Glasgow and Conti- 
nental Ports to Dutch East Indies, China, Japan and British Columbia. Liverpool, 
Glasgow and Continental Ports to Fremantle, Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney and 
Brisbane and return to London, Glasgow and Continent. New York to Far East. 
New York to Dutch East Indies. U.K. Ports to Straits, Philippines, China, Japan, 
Korea and Eastern Siberia. Singapore to Java and West Australia. 



ISLE OF MAN STEAM PACKET CO. LTD. (British) 
(Isle of Man Line.) 
Douglas, Isle of Man. 
Mail and Passenger Ships. 



[167] 



Ben-My-Chree. 


'27. 


2,600 tons. 


Mona's Queen. 


'34. 


2,500 tons. 


King Orry. 


'13. 


1,900 tons. 


Peel Castle. 


'94. 


1,500 tons. 


Lady of Mann. 


'30. 


3,100 tons. 


Ramsey Town. 


'04. 


2,100 tons. 


Manx Maid. 


'10. 


1,500 tons. 


R us hen Castle. 


'98. 


1,700 tons. 


Manxman. 


'04. 


2,000 tons. 


Snaefell. 


'06. 


1,700 tons. 


Mona. 


'07. 


1,200 tons. 


Victoria. 


'07. 


1,700 tons. 


Mona's Isle. 


'05. 


1,700 tons. 


Viking. 


'05. 


2,000 tons. 



474 



Isle of Man — (Contd.) 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Cabgo Vessels. 



Conister. '21. 400 tons. (Engines aft.) 

Cushag. '08. 200 tons. (Engines aft.) 

Peveril. '29. 800 tons. (Carries 12 passengers.) 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls: Black, except " Ben-My-Chree," "Lady of 
Mann " and " Mona's Queen," which are white. Boot-topping : Red with white 
dividing line except white vessels which have green with black dividing line. Venti- 
lators : White. Inside of Cowls. Red. Names : Mostly " Manx " names. Cargo 

vessels have brown upperworks. Masts : White vessels have white masts. 
Services: — Liverpool to Douglas and Ramsey. Fleetwood to Douglas. Heysham 
to Douglas. Ardrossan to Douglas and Ramsey. Dublin to Douglas. Belfast to 
Douglas and Ramsey. Liverpool to Castletown, Port St. Mary and Peel (Cargo 

only). 



"ITALIA." (Italian) 

(Combined Fleets: 
Cosuuch, Lloyd -Sab audo, Navigazione Generale Italiana (N.G.I.).) 

Passenger Ships (Motor). 



[22] 



Augustus. 


'27. 


30,400 tons. 




Remo. 


'27. 


9,800 tons. 


Esquilino. 


'25. 


8,700 tons. 




Romolo. 


'26. 


9,800 tons, 


Neptunia. 


'32. 


19,500 tons. 




Saturnia. 


'27. 


23,900 tons. 


Oceania. 


'33. 


20,000 tons. 




Viminale. 


'25. 


8,700 tons. 


Orazio. 


'27. 


11,700 tons. 




Virgilio. 


'28. 


11,700 tons. 






Vulcania. 


'28. 24,000 tons. 










475 









Ships and the Sea 



Italia — (Contd.) 


















Passenger Ships (Steam). 








Belvedere. 


'13. 


7,400 tons. 


Duilio. 




'23. 


24,300 tons. 


Colombo. 


'17. 


12,000 tons. 


Giulio Cesare. 




'21. 


21,800 tons. 


Conte Biaucamano 


. '25. 


24,400 tons. 


Principessa 
Giovanna. 




'23. 


8,500 tons. 


Conte di Savoia. 


'32. 


48,500 tons. 


Principessa Maria. 


'23. 


8,500 tons. 


Conte Grande. 


'28. 


25,700 tons. 


Rex. 




'32. 


51,000 tons. 






Roma. 


'26. 32,600 tons. 










Cargo Vessels. 








Alberta. 


'22. 


6,100 tons. 


Ida. 


'23. 




6,100 tons. 


Anna C. 


'21. 


7,200 tons. 


Laura C. 


'23. 




6,200 tons. 


Carignano. 


'18. 


5,400 tons. 


Lucia C. 


'22. 




6,100 tons. 


Clara. 


'22. 


6,100 tons. 


Maria (M.V.). 


'23. 




6,300 tons. 


Dora C. 


'22. 


5,800 tons. 


Sangro. 


'25. 




6,500 tons. 


Giulia (M.V.). 


'26. 


5,900 tons. 


Teresa. 


'22. 




6,100 tons. 




i 


Tigre. 


'84. 2,600 tons. 







Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black except " Duilio " and " Giulio Cesare " 
which have white with green band. Boot-topping : Red with white dividing line 
except white ships which have red. Ventilators : Some white, some brown. Inside 
of Cowls ; Red. Boats : Some have brown. Funnels : Did not originally have 

black top. 
Services : — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Genoa to Naples, Gibraltar and New York. 
Genoa, Nice, Barcelona to Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Montevideo, Buenos Aires. Genoa, 
Marseilles, Barcelona and Cadiz to Funchal and Central American ports. Genoa, 
Leghorn, Naples, Messina to Port Said, Suez, Aden, Colombo, Fremantle, Adelaide, 
Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane. 
476 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 







JADRANSKA PLOVIDBA d.d. 


(Yugo- 


■Slavian) [4] 






(Adriatic Navigation Co.) 










Susak. 






Bakar. 


'31. 


300 tons. 


Prestolonaslednik 




Beograd. 


'22. 


900 tons. 


Petar. 


'31. 


1,700 tons, 


Bled. 


'93. 


700 tons. 


Rab. 


'31. 


300 tons, 


Bosna. 


'99. 


500 tons. 


Slovenac. 


'93. 


700 tons. 


Jugoslavia. 


'33. 


1,300 tons. 


Soca. 


'07. 


500 tons. 


Karadjordje. 


'13. 


1,200 tons. 


Split. 


'09. 


900 tons. 


Khin. 


'13. 


300 tons. 


Srbin. 


'13. 


1,000 tons. 


Kosovo. 


'09. 


900 tons. 


Susak. 


'88. 


400 tons. 


Lav. 


'12. 


200 tons. 


Topola. 


'22. 


300 tons, 


Ljubljana. 


'04. 


900 tons. 


Una. 


'04. 


1,400 tons, 


Predsednik 






Vardar. 


'08. 


600 tons, 


Kopajtic. 


'28. 


1,800 tons. 


Zagreb. 


'02. 


800 tons, 



Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Passenger ships white, cargo ships black. 
Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : Some white, some black. Inside of Cowls : 

Red. Deck houses : Sometimes brown. 
Services : — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. All Croatian, Dalmatian ports and Adriatic 
Islands and to Albania, Greece, and Smyrna. 



477 



Ships and the Sea 



[6] 



JAVA-CHINA-JAPAN LIJN. (Dutch) 
(" J.C.J.L.") 
Amsterdam. 
Batavia, Java, N.E.I. 

Passenger Ships (Motor). 

9,200 tons. Tjisadane. '31. 

Passenger Ships (Steam). 

7,800 tons. Tjileboet. '18/28. 

9,500 tons. Tjisalak. '17. 

8,000 tons. Tjisaroea. '26. 

Tjisondari. '15. 8,000 tons. 

Cargo Vessels. 
10,800 tons. Tjikandi. '21. 

Tjimanoek. '11. 5,600 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Apple-blossom. Ven- 
tilators : Black. Inside of Cowls : Teak colour. Names : Javanese names beginning 
with " Tji," which means river. Many of the vessels have " Twin " or " Goal Post " 

masts, and names printed in Chinese characters amidships. 
Services: — Batavia to Samarang, Sourabaya, Makassar, Balikpapan, Yokohama, 
Nagoya, Kobe, Osaka and Moji, and back to Makassar, Sourabaya and Java ports. 
Sourabaya to Manila, Hong Kong, Amoy, Shanghai, Chin Wen Tao, Dalny and back 
to Keelung, Amoy, Hong Kong, Batavia and Java ports. Sourabaya, Samarang 
and Batavia to Hong Kong, Amoy, Shanghai and back to Amoy, Hong Kong, Manila, 
Makassar, Bali, Sourabaya and Java ports. 
478 



Tjinegara. 

Tjibadak. 

Tjikarang. 

Tjikembang. 



Tjibesar. 



'31. 

'29. 
'22. 
'14. 



'22. 



9,200 tons. 

5,800 tons. 
5,800 tons. 
7,100 tons. 



8,000 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



JUGOSLAVENSKI LLOYD a.d. (Yugoslavian) 
Jugoslavia. 



[6] 



Kraljica Marija. 


'06. 


10,200 tons. 


Aleksandar I. 


'27. 


Cargc 
5,900 tons. 


Avala. 


'29. 


6,400 tons. 


Carica Milica. 


'28. 


6,400 tons. 


Istina. 


'10. 


3,500 tons. 


Istok. 


'13. 


5,900 tons. 


Ivo Racic. 


'07. 


3,700 tons. 


Izabran. 


'12. 


4,300 tons. 


Izgled. 


'11. 


4,300 tons. 


Izrada. 


'10. 


3,500 tons. 


Marija Petrinovic. 


'18. 


5,700 tons. 



Passenger Ships. 

Princesa Olga. '15. 



Marija Racic. 



8,500 tons. 



Neman j a. 

Njegos. 

Preradovic. 

Tomislav. 

Trepca. 

Triglav. 

Vidovdan. 

Vojvoda Putnik. 

Zrinski. 
Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : 
White. Inside of Cowls : Blue or Red. Masts and Derricks : 

Services: — Passenger and Cargo, Yugo-Slavian ports to Buenos Aires, Rosario, 
Santa Fe, Bahia Blanca, Montevideo. 



'11. 
'18. 

'08. 
'07. 
'28. 
'30. 
'29. 
'06. 
'16. 
'20. 
Red. 



4,200 tons. 
5,200 tons. 
4,400 tons. 
5,300 tons. 
5,400 tons. 
5,100 tons. 
6,400 tons. 
5,600 tons. 
5,900 tons. 
5,700 tons. 
Ventilators : 



Light golden brown. 



479 



Ships and the Sea 



KOKUSAI KISEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. (Japanese) 
(Kokusai Steamship Co. Ltd.) 
Tokio. 



[6] 







Motor Vessels. 






Kano Mam. 


'34. 


6,900 tons. 


Kirishima Maru. 


'31. 


6,000 tons. 


Eashi Maru. 


'36. 


7,000 tons. 


Kiyosumi Maru. 


'34. 


7,000 tons. 


Kalsuragi Maru. 


'31. 


5,800 tons. 


Komaki Maru. 


'31. . 


6,800 tons. 


Kinugasa Maru. 


'3(5. 


6,800 tons. 


Kongo Maru. 


'35. 


7,000 tons. 




Kurama Maru. 


'31. 6,800 tons. 










Steam 


Ships. 






Aden Maru. 


'19. 


5,800 tons. 


Liverpool Maru. 


'19. 


5,900 tons. 


Atlantic Maru. 


'20. 


5,900 tons. 


Naples Maru. 


'19. 


5,900 tons. 


Belgium Maru. 


'20. 


5,800 tons. 


San Francisco Maru. 


'19. 


5,800 tons. 


Cape Town Maru. 


'19. 


5,800 tons. 


Shanghai Maru. 


'19. 


4,100 tons. 


England Maru. 


'19. 


5,800 tons. 


Sydney Maru. 


'19. 


4,100 tons. 


France Maru. 


'19. 


5,800 tons. 


Tasmania Maru. 


'19. 


4,100 tons. 


Glasgow Maru. 


'19. 


5,800 tons. 


Vancouver Maru. 


'19. 


5,900 tons. 


Hankow Maru. 


'19. 


4,100 tons. 


Victoria Maru. 


'21. 


5,900 tons. 


Hofuku Maru. 


'18. 


5,800 tons. 


Yaye Maru. 


'19. 


6,800 tons. 


Koiuku Maru. 


'18. 


5,800 tons. 


Yuri Maru. 


'19. 


6,800 tons. 


Distinguishing 


Features 


; : — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : 


Red. 


Ventilators : 


Cream. 


Inside of 


Cowls : Red 


. Masts and Derricks : Cream. 



Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Orient to New York. Cargo only. New York 
and Hamburg to Japan and Australia. Hamburg and New York to Japan and 
Bombay. Japan to European ports. Japan to African ports. Japan to Formosa. 

480 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



KONINKLIJKE NEDERLANDSCHE STOOMBOOT MAATSCHAPPIJ, N.V. 

(Royal Netherlands S.S. Co.) (Dutch) 

Amsterdam. 

Passenger Ship (Motor.) 
Colombia. '30. 10,800 tons. 



[20] 







Passenger 


Ships (Steam). 






Alkmaar. 


'19. 


6,900 tons. 


Cottica. 


'27. 


3,800 tons. 


Baarn. 


'27. 


5,500 tons. 


Crijnssen. 


'19. 


2,300 tons. 


Barneveld. 


'28. 


5,600 tons. 


El Libertador. 


'29. 


1,700 tons. 


Bennekom. 


'17. 


5,800 tons. 


Simon Bolivar. 


'27. 


7,900 tons. 


Berenice. 


'19. 


1,200 tons. 


Stuyvesant. 


'18. 


4,200 tons, 


Boskoop. 


'27. 


5,500 tons. 


Van Rensselaer. 


'20. 


4,200 tons, 


Costa Rica. 


'10. 


8,700 tons. 


Venezuela. 


'06. 


6,400 tons, 



Cargo Vessels. 
(Most of which have passenger accommodation.) 
(Motor.) 
Rhea. '22. 1,400 tons. 



Achilles. '06. 

Agamemnon. '14. 

Ajax. '23. 

Amazone. '22. 



Cargo Vessels (Steam). 






1,800 tons. Amor. 


'11. 


1,300 tons, 


1,900 tons. Ariadne. 


'19. 


1,200 tons, 


900 tons. Astrea. 


'21. 


1,400 tons. 


1,300 tons. Atlas. 


'22. 


1,300 tons, 



481 



Ships and the Sea 



KoXINK. NEDERLAND- 


-(Contd.) 










Aurora. 


'20. 


1,700 tons. 


Midas. 


'25. 


1,000 tons. 


Bacchus. 


■11. 


2,300 tons. 


Nereus. 


'21. 


1,300 tons. 


Baralt. 


■21. 


800 tons. 


Nero. 


'19. 


800 tons. 


Bodegraven. 


'28. 


5,500 tons. 


Oberon. 


'11. 


2,000 tons. 


Brion. 


■21. 


800 tons. 


Odysseus. 


'22. 


1,100 tons. 


Calypso. 


■11, 


2,300 tons. 


Oranje Nassau. 


'11. 


3,700 tons. 


Ceres. 


'19. 


2,700 tons. 


Orestes. 


'18. 


2,700 tons. 


Deucalion. 


'14. 


1,800 tons. 


Orion. 


'14. 


1,700 tons. 


Euterpe. 


'03. 


900 tons. 


Orpheus. 


'20. 


1,000 tons. 


Fauna. 


■12. 


1,300 tons. 


Perseus. 


'22. 


1,300 tons. 


Flora. 


'21. 


1,400 tons. 


Pluto. 


'05. 


1,200 tons. 


Ganymedes. 


'17. 


2,700 tons. 


Poseidon. 


'21. 


1,900 tons. 


Hebe. 


'16. 


1,100 tons. 


Saturnus. 


'09. 


2,700 tons. 


Helder. 


'20. 


3,600 tons. 


Stella. 


'09. 


2,800 tons. 


Hercules. 


'15. 


2,300 tons. 


Telamon. 


'28. 


2,100 tons. 


Hermes. 


'20. 


2,700 tons. 


Theseus. 


'20. 


1,300 tons. 


Irene. 


'IS. 


1,200 tons. 


Tiberius. 


'30. 


1,700 tons. 


Iris. 


'20. 


900 tons. 


Titus. 


'29. 


1,700 tons. 


Juno. 


'08. 


1,800 tons. 


Trajanus. 


'30. 


1,700 tons. 


Luna. 


'22. 


1,400 tons. 


Triton. 


'28. 


2,100 tons. 


Mars. 


'25. 


1,600 tons. 


Ulysses. 


'18. 


2,700 tons. 


Medea. 


'16. 


1,300 tons. 


Venus. 


'07. 


1,800 tons. 


Merope. 


'18. 


1,200 tons. 
Vulcanus. 


Vesta. 

'07. 1,800 tons. 


'07. 


1,800 tons. 


Distinguishing 


Features: — Hulls : 


Black. Boot-topping : 


Red. 


Ventilators : 



Black. Inside of Cowls : Red. 

482 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Konink. Nederlaxd — (Contd.) 

Services: — Passenger, Mail and Cargo. 1. "Colon Line," Europe to Barbados, 
Trinidad, La Guiana, Puerto Cabello, Curacao, Santa Marta, Puerto Colombia, 
Antigua, Jamaica, Cristobal. 2. " Surinam Line," Europe to Madeira, Surinam, 
Demerara, Trinidad, Venezuela, Curacao, Port au Prince, New York. 3. " South 
Pacific Line," Europe to Curacao, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chili. 
4. Curacao to Maracaibo. Cargo Services. 1. New York to Venezuela. 2. Curacao 
to Guatemala. 3. Curacao to Antilles. 4. Holland to Baltic, Mediterranean, 
Adriatic and Black Sea ports. 



KONINKLIJKE PAKETVAART MAATSCHAPPIJ. (Dutch) 
(Royal Packet Navigation Co.) 
" K.P.M." 
Amsterdam. 

Passenger Ships (Motor). 



[26] 



Boiseevain. 


'36. 


14,000 tons. 


Tidore. 


'30. 


900 tons 


Cremer. 


'26. 


4,600 tons. 


Toba. 


'30. 


1,000 tons 


Kampar. 


'30. 


600 tons. 


Tobelo. 


'30. 


1,000 tons 


Loudon. 


'13. 


1,900 tons. 


Toboali. 


'30. 


1,000 tons 


Maetsuycker. 


'35. 


tons. 


Togian. 


'30. 


1,000 tons 


Mijer. 


'15. 


1,900 tons. 


Tomohon. 


'30. 


1,000 tons 


Ophir. 


'28. 


4,100 tons. 


Tomori. 


'30. 


1,000 tons 


Rokan. 


'29. 


600 tons. 


Toradja. 


'30. 


1,000 tons 


Ruys. 


'36. 


14,000 tons. 


Tosari. 


'30. 


1,000 tons 


Tegelberg. 


'36. 


14,000 tons. 


Van Heutsz. 


'26. 


4,600 tons 



483 



Konink. Taket — (Contd.) 



Ships and the Sea 

•a 

Passenger Ships (Steam). 



Alting. 


'00. 


1,300 tons. 


Nieuw Holland. 


'28. 


11,100 tons. 


Barentsz. 


'15. 


4,700 tons. 


Nieuw Zeeland. 


'28. 


11,100 tons. 


Baud. 


'03. 


2,400 tons. 


Op ten Noort. 


'26. 


6,100 tons. 


Bontekoe. 


'22. 


4,700 tons. 


Pahud. 


'27. 


2,100 tons. 


Both. 


'31. 


2,500 tons. 


Patras. 


'26. 


2,100 tons. 


Buyskes. 


'10. 


1,800 tons. 


Pijnacker Hordijk, 


.'14. 


3,000 tons. 


Camphuijs. 


'03. 


2,400 tons. 


Plancius. 


'23. 


6,000 tons. 


De Eerens. 


'02. 


1,100 tons. 


Reael. 


'31. 


2,600 tons. 


De Klerk. 


'00. 


2,000 tons. 


Reijniersz. 


'08. 


1,700 tons. 


Duymaer van 






Reijnst. 


5 28. 


2,500 tons. 


Twist. 


'26. 


1,000 tons. 


Rengat. 


'25. 


500 tons. 


Elout. 


'09. 


1,800 tons. 


Reteh. 


'26. 


500 tons. 


Generaal Michiels. 


'28. 


1,300 tons. 


Rochussen. 


'03. 


2,400 tons. 


Generaal van der 






Roggeveen. 


'15. 


4,700 tons. 


Heyden. 


'28. 


1,200 tons. 


Rooseboom. 


'26. 


1,000 tons. 


Generaal van 






Rumphius. 


'08. 


2,500 tons. 


Geen. 


'28. 


1,300 tons. 


'sJacob. 


'07. 


3,000 tons. 


Generaal van 






Schouten. 


'12. 


1,800 tons. 


Swieten. 


'28. 


1,300 tons. 


Sloet van de 






Generaal 






Beele. 


'14. 


3,000 tons. 


Verspyck. 


'28. 


1,200 tons. 


Speelman. 


'26. 


1,000 tons. 


Houtman. 


'13. 


5,000 tons. 


Swaerdecroon. 


'08. 


1,700 tons. 


Janssens. 


'35. 


tons. 


Swartenhondt. 


'24. 


4,700 tons. 


Melchior Treub. 


'13. 


3,500 tons. 


Tasman. 


'21. 


5,000 tons. 


Merak. 


'26. 


1,800 tons. 

484 


Thedans. 


'27. 


2,100 tons. 



Konink. Paket — (Contd.) 




Valentijn. 


'27. 


Van Cloon. 


'11. 


Van den Bosch. 


'03. 


Van der Hagen. 


'10. 


Van der Lijn. 


'28. 


Van der Wijck. 


'21. 


Van Diemen. 


'26. 


Van Goens. 


'26. 


Van Heemskerk. 


'09. 


Van Imhoff . 


'14. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

2,100 tons. Van Lansberge. 
4,500 tons. Van Linschoten. 
2,400 tons. Van Neck. 
3,000 tons. Van Noort. 
2,500 tons. Van Outhoorn. 
2,600 tons. Van Overstraten. 
1,000 tons. Van Rees. 
1,000 tons. Van Reibeeck. 
3,000 tons. Van Riemsdijk. 
3,000 tons. Van Swoll. 
Van Waerwijck. '10. 3,000 tons. 

Cargo Vessels. 
(Most of which have passenger accommodation.) 
(Motor.) 



'13. 


1,900 tons. 


'10. 


3,000 tons. 


'13. 


3,000 tons. 


'06. 


2,000 tons. 


'27. 


2,100 tons. 


'12. 


4,500 tons. 


'14. 


3,100 tons. 


'02. 


2,300 tons. 


'00. 


2,000 tons. 


'30. 


2,100 tons. 



Batak. 


'31. 


400 tons. 


Makian. 


'28. 


500 tons 


Bengkalis. 


'15. 


1,100 tons. 


Mampawa. 


'28. 


500 tons 


Boelongan. 


'15. 


1,100 tons. 


Mandar. 


'28. 


500 tons. 


Dajak. 


'28. 


200 tons. 


Manipi. 


'28. 


500 tons. 


Hebe. 


'16. 


600 tons. 


Mapia. 


'30. 


600 tons 


Majang. 


'28. 


500 tons. 


Maros, 


'30. 


600 tons. 


Makasser. 


'28. 


500 tons. 


Moesi. 


'30. 


900 tons. 






Cargo Vessels (Steam). 






Bantam. 


'29. 


3,300 tons. 


Bintoehan. 


'21. 


1,000 tons 


Belawan. 


'29. 


1,300 tons. 


Blinjoe. 


'29. 


1,300 tons 


Benkoelen. 


'21. 


1,000 tons. 


Dione. 


'20. 


600 tons 


Berouw. 


'19. 


800 tons. 


Japara. 


'30. 


3,300 tons 



485 



Ships and the Sea 

Sibigo. 

Sibolga. 

Sidajoe. 

Sigli. 

Silindoeng. 

Sinabang. 

Singapore. 

Singkara. 

Singkep. 

Sipirok. 

Sipora. 

Soerabaya. 

Stagen. 

Van Spilbergen. '08. 3,200 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Some white, some black. Boot-topping : 
Red. Ventilators : Buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. Funnels : Mostly cowl tops. 
Names: Mostly names of places in Netherlands East Indies, etc., or names of Colonial 

administrators. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Between all ports and islands of the Netherlands 
East Indies. Singapore and Java to Australia. Deli and Singapore to South China. 
Deli to Rangoon. Java to Siam. Saigon to Moluccas. Java to Mauritius and East 
Africa. Manila, Saigon, Bangkok and Java to Mauritius and South Africa. Saigon 
and Java to Noumea and South Sea Islands and return via Sydney. 



Konink. Paket— 


-(Contd.) 






Kidoel. 




'26. 


800 tons. 


Le Maire. 




'08. 


3,300 tons. 


Lematang. 




'15. 


2,500 tons. 


Ombilin. 




'10. 


5,700 tons. 


Palehleh. 




'21. 


1,200 tons. 


Palima. 




'22. 


1,200 tons. 


Palopo. 




'22. 


1,200 tons. 


Parigi. 




'22. 


1,200 tons. 


Pasir. 




'22. 


1,200 tons. 


Rantaupandjang. 


'22. 


2,500 tons. 


Sawahloento. 




'21. 


3,100 tons. 


Siaoe. 




'21. 


1,600 tons. 


Siberoet. 




'27. 


1,800 tons. 



'26. 


1,600 tons. 


'19. 


1,400 tons. 


'28. 


1,800 tons. 


'20. 


1,600 tons. 


'24. 


1,800 tons. 


'27. 


1,800 tons. 


'12. 


600 tons. 


'14. 


600 tons. 


'14. 


600 tons. 


'28. 


1,800 tons. 


'26. 


1,600 tons. 


'19. 


600 tons. 


'19. 


2,500 tons. 



486 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Lassell. '22. 



LAMPORT & HOLT LINE LTD. (British) 
Liverpool. 

Motor Ships. 
7,400 tons. Leighton. J 21. 

Linnell. '21. 7,400 tons. 



[130] 





Steamships. 


'20. 


5,400 tons. 


Marconi. '17. 


'20. 


5,400 tons. 


Millais. '17. 


'18. 


5,300 tons. 


Nasmyth. '19. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


Phidias. '13. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


Sheridan. '18. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


Swinburne. '17. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


Vandyck. '21 


'17. 


7,000 tons. 


(Cruising liner.) 


'20. 


7,500 tons. 


Voltaire. '23 


'19. 


7,300 tons. 


(Cruising liner.) 



7,400 tons. 


7,400 tons. 


7,300 tons. 


6,500 tons 


5,600 tons 


4,700 tons 


4,700 tons 


13,200 tons 



Balfe. 

Balzac. 

Biela. 

Bonheur. 

Bronte. 

Browning. 

Bruyere. 

Delambre. 

Lalande. '20. 7,500 tons. Voltaire. '23. 13,200 tons. 

Laplace. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with white band (band added 1934) 
with exception of cruising liners which are white. Boot-topping : Pink with exception 
of cruising liners which are blue. Ventilators : Some black; some grey, with excep- 
tion of cruising liners which are all white. Inside of Cowls : White. Masts: White. 
Derricks : Grey with exception of cruising liners which are white. Names : Scien- 
tists, Dramatists, Painters, etc. Funnels : Proportions are: 3/7 blue; 2/7 white; 

2/7 black. 

487 



Ships and the Sea 

Lamport & Holt — (Contd.) 

Services: — Glasgow and Liverpool to Brazil direct. Glasgow and Liverpool to 
River Plate direct. Liverpool to Brazil via Portugal. Liverpool to River Plate via 
Spain. Liverpool to Brazil and River Plate via Spain and Portugal. Antwerp, 
Middlesbrough and London to River Plate. New York to Brazil and River Plate, 
calling at West Indies. New York to North Brazil. New York to Central and South 
Brazil. New York to River Plate. New York to Manchester. River Plate to U.K. 
and Continent via Canary Islands. River Plate to Boston and New York via Brazil. 
Pleasure Cruising. All vessels carry Passengers. 



LIBERA-TRIESTINA, SOCIETA ANONIMA, NAVIGAZIONE, 

(N.L.T.) (Italian) 

Trieste. 

Passenger Ship. 
California. '20. 13,000 tons. 

Cargo Vessels. 

(Most of which have passenger accommodation.) 

(Motor.) 



[15] 



Cellina. 


'26. 


6,100 tons. Feltre. '27. 


6,100 tons 


Fella. 


'26. 


6,100 tons. Leme. '25. 
Rialto. '27. 6,100 tons. 

Cargo Vessels (Steam). 


8,100 tons. 


Anfora. 


'22. 


5,800 tons. Brenta. '20. 


5,400 tons. 


Arsa. 


'21. 


5,400 tons. Carnia. ' '23. 


5,800 tons. 


Aussa. 


'21. 


5,700 tons. Carso. '23. 
488 


6,300 tons. 



5,400 tons. 


Perla. 


'26. 


5,700 tons. 


7,900 tons. 


Piave. 


'21. 


7,600 tons. 


6,100 tons. 


Recca. 


•21. 


5,400 tons. 


5,900 tons. 


Rosandra. 


•21. 


8,000 tons. 


5,400 tons. 


Sabbia. 


•26. 


5,800 tons. 


5,400 tons. 


Savoia. 


'22. 


5,800 tons. 


5,400 tons. 


Sistiana. 


'24. 


5,800 tons. 


5,600 tons. 


Tagliamento. 


'22. 


5,500 tons. 


5,500 tons. 


Timavo. 


'20. 


7,500 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Libera -Triestiha — ( Contd.) 

Cherca. '20. 
Duchessa d'Aosta. '21. 

Edda. '24. 

Isarco. '24. 

Isonzo. '21. 

Istria. '21. 

Laguna. '13. 

Livenza. '22. 

Maiella. '13. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls: Black. Boot-topping: Red. Ventilators: 
Yellow. Inside of Cowls : Blue. Masts and Derricks : Yellow. Funnels : Have 

cowl tops. House Flag : Square. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Italy to South Africa via Gibraltar and 
homewards via Suez. Italy (reverse of above). Italy to West Africa and South 
Africa. Italy to North Pacific ports. Italy to Mexico. 

LLOYD TRIESTINO. (Italian) [3 and 14] 

Combined Fleets of Lloyd Triestino, Societa Italiana di Servizi 
Marittimi " Sitmar ", and the Societa Marittima Italiana. 
Trieste and Genoa. 



Caldea. 
Calitea. 



Passenger Ships (Motor). 

'27. 2,700 tons. Egeo. '27. 

'33. 4,000 tons. Egitto. '27. 

Victoria. '31. 13,100 tons. 

489 



3,200 tons. 
3,200 tons. 



Lloyd Triestino — (Contd.) 



Ships and the Sea 







Passenger 


Ships (Steam). 






Abbazia. 


'12. 


3,700 tons. 


Esperia. 


'18. 


11,400 tons. 


Adria. 


'14. 


3,700 tons. 


Galilea. 


'18. 


8,000 tons. 


Amazzonia. 


16. 


T.uoO tons. 


Gerusalemme. 


'20. 


8,100 tons, 


Aventino. 


'07. 


3,800 tons. 


Helouan. 


'12. 


7,200 tons, 


Campidoglio. 


'10. 


3,700 tons. 


Italia. 


'05. 


f>,200 tons, 


Carnaro. 


•13. 


3,700 tons. 


Marco Polo. 


'12. 


12,300 tons. 


Celio. 


'08. 


3,900 tons. 


Merano. 


'09. 


3,700 tons. 


Cilicia. 


>27, 


2,700 tons. 


Palestina. 


'10. 


7,000 tons. 


Conte Rosso. 


>22 


17,000 tons. 


Praga. 


'08. 


3,700 tons, 


Conte Verde. 


'23. 


18,800 tons. 


Tevere. 


'12. 


8,400 tons, 


Dalmatia L. 


'03. 


3,300 tons. 


Urania. 


'10. 


7,000 tons, 


Diana. 


'23. 


3,300 tons. 


Vesta. 


'23. 


3,400 tons. 






Vienna. 


'11. 7,200 tons. 





Cargo Vessels. 

(Most of which have passenger accommodation.' 

(Motor.) 

Arabia. '26. 7,000 tons. Himalaya. '29. 

Assiria. '28. 2,700 tons. India. '26. 

Fusijama. '29. 6,200 tons. Sumatra. '27. 



6,200 tons. 
6,400 tons. 
6,100 tons. 



Albano. 
Bolsena. 



Cargo Vessels (Steam). 
'18. 2,400 tons. Fenicia. '19. 

'18. 2,400 tons. Iseo. 'IS. 

Quirinale. '07. 3,800 tons. 

490 



2,600 tons. 
2,400 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Lloyd Triestino — (Contd.) 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls: Black except for " Conte Rosso," " Conte 
Verde," " Victoria," " Ausonia," " Esperia," " Gange," " Calitea," " Vienna," 
" Helouan," " Tevere," " Palestina," " Urania," " Gerusalemme," " Galilea," 
" Carnaro," " Pilsna," which have white, with blue band. Boot-topping : Red 
except for white ships which have green. Masts and Derricks : All white. Venti- 
lators : Black round funnel for black ships, yellow for white ships; white all others. 
Inside of Coivls : Grey. Boats : Brown in " Victoria," " Aisonia," " Calitea," 

" Esperia," " Palestina." 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Trieste and Venice to Adriatic, Mediter- 
ranean ports, Egypt, Black Sea, China and Japan. 



MARITIME BELGE (LLOYD ROYAL) S.A., COMPAGNIE. (Belgian) [2 and 3] 
Comprising: Compagnie Maritime Belge du Congo & Lloyd Royal Belge S.A. 

Antwerp. 

Passenger Ships. 
Albertville. '28. 10,800 tons. ElisabethviUe. '21. 8,400 tons. 

Anversville. '12. 8,400 tons. Leopoldville. '29. 11,300 tons. 

Thysville. '22. 8,400 tons. 



Cargo Vessels. 



Astrida. 
Carlier. 
Eglantier. 
Emile Francqui 
Henri Jaspar. 



'29. 
'15. 
'18. 
'29. 
'29. 



3,400 tons. 
7,200 tons. 
5,400 tons. 
5,800 tons. 
5,800 tons. 



Indier. 
Jean Jadot. 
Josephine Charlotte. 
Kabalo. 
Kabinda. 



'18. 
'29. 
'29. 
'17. 
'17. 



5,400 tons. 
5,900 tons. 
3,400 tons. 
5,200 tons. 
5,200 tons. 



491 



Maritime Bulge — (Contd.) 



Ships and the Sea 



3,100 tons. 

3,100 tons. 

2,900 tons. 

3,600 tons. 

7,900 tons. 

5,300 tons. 

5,400 tons. 

5,200 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Light Grey. Boot-topping : Bed. Masts and 
Derricks : Light mast-colour. Ventilators : Buff. Names : Passenger ships end in 
" Ville ", all L.R.B. Ships and names ending in " ier ", remainder have African names. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Antwerp to New York, Brazil, Uruguay 
and Argentine. Antwerp to Belgian Congo via West Coast of Africa. Antwerp to 
Beira via East Coast of Africa and Suez. 



Kambove. 


'18. 


5,300 tons. 


Maniema. 


'20. 


Kasongo. 


'18. 


5,300 tons. 


Matadi. 


'19. 


Katanga. 


'17. 


5,200 tons. 


Mateba. 


'19. 


Londonier. 


'19. 


5,400 tons. 


Mayumbe. 


'29. 


Macedonier. 


'21. 


5,200 tons. 


Mercier. 


'15. 


Mahagi. 


'28. 


3,300 tons. 


Olympier. 


'20. 


Makala. 


'19. 


3,100 tons. 


Persier. 


'18. 


Mambika. 


'20. 


3,100 tons. 


Pionier. 


'19. 



MATSON NAVIGATION CO. (U.S.A.) 

San Francisco. 

Passenger Ships. 



492 



[31] 



Makawao. 


»21. 


3,300 tons. 


Mana. 


'20. 


3,300 tons. 


Makiki. 


'17. 


6,100 tons. 


Manini. 


'20. 


3,300 tons, 


Makua. 


'20. 


3,500 tons. 


Mauna Ala. 


'18. 


6,500 tons. 


Mala. 


'20. 


3,500 tons. 


Mauna Kea. 


'19. 


6,100 tons. 


Malama. 


'19. 


3,300 tons. 


Maunalei. 


'21. 


7,200 tons. 


Maliko. 


'18. 


6,800 tons. 


Mauna Loa. 


'19. 


5,400 tons. 


Malolo. 


'27. 


17,200 tons. 


Maunawili. 


'21. 


7,400 tons. 



Matson — (Contd.) 

Manhukona. 

Makaweli. 

Makeua. 

Manoa. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



'19. 
'19. 
'19. 
'13. 



Passenger Ships (Engines aft). 



2,500 tons. 
2,600 tons. 
2,700 tons. 
6,800 tons. 
Wilhelmina. 



Manukai. 
Manulani. 
Matsonia. 
Maui. 



'21. 
'21. 
'13. 
'17. 



'09. 



9,500 tons. 
9,600 tons. 
9,400 tons. 
9,800 tons. 

Red with white 



6,700 tons. 
Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Dark brown. Boot-topping 

dividing line. Ventilators : 
Services: — San Francisco, Seattle and Portland to Honolulu, Hilo, and Kaluilui. 

(The Oceanic Steamship Co.) [30] 

Passenger Ships. 
Lurline. '32. 18,000 tons. Mariposa. '31. 18,000 tons. 

Monterey. '32. 18,000 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : White with blue band. Boot-topping : Green. 

Ventilators : Buff. Inside of Cowls : Blue. Masts and Derricks : Cream. 
Services : — Passenger and Cargo. San Francisco, Honolulu, Pago Pago, Suva, and 

Sydney. 



MESSAGERIES MARITIMES, COMPAGNIE DES (French) [2 and 18] 

AND 

Societe des Services Contractuels des Messageries Maritimes. 

Marseilles. 

Maid Vessels (Motor). 

Aramis. '32. 17,500 tons. MarechalJoffre. '31. 11,800 tons. 

Felix Roussel. '30. 16,800 tons. President Doumer. '34. 12,790 tons. 

Jean Laborde. '30. 11,400 tons. Theophile Gautier. '26. 8,200 tons. 

493 



Messaoeries Maritimes — (Contd.) 



Ships and the Sea 
Mail Vessels (Steam). 



Andre Lebon. 


'13. 


13,700 tons. 


Compiegne. 


'23. 


10,000 tons. 


Angers. 


'07. 


9,800 tons. 


D'Artagnan. 


'24. 


15,100 tons. 


Athos n. 


'25. 


15,200 tons. 


Explorateur 






Azay-le-Rideau. 


'10. 


8,000 tons. 


Grandidier. 


'24. 


11,300 tons. 


Bernardin de St. 






General Metzinger. 


'06. 


9,300 tons. 


Pierre. 


'25. 


10,100 tons. 


Lamarrine. 


'14. 


5,100 tons. 


Champollion. 


'24. 


12,300 tons. 


Leconte de Lisle. 


'22. 


9,900 tons, 


Chantilly. 


'23. 


10,000 tons. 


Mariette Pacha. 


'25. 


12,500 tons 


Chenonceaux. 


'22. 


14.800 tons. 


Pierre Loti. 


'13. 


5,100 tons. 


Claude Chappe. 


'09. 


4,400 tons. 
Sphinx. 

Intermediate 


Porthos. 

'14. 11,400 tons. 

Passenger Ships. 


'14. 


12,700 tons, 






(Motor). 










Eridan. 


'28. 9,900 tons. 










(Steam.) 






Bucephale. 


'25. 


900 tons. 


Laperouse. 


'11. 


4,900 tons. 


Commissaire 






Ville d'Amiens. 


'24. 


7,000 tons. 


Ramel. 


'12. 


10,100 tons. 








Esperance 






Ville de Strasbourg. 


'20. 


7,100 tons. 


(Twin masts). 


'23. 


5,100 tons. 


Ville de Verdun. 


'21. 


7,000 tons. 



Cargo Vessels (some of which have passenger accommodation). 
Capitaine Faure. '18. 8,100 tons. 

494 



Some Well Known Shipping][Companies 




Messageries Mauitimes — (Contd.) 








Commandant Dorise. 


'17. 


5,500 tons. 




Commandant Mages. 


'17. 


5,800 tons. 




Docteur Pierre Benoit. 


'18. 


7,900 tons. 




Lieutenant de la Tour. 


'17. 


5,700 tons. 




Lieutenant 








St. Loubert Bie. 


'11. 


6,100 tons. 




Marechal Gallieni. 


'12. 


1,600 tons. 




Min. 


'13. 


7,900 tons. 




Si Kiang. 


'14. 


6,900 tons. 




Yalou. 


'14. 


8,700 tons. 




Yang-Tse. 


'15. 


8,000 tons. 




Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black 


except " Aramis," which is 


white. 


Boot-topping : Green. Masts and Derricks : 


White. Ventilators : Black. 


Inside 



of Cowls : White. Distinctive white-painted deck cranes. 
I Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. From Marseilles to Egypt and Mediter- 
ranean ports, Ceylon, Straits, Far East, East Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius and 
Australasia (latter temporarily suspended). 



Akagisan Maru. 
Akasisan Maru. 
Akbasan Maru. 



MITSUI BUSS AN KAISHA, LTD. (Japanese) 
Tokio. 



Motor Vessels. 
'24. 4,600 tons. Asahaisan Maru. 

'35. 4,600 tons. Asosan Maru. 

'35. 6,400 tons. Awobasan Maru. 

Hakonesan Maru. '29. 6,700 tons. 

495 



[4] 



35. 


4,500 tons. 


35. 


6,500 tons, 


'35. 


6,400 tons. 



Ships and the Sea 



MiTsti— (Could.) 










Hakubasan Mam. 


'29. 


0,700 tons. 


Nasusan Maru. '31. 


4,400 tons. 


Koyasan Maru. 


'27. 


2,000 tons. 


Oshima Maru. '31. 


1,000 tons. 


Kuramasan Maru. 


'27. 


2,000 tons. 


(Tanker.) 




Nachisan Maru. 


'31. 


4,300 tons. 


Shikisan Maru. '25. 


4,700 tons. 


Nagisan Maru. 


•31. 


4,400 tons. 


Takamisan Maru. '28. 


2,000 tons. 




Tatsutasan Maru. 


'28. 2,000 tons. 








Steam 


Ships. 




Akibasan Maru. 


»24. 


4,700 tons. 


Sancho Maru. '18. 


1,200 tons. 


Hoyeisan Maru. 


'18. 


6,000 tons. 


Sanjin Maru. '19. 


2,500 tons. 


Ibukisan Maru. 


'22. 


5,800 tons. 


Sanko Maru. '19. 


600 tons. 


Iwatesan Maru. 


'21. 


5,800 tons. 


Santen Maru. '18. 


1,200 tons, 


Kasugasan Maru. 


'25. 


2,400 tons. 


Tone Maru. '20. 


4,100 tons. 


Katsuragisan Maru. 


'25. 


2,400 tons. 


Building (Tanker). '35. 





Building (Tanker). '35. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black; some with white band. Boot-topping : 
Red. Ventilators : White. Inside of Cowls : Red. Masts and Derricks : White. 

Paintwork : Letters M.B.K. in white along side of hulls. 
Services: — Cargo. China and Japan to United States Pacific ports. Japan, China. 
Philippine Islands, Straits Settlements, Netherlands East Indies, British India. 
Australia, South America, Europe and Africa. 



496 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

MIXTE, COMPAGNIE DE NAVIGATION (COMPAGNIE TOUACHE) (French) [9] 

Marseilles. 

Passenger Ships. 
El-Djezair. '34. 5,200 tons. 

El-Kantara. '32. 5,100 tons. 

EI-Mansour. '32. 5,000 tons. 

(Operated on behalf of French Government.) 
Gouverneur General Cambon. '22. 3,500 tons. 

Gouverneur General Lepine. '23. 3,500 tons. 

Gouverneur General Tirman. '22. 3,500 tons. 

Cargo Vessels (most of which have passenger accommodation). 
Djebel-Amour. 
Djebel-Aures. 
Djebel-Dira. 
El-Biar. 

Mecanicien Moutte. 
Mustapha II. 

(Societe Anonyme Mazout Transports.) 
C.I.P. '21. 6,600 tons. (Tanker with engines aft.) 

Motrix. '22. 6,600 tons. (Tanker with engines aft.) 

(Societe Petroles Transports.) 
Capitaine Damiani. '21. 4,900 tons. (Tanker with engines aft.) 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators: 

Some black, some white. 
Services : — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Between Marseilles and ports in Northern 

Africa. 

R 497 



'31. 


2,900 tons. 


'29. 


2,800 tons. 


'30. 


2,800 tons. 


'27. 


4,500 tons. 


'18. 


1,600 tons. 


'12. 


3,500 tons. 



Ships and the Sea 



NEDERLANDSCH-AMERIKAANSCHE STOOMVAART MAATSCHAPPIJ. [24] 
(Holland-.Amkhika Lijn.) (Dutch) 

(Holland America Line.) 

" N.A.S.M." 







Mail 


Liners. 






Rotterdam. 


'08. 


24,100 tons. 


Veendam. 


'23. 


15,500 tons. 


Statendam. 


'29. 


28,300 tons. 


Volendam. 


'22. 


15,400 tons. 






Intermediate Liners. 






Edam. 


'21. 


8,900 tons. 


Maasdam. 


'21. 


8,800 tons. 


Leerdam. 


'21. 


S,900 tons. 
Cargo 


Spaarndam. 
Liners. 


'22. 


8,900 tons. 






(Most of these vessels carry passengers.) 






Beemsterdijk. 


'22. 


6,900 tons. 


Breedijk. 


'21. 


6,900 tons. 


Bilderdijk. 


'22. 


6,900 tons. 


Burgerdijk 


'21. 


6,900 tons. 


Binnendijk. 


'21. 


6,900 tons. 


Damsterdijk (M.V.). 


'30. 


10,200 tons. 


Bloomersdijk. 


'22. 


6,900 tons. 


Delftdijk (M.V.). 


'29. 


10,200 tons. 


Boschdijk. 


'22. 
D 


6,900 tons, 
rechtdijk (M.V.). 


Dinteldijk (M.V.). 
'23. 9,300 tons. 


'22. 


9,400 tons. 



Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black with gold band. Boot-topping : Red. 
Ventilators : Buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. Crow's Nests : White. Names : 

Passenger Liners names end in " am." Cargo Liners names end in " dijk." 
Services: — Mail and Passenger. Rotterdam to New York via Boulogne and Ply- 
mouth. Rotterdam to Cuba, Mexico via Antwerp and Boulogne, Bilbao, La Coruna. 
Havana, Vera Cruz, Tampico and New Orleans. Freight Services. Rotterdam, 

498 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

N.A.S.M.— (Contd.) 

Hamburg, Antwerp, English and French ports to North American Pacific Coast ports, 

North American Atlantic Coast ports, Rotterdam, Hamburg, Antwerp, English and 

French ports to British Indian ports via Suez. 



"NEDERLAND" STOOMVAART MAATSCHAPPIJ. (Dutch) [27] 
(Nedeeland Royal Mail Line.) 
(Royal Dutch Mail.) 

Mail Liners (Motor). 
Christiaan Huygens. '27. 15,700 tons. 

Johan Van Oldenbarnevelt. '30. 19,000 tons. 

Marnix Van Sint Aldegonde. '30. 19,100 tons. 

Mail Liners (Steam). 
Jan Pieterszoon Coen. '15. 11,100 tons. 

Johan de Witt. '20. 10,500 tons. 

Cargo Liners (Most of which carry passengers). 
(Motor). 



Bintang. 


'16. 


6,500 tons. 


Salawati. 


'20. 


6,600 tons. 


Madoera. 


'22/34. 


9,400 tons. 


Saparoea. 


'20. 


6,700 tons 


Manoeran. 


'22/34. 


7,200 tons. 


Tabian. 


'30. 


8,200 tons 


Mapia. 


'23/34. 


7,200 tons. 


Tabinta. 


'30. 


8,200 tons 


Poelau-Bras. 


'29. 


9,300 tons. 


Tajandoen. 


'31. 


8,200 tons 


Poelau-Laut. 


'28. 


9,300 tons. 


Talisse. 


'30. 


8,200 tons 


Poelau-Roebiah. 


'28. 


9,300 tons. 


Tanimbar. 


'30. 


8,200 tons 


Poelau-Tello. 


'29. 


9,300 tons. 


Tarakan. 


'30. 


8,200 tons 




Tawali. 


•31. 8,200 tons. 










499 







Nederland — (Contd.) 



Ships and the Sea 



Bengkalis. 


'18. 


Enggano. 


'20. 


Moena. 


'23. 


Salabangka. 


'20. 



'20. 


6,600 tons. 


'20. 


6,600 tons. 


'22. 


6,600 tons. 


'23. 


6,800 tons. 



Cargo Linp:rs (Steam). 
6,500 tons. Saleier. 

5,400 tons. Simaloer. 

9,400 tons. Singkep. 

6,600 tons. Soemba. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black, were at one time painted white or grey. 
Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators ; Buff. Inside of Cowls : Buff. Names : Mail 
Liners bear personal names and Cargo Liners names of islands in East Indian Archi- 
pelago. Prominent deck cranes. 
Services: — Holland, Great Britain and Continent to Dutch East Indian, Javanese, 
ports., etc., via Algiers, Genoa, Port Said, Suez, Colombo and Singapore. Hamburg, 
Bremen and Antwerp to Netherlands Indies. Java to New York, Calcutta, Singapore. 
Java, Macassar, Philippines and United States' Pacific Coast ports. " Round-the- 

World " Service. 



NEW ZEALAND SHIPPING COMPANY LTD., THE. (British) [217] 
(New Zealand Line.) 
London, E.C.3. 



Passenger Ships (Motor.) 
Rangitane. '29. 16,700 tons. *Rangitata. '29. 16,700 tons. 

Rangitiki. '29. 16,700 tons. 

Passenger Ships (Steam.) 
Remuera. '11. 11,400 tons. *Rotorua. '11. 10,900 tons. 

Ruahine. '09. 10,900 tons. 

500 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

New Zealand S. Co. — (Contd.) 

Cargo Vessels (Motor). 
Opawa. '31. 10,400 tons. Otaio. '30. 

Orari. '31. 10,400 tons. Papanui. '36. 

Paparoa. '36. 10,900 tons. 



10,000 tons. 
10,900 tons. 



Steamers. 



Hororata. 
Hurunui. 
Piako. 

Distinguishing 



'14. 9,200 tons. 

'20. 9,200 tons. 

'20. 8,300 tons. 

Features: — Hulls : 



Tekoa. '22. 

Tongariro. '25. 

Turakina. '23. 

Black. Boot-topping : 



8,700 tons. 
8,700 tons. 
8,700 tons. 

Red with white 
dividing line. Ventilators : Buff (small vents are white). Inside of Cowls : Buff 

(small, red). Names : Nearly all have " Maori " names. 
" Rangitata " and " Rotorua " are actually owned by the sister company, Federal 

S.N. Co., but are painted in New Zealand Shipping Co.'s colours. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. London and/or Southampton to New Zealand 
via the Panama Canal. 



NIPPON YUSEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. (Japanese) 
(Japan Mail Steam Ship Co. Ltd.) 
Tokio. 



[5] 



Passenger Ships (Motor). 
Asama Maru. '29. 17,000 tons. Tatsuta Maru. '30. 

Chicibu Maru. '30. 17,500 tons. Terukuni Maru. '30. 

Yasukuni Maru. '30. 12,000 tons. 

501 



17,000 tons. 
12,000 tons. 



Nippon- Yusex— (Contd.) 



Ships and the Sea 

Passenger Ships (Steam). 



Fushimi Maru. 


'14. 


11,000 tons. 


Katori Maru. 


'13. 


9,800 tons. 


Hakone Maru. 


'21. 


10,400 tons. 


Nagasaki Maru. 


'22. 


5,300 tons. 


Hakozaki Maru. 


'22, 


10,400 tons. 


Palao Maru. 


'34. 


4,500 tons. 


Hakusan Maru. 


'23. 


10,400 tons. 


Rakuyo Maru. 


'21. 


9,400 tons. 


Haruna Maru. 


'2-2. 


10,400 tons. 


Shanghai Maru. 


'22. 


5,300 tons. 


Kamo Maru. 


'08. 


S,000 tons. 


Shinyo Maru. 


'11. 


13,000 tons. 


Kashima Maru. 


'13. 


9,900 tons. 


Suwa Maru. 


'14. 


10,700 tons, 






Taiyo Maru. 


'11. 14,500 tor 


IS. 





Cargo Vessels. 
(Most of which have passenger accommodation.) 

(Motor.) 



Asuka Maru. 


'24. 


7,500 tons. 


Nagara Maru. 


'34. 


Atago Maru. 


'24. 


7,500 tons. 


Nako Maru. 


'34. 


Heian Maru. 


'30. 


11,600 tons. 


Nojima Maru. 


'34. 


Heiyo Maru. 


'30. 


9,800 tons. 


Narutuo Maru. 


'34. 


Hikawa Maru. 


'30. 


11,600 tons. 


Noshira Maru. 


'34. 


Hiye Maru. 


'30. 


11,600 tons. 


Noto Maru. 


'34. 






Cargo Vessels (Steam). 




Akita Maru. 


'16. 


3,800 tons. 


Bokuyo Maru. 


'24. 


Amagi Maru. 


'24. 


3,200 tons. 


Calcutta Maru. 


'17. 


Anyo Maru. 


'13. 


9,300 tons. 


Dakar Maru. 


'20. 


Aso Maru. 


'23. 


3,000 tons. 


Delagoa Maru. 


'19. 


Atsuta Maru. 


'09. 


9,000 tons. 


Durban Maru. 


'19. 


Bengal Maru. 


'21. 


5,400 tons. 


Genoa Maru. 


'19. 



502 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

8,600 tons. Rokko Maru. 

5,300 tons. Taian Maru. 

3,200 tons. Tajima Maru. 

3,100 tons. Takaoka Maru. 

8,000 tons. Taketoyo Maru. 

7,000 tons. Tango Maru. 

7,100 tons. Tatsuno Maru. 

7,000 tons. Toba Maru. 

5,400 tons. Tokiwa Maru. 

7,000 tons. Tokushima Maru. 

7,100 tons. Tottori Maru. 

3,100 tons. Toyama Maru. 

7,000 tons. Toyohashi Maru. 

3,100 tons. Toyooak Maru. 

7,000 tons. Tsukuba Maru. 

4,500 tons. Tsuruga Maru. 

5,400 tons. Tsushima Maru. 

5,900 tons. Tsuyama Maru. 

5,200 tons. Yamagata Maru. 

Yokohama Maru. '12. 6,100 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black with white band. 

Ventilators : Black. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Principal Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Orient to California. Orient 
to Vancouver and Seattle. Japan to European ports. Japan to Australia. West 
coast of South America. Japan to Bombay. South Sea Islands service. Japan to 
China. Osaka to Kobe and Shanghai. Yokohama to Shanghai. Osaka to Kobe 
and Tsingtao. Osaka to Kobe and Tientsin. • 
503 



Nippon Yusen — (Contd.) 




Ginyo Maru. 


■21. 


Hakodate Maru. 


'19. 


Ikoma Maru. 


'25. 


Kasagi Maru. 


'28. 


Kitauo Maru. 


'09. 


Lima Maru. 


'20. 


Lisbon Maru. 


'20. 


Lyons Maru. 


'20. 


Malacca Maru. 


'20. 


Matsumoto Maru. 


'21, 


Matsuye Maru. 


'21. 


Maya Maru. 


'25. 


Mayebashi Maru. 


'21. 


Mikasa Maru. 


'28. 


Mito Maru. 


'21. 


Morioka Maru. 


'19. 


Muroran Maru. 


'19. 


Nagato Maru. 


'18. 


Penang Maru. 


'13. 



'23. 


3,000 tons. 


'17. 


3,200 tons. 


'16. 


7,000 tons. 


'20. 


7,000 tons. 


'20. 


7,000 tons. 


'05. 


6,900 tons. 


'16. 


7,000 tons. 


'16. 


7,000 tons. 


'16. 


7,000 tons. 


'13. 


6,000 tons. 


'13. 


6,000 tons. 


'15. 


7,100 tons. 


'15. 


7,000 tons. 


'15. 


7,100 tons. 


'23. 


3,200 tons. 


'16. 


7,000 tons. 


'14. 


6,800 tons. 


'16. 


7,000 tons. 


'16. 


3,800 tons. 


Boot 


■topping : Bed. 



Ships and the Sea 

NORDDEUTSCHER LLOYD. (German) 
(North German Lloyd.) 
(N.D.L.) 
Bremen. 



[25 and 29] 



Passenger Ships 


(Motor). 


Fulda. 


'24. 


9,500 tons. 


Passenger Ships 


(Turbo-Electric). 


Potsdam. 


'35. 


18,200 tons. 


Scharnhorst. 


'36. 


18,200 tons. 


Passenger 


Ships (Steam). 


Berlin. 


'25. 


15,300 tons. 


Bremen. 


'29. 


51,700 tons. 


Columbus. 


'22. 


32,600 tons. 


Crefeld. 


'22. 


9,600 tons. 


Der Deutsche. 


'24. 


11,400 tons. 


Europa. 


'28. 


49,700 tons. 


Gen. von Steuben. 


'22. 


14,700 tons. 


Gneisnau. 


'35. 


18,200 tons. 


Koln. 


•21. 


9,300 tons. 


Roland. 


'27. 


2,400 tons. 


Sierra Cordoba. 


'24. 


11,500 tons. 


Stuttgart. 


'23. 


1 3,400 tons. 



504 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Nobddeutscher Lloyd — (Contd.) 



Diisseldorf. 

Elbe. 

Eriurt. 



Havel. 



Cargo Vessels (Motor). 

(Most of which have passenger accommodation.) 

'35. 4,700 tons. Konigsberg. '24. 

'29. 9,200 tons. Memel. '34. 

'23. 4,200 tons. Saar. '34. 

Weser. '29. 9,200 tons. 

(With 4 masts). 

'28. 7,300 tons. Saale. '28. 

Trave. '27. 8,000 tons. 



6,000 tons. 
3,200 tons. 
3,000 tons. 



7,300 tons. 



Cargo Vessels (Steam). 







(With 


4 masts.) 






Aller. 


'27. 


7,600 tons. 


Lippe. 


'17. 


7,800 tons 


Alster. 


'28. 


8,500 tons. 


Main. 


'27. 


7,600 tons 


Donau. 


'29. 


9,000 tons. 


Mosel. 


'27. 


8,400 tons 


Isar. 


'29. 


9,000 tons. 


Neckar. 


'27. 


8,400 tons 


Lahn. 


'27. 


8,500 tons. 
(With 


Oder. 

2 masts). 


'27. 


8,500 tons 


Aachen. 


'23. 


6,300 tons. 


Anatolia. 


'23. 


2,400 tons 


Abana. 


'29. 


2,900 tons. 


Ansgir. 


'21. 


5,900 tons. 


Aegina. 


'22. 


2,400 tons. 


Arucas. 


'27. 


2,400 tons. 


Alda. 


'21. 


4,200 tons. 


Askania. 


'22. 


3,400 tons. 


Alk. 


'24. 


1,200 tons. 


Attika. 


'23. 


2,400 tons. 



505 



NoRDDEUTSCHEK L.LOY& (Contd.) } 



Ships and the Sea 



Augsburg. 


'15. 


6,500 tons. 


Minden. 


'21. 


4,200 tons. 


Bremerhaven. 


'20. 


1,600 tons. 


Orotava. 


'27. 


3,300 tons. 


Chemnitz. 


'25. 


5,500 tons. 


Porta. 


'21. 


4,200 tons. 


Erlangen. 


'29. 


6,000 tons. 


Raimund. 


'22. 


3,700 tons. 


Este. 


'30. 


7,900 tons. 


Roland. 


'21. 


4,200 tons. 


Franken. 


'26. 


7,800 tons. 


Schwaben. 


'26. 


7,800 tons. 


Frankfurt. 


'29. 


5,500 tons. 


Trier. 


'23. 


9,400 tons. 


Friderun. 


'22. 


2,500 tons. 


Ulm. 


'21. 


4,000 tons. 


Goslar. 


'29. 


6,000 tons. 


Wido. 


'23. 


5,900 tons. 


Ingram. 


'22. 


3,700 tons. 


Wiegand. 


'22. 


5,900 tons. 



Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red ; most passenger 
ships have white dividing line. Ventilators : Buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. Boats : 
Some have brown-painted boats. Funnels : Some of the cargo vessels have black 

tops. Some of passenger liners have coat of arms of Bremen on either bow. 

Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Bremen to Southampton, Cherbourg and 

New York. Passenger and Cargo. Bremen to Halifax. Bremen and Hamburg 

to Pacific coast ports. Bremen to Central America. Bremen to Spain and Portugal. 

Hamburg to Australasia and Far East, China and Japan. 



NORDENFJELDSKE DAMPSKIBSSELSKAB., DET. (Norwegian) [14 and 25] 

Trondheim. 



Arnfinn Jarl. 


'21. 


1,200 tons. 


Einar Jarl. 


»21. 


1,900 tons. 


Atle Jarl 


'19. 


1,200 tons. 


Erling Jarl. 


'95. 


700 tons. 


Bruse Jarl. 


'23. 


1,900 tons. 


Haakon Adalstein. 


'04. 


1,500 tons. 


Dronning Maud. 


'25. 


1,500 tons. 

506 


Haakon Jarl. 


'04. 


1,500 tons. 



NORDESTFJEIJJSKE (Contd.) 




Henrik Wergeland. 


'83. 


500 tons. 


Kong Erik. 


'03. 


900 tons. 


Kong Halfdan. 


'23. 


1,500 tons. 


Kong Harald. 


'90. 


1,200 tons. 


Kong Magnus. 


'11. 


1,400 tons. 


Orm Jarl. 


'22. 


1,800 tons. 


Ottar Jarl. 


'21. 


1,500 tons. 


Prins Olav. 


'07. 


2,100 tons. 


Prinsesse Ragnhild. 


'31. 


1,600 tons. 




Trondhjem 


'23. 



'21. 


1,900 tons. 


'13. 


1,400 tons. 


'20. 


1,900 tons. 


'94. 


900 tons. 


'19. 


1,900 tons. 


'23. 


1,100 tons. 


'06. 


900 tons. 


'19. 


1,500 tons. 


'22. 


1,500 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Ragnvald Jarl. 
Roald Jarl. 
Rolf Jarl. 
Sigurd Jarl. 
Svein Jarl. 
Sverre Sigurdsson. 
Tordenskjold. 
Tore Jarl. 
Torfinn Jarl. 

1,100 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red with white dividing 
line except " Prins Olav," which has green. Ventilators : Brown except " Prins 

Olav," which has buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. London and Antwerp to Malaga, Valencia, 
Tarragona, Barcelona, Cette, Marseilles, Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, Messina, Piraeus, 
Salonica, Patras and other Greek ports. Liverpool, Manchester, Preston, Glasgow, 
Copenhagen and Stockholm to Finnish ports. United Kingdom to White Sea. 
Norway to Hamburg. Norway to Danzig and Konigsberg. Cruising. 

SWEDEN. 

" NORDSTJERNAN," REDERI AKTIEBOLAGET. (Swedish) [4] 
(Johnson Line.) 
(Axel Axelson Johnson.) 
Stockholm. 



Dalanas. 



Motor Vessels (Tankers, with engines aft.) 

'35. 500 tons. Nynas. '29. 

507 



300 tons. 



N0RD3TJKRNAN — (Cotltd.) 



Ships and the Sea 



Vessels with three masts. 
Balboa. 
Buenos Aires. 
Canada. 

KronprinsessanMargareta'14. 
Lima. 
Pacific. 

Pedro Christophersen. 
San Francisco. 
Santos. 
Suecia. 
Valparaiso. 

Vessels with two masts. 
Annie Johnson. '25. 4,900 tons. Brasil. '35. 5,100 tons. 

Argentina. '35. 5,300 tons. Margaret Johnson.'2 8. 5,100 tons 

Axel Johnson. '25. 4,900 tons. Nordstjernan. '35. 5,200 tons. 

Uruguay. '35. 5,200 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls: Light Grey. Boot-topping: Red. Ventilators: 

White. Inside of Cowls : Sky blue. Masts and Derricks : Cream. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Sweden to Brazil and River Plate. Sweden 
to Antwerp, Colombia, Panama Canal, Central America, North Pacific, returning 
via Plymouth and Hull. Petroleum Service. Between Scandinavia and Baltic 

ports. 



U9. 


5,000 tons. 


'20. 


5,600 tons. 


'21. 


5,500 tons. 


;i4. 


3,700 tons. 


'18. 


3,800 tons. 


'14. 


3,700 tons. 


'13. 


3,700 tons. 


'15. 


3,700 tons. 


'25. 


3,800 tons. 


'12. 


3,700 tons. 


'17. 


3,800 tons. 



508 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



NORSKE AMERIKALINJE, A/S. DEN. (Norwegian) 
(The Norwegian America Line.) 
Oslo. 



[28] 



Passenger Ships. 
Bergensfjord. '13. 11,000 tons. Stavangerfjord. '18. 13,200 tons. 



Fordefjord. 



Cargo Vessels (Motor). 
'24. 5,200 tons. Tonsbergijord. '30. 



Cargo Vessels (Steam). 
5,300 tons. Skiensfjord. 



3,200 tons. 



Drammensfjord. '20. 5,300 tons. Skiensfjord. '22. 5,900 tons. 

Idefjord. '21. 4,300 tons. Tanafjord. '21. 5,900 tons. 

Kristianiafjord. '21. 6,800 tons. Topdalsfjord. '21. 4,300 tons. 

Lyngenfjord. '13. 5,900 tons. Trondhjemsfjord. '21. 6,800 tons. 

Norefjord. '19. 3,100 tons. Tyrifjord. '19. 3,100 tons. 

Distinguishing Features --Hulls : Silver Grey. Boot-topping : Red with white 
dividing line. Ventilators : Buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. Masts and Derricks : 

Cream. Names : All have suffix " Fjord." 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Stavanger and Bergen to New York, Oslo, 
Stavanger, Christiansand and Bergen to New York, Portland, Montreal. 



509 



Ships and the Sea 



NORTH OF SCOTLAND & ORKNEY & SHETLAND STEAM NAVIGATION 

CO. LTD., THE (British) [16] 

Aberdeen. 



Earl of Zetland '77. 300 tons. St. Magnus. '24. 

St. Catherine. '93. 1,000 tons. St. Ninian. '95. 

St. Clair. '68. 600 tons. St. Ola. '92. 

St. Clement. '28. 500 tons. St. Rognvald. '01. 

(Engines aft.) St. Sunniva. '31. 

St. Fergus. '13. 400 tons. 

(Engines aft.) 
Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black except "St. Sunniva" 
white. Boot-topping : Red, except " St. Sunniva " which has green. 

and Boats : Brown. Names : Have prefix " St." 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Edinburgh (Leith) and Aberdeen to Caith- 
ness, Orkney and Shetland. 



1,500 tons. 

700 tons. 

200 tons. 

900 tons. 
1,400 tons. 



which has 
Upperworks 



Bajamar. 
Balzac. 



OLSEN, FRED. & CO. (Norwegian) 
(Akties. Ganger Rolf.) 
Oslo. 



Motor Vessels. 
'30. 2,800 tons. 

'21. 1,000 tons. 



[13 and 26] 



(Engines aft.) 



510 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 


Olsen — (Contd.) 








Banaderos. 


'30. 


2,700 tons. 




Batavia. 


'22. 


1,000 tons. 


(Engines aft.) 


Benjamin Franklin. 


'27. 


7,000 tons. 


(Three masts.) 


Betaneuria. 


'33. 


2,700 tons. 




Borgland. 


'18. 


3,600 tons. 


(Three masts.) 


Brabant. 


'26. 


2,300 tons. 




Bra-Kar. 


'28. 


3,800 tons. 




Brenas. 


'33. 


2,700 tons. 




Helgoy 


'20. 


5,600 tons. 




Laurits Sweason. 


'30. 


5,700 tons. 


(Three masts.) 


San Andres. 


'21. 


2,000 tons. 






Steam 


Ships. 




Bali. 


'28. 


1,400 tons. 




Basel. 


'24. 


1,100 tons. 




Bastant. 


'12. 


1,700 tons. 


(Four masts.) 


Bayard. 


'36. 


tons. 




Bessheim. 


'12. 


1,800 tons. 




Biarritz. 


'22. 


1,800 tons. 


(Four masts.) 


Biri. 


'14. 


900 tons. 




Blenheim. 


'23. 


1,800 tons. 




Bolette. 


'20. 


1,200 tons. 


(Four masts.) 


Bollsta. 


'24. 


1,800 tons. 




Bomma. 


'20. 


800 tons. 




Bor. 


'18. 


900 tons. 




Breda. 


'15. 


1,300 tons. 




Erase. 


'33. 


2,200 tons. 


(Engines aft.) 


Buena Vista. 


'25. 


2,000 tons. 





511 



OLSE.N — (Contrt.) 

Burgos. 
Ek. 
Paris. 
San Carlos. 



Ships and the Sea 



(Akties. 
Abraham Lincoln (M.V.). '29. 
Balduin. 
Bravo I. 
Brisk. 
San Jose. 
San Mateo. 
Santa Cruz. 
Santiago. 
Sardinia (M.V.). 



(Four masts.) 



(Three masts.) 
(Four masts.) 



'20. 3,200 tons. 

'11. 1,000 tons. 

'22. 1,800 tons. 

'14. 2,800 tons. 

BONHEUR.) 

5,700 tons. 

'21. 1,200 tons. 

'08. 1,600 tons. 

'23. 1,600 tons. 

'20. 2,000 tons. 

'11. 1,700 tons. 

'05. 1,500 tons. 

'03. 1,400 tons. 

'21. 2,000 tons. 

(A/S. Jeolonjen.) 

800 tons. Jelo. 

1,300 tons. Mailand. 

800 tons. Marvel. 

(D/S. A/S. Spanskelinjen.; 
2,100 tons. Segovia (M.V.). '22. 

1,500 tons. Sevilla (M.V.) 

2,400 tons. Solferino. 

Stromboli. '02. 1,400 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Some black, some grey. Boot-topping : Red 
for black ships ; green for grey ships. Ventilators : Black for black ships ; buff for 
others. Inside of Cowls : Red. Masts and Derricks : Buff for grey ships. 

512 



Akershus. 

Bonn. 

Brunla. 

Bosphorus. 
San Lucar. 
San Miguel (M.V.) 



'14. 

'28. 



'34. 

'06. 
'20. 



'29. 
'15. 
'21. 


1,300 tons. 

800 tons. 

1,600 tons. 


'22. 
'21. 

'18. 


1,400 tons. 
1,400 tons. 
2,600 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Olsen — (L'o)ild.) 

Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Norwegian ports to United Kingdom 
and North Continental ports. Norwegian ports to Canary Islands. Scandinavian 
ports to Panama, San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, Tacoma, Seattle, 
Victoria and Vancouver. Norway to Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Levant North 
African and Black Sea ports. 



ORIENT STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY LTD. (British) [211] 
(Anderson, Green & Co. Ltd.) 
London, E.C.3. 



Passenger Ships. 
Orama. ' 24 - 19,800 tons. Ormonde 

Orcades. (Building) 24,000 tons, 



Orford. 
Orion. 

Distinguishing 
topping : Red ; 



'28. 19,900 tons, 

'35. 24,000 tons 

Otranto. 
Features: — Hulls : 



17. 15,000 tons. 

Oronsay. '25. 20,000 tons. 

Orontes. '29. 20,000 tons. 

Orsova. '09. 12,000 tons. 
'25. 20,000 tons. 

Black; "Orion" has deep cream. Boot- 



Orion " has green. Ventilators : Buff, except small vents which are 
white. Inside of Cowls: Buff. Names: All commence with "O." All ships have 
"Admiralty topped" funnels. Services -.—Mail, Passenger and Cargo. London 
(Tilbury) to Brisbane, calling at Gibraltar, Toulon, Palma, Naples, Port Said, Suez, 
Aden, Colombo, Fremantle, Adelaide, Melbourne and Sydney. On homeward voyage 
ships call at Plymouth or Southampton and in Australian fruit season an additional 

call is made at Hobart, Tasmania, 
Cruises. To Northern Capitals, Fjords, Mediterranean, Atlantic Islands and 

Adriatic. 

513 



Ships and the Sea 

OSAKA SHOSEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. (Japanese) 
(Osaka Mercantile Steamship Co. Ltd.) 
Osaka. 

Passenger Ships (Motor). 



Buenos Aires Maru. '29. 


9,600 tons. 


Kurenai Maru. 




'24. 


1,500 tons. 


Choan Maru. 


'27. 


2,600 tons. 


La Plata Maru. 




'26. 


7,300 tons. 


Chojo Maru. 


'27. 


2,500 tons. 


Montevideo Maru. 




'26. 


7,300 tons. 


Choko Maru. 


'27. 


2,600 tons. 


Rio de Janeiro Maru. 


'30. 


9,600 tons. 






Santos Maru. 


'25. 7,300 tons. 












Passenger Ships (Steam). 








Africa Maru. 


'18. 


9,400 tons. 


Kitsurin Maru. 


'35. 




6,800 tons. 


Arabia Maru. 


'18. 


9,400 tons. 


Koshun Maru. 


'27. 




4,300 tons. 


Arizona Maru. 


'20. 


9,600 tons. 


Mexico Maru. 


'10. 




5,800 tons. 


Baikal Maru. 


'21. 


5,300 tons. 


Midzuho Maru. 


'12. 




8,500 tons. 


Fuso Maru. 


'08. 


8,200 tons. 


Nekka Maru. 


'35. 




6,800 tons. 


Hawaii Maru. 


'15. 


9,500 tons. 


Takachiho Maru. 


'34. 




8,200 tons. 


Horai Maru. 


'12. 


9,200 tons. 


Ural Maru. 


'29. 




6,400 tons. 



Cargo Vessels. 
(Most of which carry passengers). 
(Motor.) 
Aso Maru. '32. 700 tons. Hayatomo Maru. '25. 

Brisbane Maru. '30. 5,400 tons. Heito Maru. '35. 

Fuji Maru. '32. 700 tons. Hokkai Maru. '33. 

514 



700 tons. 
4,500 tons. 
8,400 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Osaka — (Contd.) 












Hokuroku Maru. 


'30. 


8,400 tons. 


Mihara Maru. 


'25. 


700 tons. 


Kiki Maru. 


'32. 


400 tons. 


Muro Maru. 


'26. 


1,600 tons. 


Kinai Maru. 


'30. 


8,400 tons. 


Nachi Maru. 


'26. 


1,600 tons. 


Kiri Maru. 


'32. 


400 tons. 


Nankai Maru. 


'33. 


8,400 tons. 


Eiso Maru. 


'32. 


700 tons. 


Ondo Maru. 


'23. 


700 tons. 


Matsu Maru. 


'32. 


400 tons. 


Sanyo Maru. 


'30. 


8,400 tons. 


Melbourne Maru. 


'30. 


5,400 tons. 


Sumire Maru. 


'28. 


1,700 tons. 


Midori Maru. 


'28. 


1,700 tons. 
Tokai Maru. 


Sydney Maru. 

'30. 8,400 tons, 


'29. 


5,400 tons. 






Cargo Vessels (Steam). 






Alaska Maru. 


'19. 


7,400 tons. 


Daidou Maru. 


'36. 


8,000 tons. 


Altai Maru. 


'18. 


7,800 tons. 


Daikyu Maru. 


'20. 


1,500 tons. 


Amoy Maru. 


'06. 


700 tons. 


Daishin Maru. 


'05. 


1,300 tons. 


Amur Maru. 


'19. 


7,800 tons. 


Deli Maru. 


'22. 


2,200 tons. 


Argun Maru. 


'20. 


6,600 tons. 


Fukuken Maru. 


'20. 


2,600 tons. 


Atlas Maru. 


'20. 


7,300 tons. 


Ganges Maru. 


'18. 


4,400 tons. 


Beppu Maru. 


'07. 


700 tons. 


Hague Maru. 


'20. 


5,600 tons. 


Borneo Maru. 


'17. 


5,900 tons. 


Hamburg Maru. 


'20. 


5,200 tons. 


Burma Maru. 


'17. 


4,600 tons. 


Harbin Maru. 


'15. 


5,200 tons. 


Busho Maru. 


'21. 


2,600 tons. 


Havana Maru. 


'20. 


5,700 tons. 


Canada Maru. 


'11. 


5,800 tons. 


Havre Maru. 


'20. 


5,700 tons. 


Canton Maru. 


'28. 


2,800 tons. 


Himalaya Maru. 


'18. 


5,200 tons. 


Celebes Maru. 


'17. 


5,900 tons. 


Honolulu Maru. 


'20. 


5,800 tons. 


Chicago Maru. 


'10. 


5,900 tons. 


Hozan Maru. 


'07. 


2,300 tons. 


Chosa Maru. 


'21. 


2,500 tons. 


Indus Maru. 


'18. 


4,400 tons. 


Daichi Maru. 


'05. 


1,300 tons. 


Iwami Maru. 


'16. 


800 tons 



515 



Ships and the Sea 



Osaka— (Contd.) 












Kagi Mam. 


'07. 


2,300 tons. 


Peking Maru. 


'14. 


3,000 tons. 


Kaijo Maru. 


'06. 


2,000 tons. 


Ryuko Maru. 


'36. 


3,000 tons. 


Kanan Maru. 


'20. 


2,600 tons. 


Ryukyu Maru. 


'06. 


700 tons. 


Kishu Maru. 


'20. 


2,600 tons. 


Sakishima Maru. 


'18. 


1,200 tons. 


Kohoku Maru. 


'15. 


2,600 tons. 


Seattle Maru. 


'09. 


5,900 tons. 


Kohso Maru. 


'17. 


3,200 tons. 


Seikai Maru. 


'20. 


3,200 tons. 


Konan Maru. 


'15. 


2,700 tons. 


Seikyo Maru. 


'21. 


2,600 tons. 


Kunsan Maru. 


'04. 


700 tons. 


Sekkow Maru. 


'17. . 


3,200 tons. 


London Maru. 


'21. 


7,200 tons. 


Shiga Maru. 


'06. 


700 tons. 


Madras Maru. 


'19. 


3,800 tons. 


Shisen Maru. 


'18. 


2,200 tons. 


Manila Maru. 


'15. 


9,400 tons. 


Shunko Maru. 


'19. 


6,800 tons. 


Matsuye Maru. 


'07. 


700 tons. 


Shuri Maru. 


'28. 


1,900 tons. 


Menado Maru. 


'22. 


2,200 tons. 


Sumatra Maru. 


'17. 


5,900 tons. 


Miyako Maru. 


'14. 


1,000 tons. 


Surabaya Maru. 


'19. 


4,400 tons. 


Moppo Maru. 


'04. 


700 tons. 


Tacoma Maru. 


'09. 


5,900 tons. 


Murasaki Maru. 


'21. 


1,600 tons. 


Taichu Maru. 


'97. 


3,200 tons. 


Muroto Maru. 


'22. 


1,300 tons. 


Taihoku Maru. 


'91. 


2,500 tons. 


Nanking Maru. 


'14. 


3,000 tons. 


Tainan Maru. 


'97. 


3,200 tons. 


Naruto Maru. 


'00. 


1,300 tons. 


Taizan Maru. 


'02. 


3,900 tons. 


Nase Maru. 


'17. 


1,200 tons. 


Takao Maru. 


'27. 


4,300 tons. 


Nichifuka Maru. 


'20. 


1,300 tons. 


Urado Maru. 


'21. 


1,300 tons. 


Nishiika Maru. 


'36. 


tons. 


Usa Maru. 


'15. 


800 tons. 


Nitto Maru. 


'20. 


2,200 tons. 


Ussuri Maru. 


'32. 


6,400 tons. 


Oigawa Maru. 


'97. 


600 tons. 


Yakumo Maru. 


'19. 


3,200 tons. 


Oita Maru. 


'07. 


700 tons. 


Yashima Maru. 


'15. 


900 tons. 


Panama Maru. 


'10. 


5,800 tons. 


Yehime Maru. 


'03. 


600 tons. 


Paris Maru. 


'21. 


7,200 tons. 









516 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Osaka — (Contd.) 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black with white band. Boot-topping : Red. 

Ventilators : Black. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Japan to European ports. Shanghai to Puget 
Sound. Hong Kong to New York. Japan to South America (round the world service). 
Japan to Australia. Japan to Bombay. Japan to Calcutta. Japan to East Africa. 
Japan to Java. Japan to Philippines. Kobe to Keelung. " Osaka-Dairen Line." 
" Osaka-Tientsin Line," " Osaka-Tsingtau Line," " Saigon-Gangkok Line," 
" Hongkong -Haiphong Line," " Keelung-Hongkong Line," " Keelung-Foochow 
Line," "Japan -Canton Line." Over twenty regular Japanese coastal lines. 



OSTASIATISKE KOMPAGNI, AKTIESELSKABET DET. (Danish) 
(The East Asiatic Company, Ltd.) 
Copenhagen. 



[8] 







Motor 


Vessels. 










(With funnels.) 






Amerika. 


'30. 


10,100 tons. 


Canada. 


'34. 


10,500 tons 






Europa. 


'31. 10,200 tons. 






(Without funnels and with 3 or 4 masts.) 






Afrika. 


'20. 


8,600 tons. 


Bintang. 


'22. 


2,800 tons 


Alsia. 


'29. 


5,800 tons. 


Boringia. 


'30. 


5,800 tons 


Annam. 


'13. 


6,600 tons. 


Chile. 


'15. 


7,000 tons 


Asia. 


'19. 


7,000 tons. 


Danmark. 


'25. 


8,400 tons 


A us tr alien. 


'15. 


6,700 tons. 


Erria. 


'32. 


8,600 tons 



517 



4,400 tons. 


Meonia. 


'27. 


5,200 tons. 


5,300 tons. 


Muinan. 


'31. 


3,100 tons. 


9,500 tons. 


Panama. 


'15. 


6,600 tons. 


8,700 tons. 


Peru. 


'1G. 


7,000 tons. 


8,500 tons. 


Selandia. 


'12. 


4,900 tons. 


4,900 tons. 


Siam. 


'13. 


6,600 tons. 


8,700 tons. 


Tongking. 


'14. 


6,600 tons. 



Ships and the Sea 

OSTASIATISKE — (Coritd.) 

Falstria. '15. 

Fionia. *14. 

India. '30. 

Java. '21. 

Jutlandia. '34. 

Lalandia. *27. 

Malaya. '21. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls: Black with white band or very light grey. 

Boot-topping : Red. JMasts and Derricks : Cream. Ventilators : Light Buff. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. " China-Japan Line," Copenhagen, Oslo, Gothen- 
burg, Antwerp, Rotterdam, and Hamburg via Suez to Hongkong, Shanghai, Yoko- 
hama, Kobe, Moji, Dalny and Vladivostock. " Bangkok Line," Copenhagen, 
Gothenburg, Oslo, Middlesbro', Hamburg, Schiedam, Antwerp, Southampton, 
La Rochelle via Suez to Colombo, Penang, Port Swettenham, Singapore, and 
Bangkok. " Netherlands-India Line" Copenhagen, Gothenburg, Oslo, Hamburg 
via Suez to Batavia, Samarang, Soerabaya, etc. " West India and North Pacific 
Line," Copenhagen, Gothenburg, Oslo, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Hamburg, Antwerp, 
to St. Thomas, Cristobal, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, Seattle, Vancouver. 
'* South African Line," Copenhagen, Gothenburg, and Oslo, to Capetown, Mossel 
Bay, Algoa Bay, East London, Durban, Delagoa Bay and Beira. " Australia Line," 
Copenhagen, Gothenburg, Oslo, Hamburg and Baltic ports, to Fremantle, Adelaide, 
Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane. " Baltic America Line," Danzig and Copenhagen, 
to Halifax and New York. 



518 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Acajutla. 

Orbita. 

Orduna. 



PACIFIC STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY (British) 
(P.S.N.C.) 
(The Pacific Line.) 
Liverpool. 

Passenger Ship (Motor). 
Reina del Pacifico. '31. 17,000 tons. 
Passenger Ships (Steam). 
'11. 1,200 tons. Oropesa. 

'15. 15,500 tons. Oroya. 

'14. 15,500 tons. Salvador. 

Cargo Vessels (Motor). 
(Most of which carry a limited number of passengers.) 



[200J 



La Paz. 

Lagarto. 
Laguna. 
Lautaro. 

Distinguishing 



'20. 
'17. 
'23. 
'15. 



6,500 tons. 
5,000 tons. 
6,500 tons. 
6,200 tons. 



'20. 




14,000 tons. 


'21. 




12,300 tons. 


'09. 




1,100 tons. 


passengei 
'21. 


cs.) 


6,500 tons. 


'19. 




6,700 tons. 


'19. 




6,700 tons. 


'21. 




6,500 tons. 


Reina " 


which is white. 



Lobos. 
Loreto. 
Loriga. 
Losado. 

Features : — Hulls : Black except 
Boot-topping : Green. Ventilators : White. Inside of Cowls : Green. Masts and 

Derricks : All white in " Reina." Names : South or Central American. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Liverpool to Bermuda, Havana, Cristobal 
(Colon) and West Coast of South America, via France, Spain and Panama Canal. 
Liverpool to East and West Coast of South America via France, Spain and Straits 
of Magellan. Central America to Cristobal, Punta Arenas, San Juan del Sur, Corinto 
Amapala, La Union, La Libertad, Acajutla, San Jose and Champerico. 

519 



Ships and the Sea 



PAQUET, COMPAGNIE DE NAVIGATION (French; 
Marseilles. 

Passenger Ships. 



[i] 



Asni. 


'29. 


2,800 tons. 


Koutoubia. 


'31. 


8,800 tons. 


Azrou. 


'30. 


3,000 tons. 


Le Rhin. 


'20. 


2,500 tons. 


Chella. 


'35. 


9,000 tons. 


Marechal Lyautey 


'24. 


8,300 tons. 


Djenne. 


'31. 


8,800 tons. 


Medie II. 


'22. 


' 5,100 tons. 


Imerethie II. 


'24. 


3,700 tons. 
Cargo 


Oued Sebou II. 

Vessels. 


'25. 


2,400 tons. 


Anfa. 


'03. 


4,400 tons. 


Oued Grou. 


'21. 


800 tons. 


Arcturus. 


'13. 


2,500 tons. 


Oued Mellah. 


'18. 


2,400 tons. 


Bamako (M.V.). 


'30. 


2,400 tons. 


Oued Tiflet. 


'14. 


1,200 tons. 


Oued el Abid. 


'20. 


900 tons. 


Oued-Yquem. 


'20. 


1,400 tons. 


Oued Fes. 


'13. 


2,600 tons. 
Ouergha. 


Oued-Zem. 

'20. 2,000 tons. 


'21. 


1,900 tons. 



Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Most large passenger ships have white, others 
black. Boot-topping : Red. Masts and Derricks : Most large passenger ships have 
all white with centre of foremast black. Others: mast colour with extreme tops 

white. Ventilators : Large black; small white. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Marseilles to North African ports. 
Marseilles to Black Sea ports. 



520 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



PENINSULAR & ORIENTAL STEAM NAVIGATION CO. [22 and 206] 
(P. & O.) (Bbttish) 

London, E.G. 3. 



Passenger Ships. 



Carthage. 


'31. 


14,300 tons. 


N alder a. 




'18. 


16,100 tons. 


Cathay. 


'25. 


15,100 tons. 


Narkunda. 




'20. 


16,600 tons. 


Chitral. 


'25. 


15,100 tons. 


Rajputana. 




'26. 


16,700 tons. 


Comorin. 


'25. 


15,100 tons. 


Ranchi. 




'25. 


16,700 tons. 


Corfu. 


'31. 


14,300 tons. 


Ranpura. 




'25. 


16,700 tons. 


Kaisar-I-Hind. 


'14. 


11,500 tons. 


Rawalpindi. 




'25. 


16,700 tons. 


Maloja. 


'23. 


21,000 tons. 


Strathaird (T.E.V.) 


i. 


'31. 


22,300 tons. 


Moldavia. 


'22. 


16,600 tons. 


Strathmore 




'35. 


24,000 tons. 


Mongolia. 


'23. 


16,600 tons. 


Strathnaver (T.E.V.). 


'31. 


22,300 tons, 


Mooltan. 


'23. 


21,000 tons. 


Viceroy of India(T.E.V.) '29. 


19,700 tons. 






Cargo 


Vessels. 








Alipore. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


Mirzapore. 


'21. 




6,700 tons. 


Jeypore. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


Nagpore. 


'20. 




5,300 tons. 


Kidderpore. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


Peshawur. 


'19. 




7,900 tons. 


Lahore. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


Somali. 


'30. 




6,800 tons. 






Soudan. 


'31. 6,800 tons. 







Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with white band with exception of 
" Straths " which are all white. Boot-topping : Red. Upperworks and Boats : Stone 
colour with exception of "Straths" which have white. Ventilators; Black (Small 

521 



Ships and the Sea 

P. & 0.—(Contd.) 

vents buff); all vents in " Straths" are buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. Crows Nests : 
Often white. Refrigerating Capacity of Fleet : 3,800 cubic feet. Names : Mostly 

Indian or Oriental. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. London and Marseilles to Bombay and 
Karachi. London to Colombo, Madras and Calcutta. London to Australia. London 
and Marseilles to Malta, Ceylon, Straits, China and Japan. Also Mediterranean and 

Northern Cruises. 



PRINCE LINE LTD. (British) 
(Controlled by Furness Withy.) 
London, E.G. 3. 

Passenger Ships (Motor). 



[60] 



Eastern Prince. 


'29. 


10,900 tons. Siamese Prince. 


'29. 


6,600 tons. 


Northern Prince. 


'29. 


10,900 tons. Southern Prince. 
Western Prince. '29. 10,900 tons. 

Cargo Vessels. 


'29. 


10,900 tons. 


Algerian Prince. 


'19. 


3,100 tons. Lancastrian Prince. 


'21. 


3,500 tons. 


Cyprian Prince. 


'19. 


3,100 tons. Persian Prince. 


'18. 


5,700 tons. 


Egyptian Prince. 


'22. 


3,500 tons. Scottish Prince. 


'10. 


2,900 tons. 


Italian Prince. 


'21. 


3,500 tons. Syrian Prince. 
(Rio Cape Line Ltd.) 
Passenger Ships (Motor.) 


'19. 


3,100 tons. 


Chinese Prince. 


'26. 


6,700 tons. Japanese Prince. 


'26. 


6,700 tons, 


Cingalese Prince. 


'29. 


6,600 tons. Javanese Prince. 
Malayan Prince. '26. 6,700 tons. 
522 


'26, 


6,700 tons. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Prince — ( Contd. ) 

Cargo Vessels. 
African Prince. '17. 5,100 tons. Sardinian Prince. '22. 3,500 tons. 

Corsican Prince. '21. 3,500 tons. Sicilian Prince. '22. 3,500 tons. 

Indian Prince. '17. 4,900 tons. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : French grey. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 

Black; small vents, white. Inside of Cowls : Red. Names : All " Princes." 
Services: — "Prince Line." Far East Service and Bound the World Service. New 
York, Halifax, Norfolk Va. and Los Angeles to Japan, China, Philippines, D.E.I, 
and Straits, returning via Colombo and Suez Canal to Boston and New York. 
Brazil and River Plate Service. Middlesbrough, Antwerp, and London to River 
Plate. Boston, Philadelphia and New York to River Plate. New York to Brazil 
South and East African Service. New York to South and East African ports, returning 

to Boston, New York and Philadelphia. 

Mediterranean Service. Manchester, Leith, Tyne, Middlesbrough, Antwerp and 

London to Tunis, Malta, Alexandria, Palestine, Syria and Cyprus, returning to 

Liverpool and Manchester. 

Services: — " Bio Cape Line." Brazil to South African ports. 



ROOSEVELT STEAMSHIP CO., INC. (U.S.A.) [20] 

(United States Lines Co. of Nevada.) 
(" U.S.L.") 



New York. 
" Passenger Ships. 
American Banker. '20. 7,400 tons. 

American Farmer. '20. 7,400 tons. 

523 



Ships and the Sea 



R003KVEI.T 9. Co.— (ConUl.) 






American Importer. 


•20. 


7,600 tons. 


American Merchant. 


'20. 


7,400 tons. 


American Shipper. 


'21. 


7,400 tons. 


American Trader. 


'20. 


7,400 tons. 


American Traveler. 


'20. 


7,000 tons. 


Leviathan. 


'14. 


48,900 tons. 


Manhattan. 


'32. 


24,300 tons. 


President Harding. 


'21. 


13,900 tons. 


President Roosevelt. 


'21. 


13,000 tons. 


Washington. 


'32. 


30,000 tons. 



Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red with white dividing 

line. Ventilators : White. Boot-topping : Red. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. New York to Plymouth, Cherbourg and 
Hamburg. New York to Cherbourg and Southampton. New York to Queenstown, 
Plymouth, Cherbourg and Hamburg. Now York to Plymouth and London. Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, Norfolk and Boston to Dundee, London and Leith. 



Alcantara. 
Almanzora. 



ROYAL MAIL LINES LTD. (British) 
London, E.C.3. 

Passenger Liners. (Steam from Southampton.) 
'26. 22,000 tons. Arlanza. '12. 

'14. 15,600 tons. Asturias. '25. 

Atlantis. '13. 15,100 tons. (Cruising ship.) 



[214] 



14,600 tons. 
22,200 tons. 



524 



Royal Mail — (Contd.) 

Passenger Liners. 
Highland Brigade. '29. 14,100 tons. 

Highland Chieftain. '29. 14,100 tons. 

Highland Princess. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

(Motor from London.) 



Highland Monarch. 
Highland Patriot. 
'30. 14,100 tons. 



'28. 
'32. 



14,100 tons. 
14,100 tons. 



Cargo Vessels. 

Some of which carry passengers.) 

(Motor.) 



Araby. 




'23. 


4,900 tons. 




Lochgoil. 


'24. 


9,500 tons. 


Brittany. 




'28. 


4,800 tons. 




Lochmonar. '24. 


9,500 tons. 


Gascony. 




'25. 


4,700 tons. 




Lochkatrine. '24. 


9,500 tons* 








(Steam 









Culebra. 




'19. 


3,000 tons. 




Natia. 


'20. 


8,700 ton3. 


Dart. 




'12. 


1,100 tons. 




Navasota. 


'17. 


8,700 tons. 


(Engines 


aft.) 








Nebraska. 


'20. 


8,300 tons. 


Devon. 




'14. 


1,400 tons. 




Nela. 


'16. 


7,200 tons. 


(Engines 


aft.) 








Nictheroy. 


'20. 


8,300 tons. 


Lombardy. 




'21. 


3,400 tons. 




Nogoya. 


'20. 


8,400 tons. 


Nagara. 




'19. 


8,700 tons. 




Sabor. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


Nalon. 




'15. 


7,200 tons. 




Sambre. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 


Narenta. 




'19. 


8,300 tons. 




Sarthe. 


'20. 


5,300 tons. 


Nariva. 




'20. 


8,700 tons. 




Siris. 


'19. 


5,300 tons. 








Somme. 


'19. 5,300 tons. 




Distinguishing 


Features: — Hulls : Black 


; except " 


Atlantis " 


which has white 


with thin 


orange 


band, 


. Boot-topping : 


Pink; except 


" Atlantis 


" which has red. 


Ventilators 


: White. Inside of Cowls : 3 


Buff. 


Names : Rivers commencing in " S "; 










525 









Ships and the Sea 

Royal Mail — (Could.) 

French and Italian Provinces with suflix, " ny "; prefix, "Highland" (Formerly 
Nelson Line). Spanish words commencing in " A," " Lochs " and S. American 

names. 
Services: — Passenger, Mail and Cargo. Southampton to Brazil, Uruguay and 
Argentina via Cherbourg, Spain, Portugal and Madeira. Liverpool to Brazil, Uruguay 
and Argentine via France, Spain and Portugal. London to Cristobal and Central 
American, Atlantic and Pacific ports. London to Bermuda, Nassau, Jamaica, Haiti, 
Curacao, Puerto-Columbia, Cartagena and Cristobal. London to Rio de Janeiro, 
Santos, Montevideo and Buenos Ayres via Boulogne, Lisbon, Las Palmas, Santos, 
Montevideo and Buenos Aires via Boulogne, Vigo, Lisbon, Las Palmas and Tenerife. 
Mediterranean and Northern Cruises. 



RUYS, WM. & ZONEN. (Dutch) [3] 

(ROTTERDAMSCHE LLOYD.) 

(Rotterdam Lloyd Line.) 
("R.L.") 

Rotterdam. 

Passenger Ships (Motor). 
Baloeran. % '29. 17,000 tons. Indrapoera. '25. 10,800 tons. 

Deinpo. '30. 17,000 tons. Sibajak. '27. 12,100 tons. 



Passenger Ship (Steam). 
Slamat. '24. 11,600 tons. 

526 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



Buys — (Oontd.) 




Cabgo 


Vessels. 








(Most of which have passenger accommodation.) 








(Motor). 






Bengalen. 


'32. 


6,900 tons. 


Kota Inten. 


'27. 


7,200 tons. 


Djambi. 


'19/33. 


7,000 tons. 


Kota-Nopan. 


'31. 


7,400 tons. 


Kedoe. 


'21. 


3,700 tons. 


Kota Pinang. 


'31. 


7,300 tons. 


Kota Ageong. 


'30. 


7,300 tons. 


Kota-Radja. 


'27. 


7,200 tons. 


Kota Baroe. 


'29. 


7,200 tons. 


Kota Tjandi. 


'30. 


7,300 tons. 


Kota Gede. 


'28. 


7,200 tons. 


Modjokerto. 


'22/33. 


7,100 tons. 




Tosari. 


'19. 7,100 tons. 








Cabgo Vessels (Steam). 






Blitar. 


'23. 


7,100 tons. 


Palembang. 


'21. 


7,100 tons. 


Bondowoso. 


'19. 


5,100 tons. 


Siantar. 


'21. 


8,400 tons. 


Buitenzorg. 


'16. 


7,100 tons. 


Sitebondo. 


'16. 


7,100 tons. 


Garoet. 


'17. 


7,100 tons. 


Soekaboemi. 


'23. 


7,100 tons. 


Kertosono. 


'23. 


7,200 tons. 


Tapanoeli. 


'24. 


7,000 tons. 



Distinguishing Featubes : — Hulls: Dove grey. Boot-topping: White. Ventilators: 
Black. Inside of Cowls : Black. Names : Netherlands East Indies place names. 
Sebvices: — Mail. Rotterdam to Southampton, Lisbon, Tangiers, Gibraltar, 
Marseilles, Port Said, Suez, Colombo, Sabang, Belawan, Singapore, Batavia and 
Sourabaya. Fast Cargo : Rotterdam, Hamburg, Bremen, to Netherlands East 

Indies, returning to same ports and to Marseilles and London. 
Cargo. Antwerp, London, Genoa, to Netherlands East Indies, returning to those 
ports and to Trieste, Barcelona, Havre and Liverpool. Services in conjunction 
with British " Silver Line " from Java to New York, San Francisco, Rangoon and 

Calcutta. 
527 



Ships and the Sea 



SHAW, SAVILL & ALBION COMPANY LTD. (British) 
(S.S. & A.) 
London, E.C.3. 



[245] 



Passenger Ships. 

Akaroa. '14/32. 15,100 tons. Mataroa. '22. 12,400 tons. 

Ceramic. '13. 18,500 tons. Tainui. '08. 10,000 tons. 

Ionic. '02. 12,400 tons. Tamaroa. '22. 12,400 tons. 

Themistocles. '11. 11,200 tons. 



Cargo Vessels. 
(Most having passenger accommodation.) 

(Motor.) 
Coptic. '28. 8,300 tons. Waipawa. '34. 

Karamea. '28. 8,300 tons. Wairanga. '35. 

Taranaki. '28. 8,300 tons. Waiwera. '34. 

Zealandic. '28. 8,300 tons. 



10,800 tons. 
10,800 tons. 
10,800 tons. 



(Steam.) 



Fordsdale. 


'24. 


10,000 tons. 


Matakana. 


'21. 


8,000 tons. 


Kumara. 


'19. 


8,000 tons. 


Otira. 


'19. 


8,000 tons. 


Mahana. 


'17. 


8,700 tons. 


Pakeha. 


'10. 


8,000 tons. 


Mania. 


'17. 


8,000 tons. 


Raranga. 


'16. 


8,000 tons. 


Maimoa. 


'20. 


8,000 tons. 


Tairoa. 


• '20. 


8,000 tons. 


Mamari. 


'11. 


7,900 tons. 


Waimana. 


'11. 


7,900 tons. 



528 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Shaw, Savill — (Contd.) 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black with white band. Boot-topping : Red. 
Ventilators : White (Buff in some cargo ships). Inside of Cowls : White (Buff in 
some cargo ships). Names : Mostly Maori names; " Themistocles " was taken over 

from the Aberdeen Line. 
Ships are very similar to White Star Liners in appearance, but have white band 
round hull instead of latter's gold, and do not have white painted crows' nests. The 
derrick posts are usually three abreast. 



Sebvices:- 



-Passenger and Cargo. London to all New Zealand and Australian ports 
via Panama Canal. 



SOUTHERN PACIFIC S.S. LINES. (U.S.A.) 
(Atlantic S.S. Lines.) 
New York. 



[32] 



El Isleo. 
El Lago. 
El Mundo. 
El Occidente. 
El Oceano. 
El Oriente. 
Black. Boot-topping , 
White. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. New York to New Orleans. New York, New 
Orleans, Galveston and Houston to Central America, Gulf ports, California, Hawaiian 
Islands, Philippines, China, Japan and Australia. 

S 529 



Dixie. 


'27. 


8,200 tons. 


El Almiiante. 


'17. 


5,200 tons. 


El Capitan. 


'17. 


5,200 tons. 


El Coston. 


'24. 


7,300 tons. 


El Dia. 


'01. 


4,500 tons. 


El Estero. 


'20. 


4,200 tons. 


Distinguishing 


Features 


: — Hulls : 



'20. 


4,200 tons. 


'20. 


4,200 tons. 


'10. 


6,000 tons. 


'10. 


6,000 tons. 


'25. 


6,800 tons. 


'10. 


6,000 tons. 


i ; Red. 


Ventilators : 



Ships and the Sea 
STANDARD FRUIT & S.S. CORP. (U.S.A.) 



[12] 



(Vaccaro 


Line.) 






New Orleans, La. 






4,100 tons. 




Cefalu. 


'30. 


5,200 tons. 


4,200 tons. 




Ceiba. 


'11. 


1,700 tons. 


4,100 tons. 




Contessa. 


'30. 


5,200 tons. 






Gatun. 


'25. 


3,400 tons. 


Lnada. 


'25. 


3,300 tons. 







Amapala. '24. 

Atlantida. '24. 

Caloria. '06. 

(Tanker; engines aft.) 



(Ceiba Navigation Co.) 

Motor Vessels. 
Masaya. '20. 1,200 tons. Sama. '22. 600 tons. 

Matagalpa. '20. 1,200 tons. Teapa. '19. 1,200 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : White. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 

White. Inside of Cowls : Red. Masts and Derricks : Cream. 
Services : — Passenger, Fruit and General Cargo. New Orleans to Spanish Honduras, 
Havana, Panama and Nicaragua. 



Gripsholm. 



SVENSKA AMERIKA LINIEN. (Swedish) [10] 

(Swedish America Line.) 
(Axel Jonsson.) 
Gothenburg. 

Passenger Ships (Motor). 
'25. 17,500 tons. Kungsholm. '28. 20,200 tons. 

530 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Svenska Amerika — (Contd.) 

Passenger Ships (Steam). 
Drottningholm. '05. 11,100 tons. Kastelholm. '28. 900 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : White. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 
Buff. Inside of Cowls : Blue. Masts and Derricks : Cream. Names : AH have 

suffix " Holm." 
Services : — Passenger and Cargo. Gottenburg to New York and Halifax. 



SVENSKA LLOYD, REDERIAKTIEBOLAGET. (Swedish) [15 and 4a] 







(Swedish Lloyd.) 










Gothenburg. 










Passenger Ships. 






Britannia. 


'29. 


4,200 tons. 


Patricia. 


'26. 


3,900 tons. 


Northumbria. 


'98. 


1,400 tons. 
Cargo 


Sueocia. 

Vessels. 


'29. 


4,200 tons. 




(Most of which have passenger accommodation.) 








(Motor.) 






Gdynia. 


'34. 


1,600 tons. 
Sieilia '34. 


Scania. 
1,600 tons. 


'34. 


1,600 tons. 






Cargo Vessels (Steam). 






Albania. 


'03. 


1,200 tons. 


Canadia. 


'20. 


1,400 tons. 


Algeria. 


'21. 


2,200 tons. 


Catalonia. 


'31. 


1,500 tons. 


Andalusia. 


'16. 


1,800 tons. 


Dahlia. 


'07. 


1,100 tons. 


Bernicia. 


'20. 


2,100 tons. 


Frisia. 


'09. 


1,100 tons. 


Bothnia. 


'18. 


1,300 tons. 


Gallia. 


'26. 


1,400 tons. 


Calabria. 


'16. 


1,800 tons. 


Gothia. 


'16. 


1,800 tons. 


Caledonia. 


'13. 


1,700 tons. 


(Four 


masts.) 





531 



BVBH8KA IiLOTD— ( Vontd.) 



Ships and the Sea 



Graecia. 


'11. 


Gwalia. 


'07. 


Hibernia. 


'20. 


Hispania. 


'12. 


Iberia. 


'03. 


Ingeborg. 


'08. 


Ivernia. 


'21. 



3,000 tons. 


Liguria. 


'14. 


1,800 tons. 


1,300 tons. 


Mansuria. 


'12. 


1,100 tons. 


1,800 tons. 


Masilia. 


'17. 


1,600 tons. 


1,300 tons. 


Ring. 


'88. 


1,200 tons. 


1,400 tons. 


Scandinavia. 


'99. 


1,200 tons. 


1,200 tons. 


Scotia. 


'18. 


1,800 tons. 


2,100 tons. 


Valencia. 


'25. 


. 2,200 tons. 


: — Hulls : Li] 


Ejht prey except 


" Bothnia," 


11 Britannia," 



" Dahlia," " Frisia," " Gothia," " Gwalia," " Ingeborg," " Northumbria," 
M Patricia," M Ring " and M Suecia," which have black. Boot-topping : Red. 
Ventilators : White. Inside of Cowls : Blue. Masts and Derricks : Cream. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Gothenburg to Tilbury. Gothenburg to New- 
castle. Gothenburg to Leith. Cargo. Gothenburg to Manchester, Liverpool, 
Hamburg, Bordeaux and La Pallice. Sweden to Portugal and the Mediterranean. 
Sweden to Nantes and Northern Spain. Fruit services Sicily to Gdynia. 



SVENSKA 0STASIATISKE KOMPANIET, AKTIEBOLAGET. (Swedish) [11] 
(Swedish East Asiatic Company Ltd.) 







Gothenburg. 










Motor Vessels. 






Agra. 


'25. 


4,600 tons. 


Nagara. 


'29. 


6,500 tons. 


Canton. 


'22. 


5,800 tons. 


Nanking. 


•'24. 


5,900 tons, 


(Three Masts.) 






Peiping. 


'31. 


6,400 tons. 


Delhi. 


'25. 


4,600 tons. 


Shantung. 


'29. 


6,500 tons. 


Formosa. 


'21. 


7,000 tons. 


Tamara. 


'31. 


6,400 tons. 



532 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

SVENSKA 03TASIATISKE — (Contd.) 

Steam Ships. 



Benares. '20. 

Ceylon. '11. 

Japan. '11. 

Distinguishing Features :- 

Cream. Inside of Cowls : Blue. Masts and Derricks : Cream. 

Services : — Cargo with Passenger Accommodation. Scandinavia to British India and 

Ceylon. Scandinavia to Red Sea, Straits, Philippines, China and Japan. 



5,800 tons. Nippon. '09. 

5,200 tons. Siirto. '21. 

5,200 tons. Sumatra. '14. 

■Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red. 



4,000 tons. 

800 tons. 

5,400 tons. 

Ventilators : 



"TIRRENIA." (Italian) [21] 

(Combined Fleets of " Florio " S.A. di Nav. and Compagnia Italian a 
Transatlantica " C.I.T.R.A."). 

(Most ships have passenger accommodation.) 

Motor Vessels. 

Citta di Marsala. 
Citta di Messina. 
Citta di Napoli. 
Citta di Palermo. 
Citta di Savona. 
Citta di Spezia. 
Citta di Trapani. 
Citta di Tunisi. 
'29. 3,500 tons. 

533 



Arborea. 


'29. 


5,000 tons. 


Attilio Deffenu. 


'29. 


-3,500 tons. 


Caralis. 


'28. 


3,500 tons. 


Citta di Agrigento. 


'30. 


2,500 tons. 


Citta di Alessandria. 


'30. 


2,500 tons. 


Citta di Bastia. 


'30. 


2,500 tons. 


Citta di Genova. 


'30. 


5,400 tons. 


Citta di Livorno. 


'30. 


2,500 tons. 



'29. 


2,500 tons. 


'29. 


2,500 tons, 


'29. 


5,400 tons. 


'30. 


5,400 tons, 


'30. 


2,500 tons. 


'29. 


2,500 tons. 


'29. 


2,500 tons 


'29. 


5,400 tons. 



Olbia. 



Ships and the Sea 



TlRREXIA— (Contd.) 




Argentina. 


'07. 


Bengasi. 


'1L\ 


Caffaro. 


»24. 


Cagliari. 


'07. 


Campidano. 


'99. 


Casaregis. 


'24. 


Citta di Bengasi. 


'17. 


Citta di Catania. 


'10. 


Citta di Trieste. 


'15. 


Citta di Tripoli. 


'15. 


Derna. 


'12. 



18. 

12. 
25. 
98. 
06. 



Steam 
5,400 tons. 
1,700 tons. 
(5,500 tons. 
2,300 tons. 
1,300 tons. 
6,500 tons. 
2,800 tons. 
3,400 tons. 
4,700 tons. 
3,000 tons. 
1,800 tons. 
Tripolitania. 
Distinguishing Features: — Hulls: Black except "Francesco 
" Giuseppe Mazzini " which are light grey. Boot-topping : 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Italian ports to Palermo, Tunis, Syracuse, 
Malta, Tripoli, Sfax, Bengasi, Tobruk. Genoa to Massowa and Zanzibar. Genoa 
to Palermo, Tunis, Malta, Tripoli, Bengasi and Alexandria. 



Suits. 

Eritrea. 

Firenza. 

Francesco Crispi 

Gallipoli. 

Garibaldi. 

Giuseppe Mazzini. '26. 

Massaua. '13. 

Milano 

Montenegro. '98. 

Premier. '22. 

Somalia. '18. 

'18. 2,700 tons. 



2,600 tons. 
4,000 tons. 
7,500 tons. 
1,000 tons. 
5,300 tons. 
7,050 tons. 
1,500 tons. 

2,600 tons. 
3,500 tons. 
2,700 tons. 



Crispi " 
Red. 



and 



TOYO KISEN KABUSHIKI KAISHA. (Japanese) 
( Oriental Steamship Co. Ltd.) 
Tokio. 



[8] 







Motor Vessels. 






Getsuyo Maru. 


'34. 


7,500 tons. Soyo Maru. 


'31. 


6,000 tons. 


Nichiyo Maru. 


'34. 


7,500 tons. Tenyu Maru. 


'34. 


7,500 tons. 


Ryoyo Maru. 


'31. 


6,000 tons. Uyo Maru. 
534 


'33. 


7,500 tons, 



Toyo — (Contd.) 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Steam Ships. 



5,500 tons. 


Juyo Maru. 


'26. 


5,500 tons. 


5,500 tons. 


Koyo Maru. 


'19. 


5,500 tons. 


5,500 tons. 


Reiyo Maru. 


'20. 


5,400 tons, 


5,400 tons. 


Woyo Maru. 


'21. 


5,500 tons, 



Biyo Maru. '21. 

Choyo Maru. '19. 

Fukuyo Maru. '20. 
Hayo Maru. '21. 

Distinguishing Features : — Hulls : Black with white band. Boot-topping : Red. 
Ventilators : Reddish yellow. Inside of Cowls : White. Masts and Derricks : 

Reddish brown. 
Services : — Passenger and Cargo. Orient to New York. General Tramping. 



TRANSATLANTIC, REDERI A/B. (Swedish) 
( Transatlantic S.S. Co. Ltd.) 
(G. Carlsson.) 
Gothenburg. 



[13] 







Motor 


Vessels. 






Bullaren. 


'18. 


5,700 tons. 


Kaaparen. 


'30. 


3,200 tons. 


Eknaren. 


'22. 


5,200 tons. 


Klipparen. 


'35. 


3,600 tons. 


Hallaren. 


'29. 


2,700 tons. 


Kolsnaren. 


'23. 


2,500 tons. 


Hammaren. 


'30. 


3,200 tons. 


Malar en. 


'27. 


2,700 tons. 


Hjelmaren. 


'22. 


2,500 tons. 


Tisnaren. 


'18. 


5,700 tons. 


Innaren. 


'24. 


3,600 tons. 


Yngaren. 


'21. 


5,200 tons. 



535 



Tr ax 9 Atlantic— ( Contd. ) 


Ships and the Sea 

Steam Ships. 






Anten. '20. 
Boren. '21. 
Faxen. '19. 
Nordic. '14. 


5,100 tons. Roxen. 
4,500 tons. Sydic. 
4,100 tons. Tolken. 
4,300 tons. Unden. 


'21. 
'14. 
'22. 

'20. 


4,500 tons. 
4,300 tons. 
4,500 tons. 
4,300 tons. 



Mirrabooka. 



Balaklava. 



(Rederi A/B Transpacific.) 

Motor Vessels. 
5,700 tons. Parrakoola. 



'28. 



'29. 



(Rederi A/B Tra^tsmark.) 
Tankers (with engines aft). 
8,000 tons. Cleopatra. '33. 

Kalmia. '31. 8,200 tons. 



5,800 tons. 

[1] 

6,500 tons. 



(Rederi A/B Transoil.) 
Nike. '28. 9,800 tons. Pegasus. '30. 9,600 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Silver grey. Boot-topping : Red. Ventil- 
ators : White. Inside of Cowls : Red. Masts and Derricks : Cream. 
Services: — Cargo with Limited Passenger Accommodation. Sweden, Norway, 
Denmark and Finland to South Africa, Australia and East Coast of North America. 
West Coast of North America to Australia. South Africa to Australia. Petroleum 

trade. 



536 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



TRANSATLANTIQUE, COMPAGNIE GENERALE. (Fbench) 
(C. G. T.) 

(The French Line.) 

Paris. 



[12] 







Passenger 


Ships. 






Champlain. 


'31. 


28,900 tons. 


Lamoriciere. 


'21. 


4,700 tons, 


Colombie. 


'31. 


13,400 tons. 


Mexique. 


'15. 


12,000 tons. 


Cuba. 


'23. 


11,200 tons. 


Normandie. 






De Grasse. 


'24. 


18,400 tons. 


(T.E.V.) 


'35. 


82,800 tons. 


De la Salle.. 


'21. 


8,400 tons. 


Paris. 


'21. 


34,600 tons. 


Due d'Aumale. 


'12. 


4,500 tons. 


Pellerin de 






Flandre. 


'14. 


8,500 tons. 


Latouche. 


'13. 


8,200 tons. 


Floride. 


'21. 


7,000 tons. 


President Dal 






Guadeloupe. 


'08. 


10,500 tons. 


Piaz. 


'29. 


4,900 tons. 


He de France. 


'26. 


43,200 tons. 


Ville d'Alger. 


'35. 


10,200 tons. 


Lafayette (M.V.). 


'29. 


25,200 tons. 


Ville d'Oran. 


'36. 


10,200 tons. 






Cargo Vessels. 






Alabama. 


'31. 


5,600 tons. 


Carbet. 


'20. 


3,700 tons. 


Alaska. 


'22. 


5,40.0 tons. 


Carimare. 


'20. 


4,500 tons. 


Antilles. 


'12. 


2,100 tons. 


Indiana. 


'15. 


5,800 tons. 


Arica. 


'21. 


5,400 tons. 


Kentucky. 


'21. 


6,800 tons. 


Arizona. 


'25. 


5,400 tons. 


Louisiane. 


'21. 


6,900 tons. 


Cantal. 


'16. 


3,100 tons. 
537 


(Twin masts). 











Ships and the Sea 






Transatlantique— {Contd.) 










Marrakech. 


'13. 


6,200 tons. 


San Antonio. 


'30. 


6,000 tons. 


Meknes. 


'13. 


0,100 tons. 


San Diego. 


'30. 


6,000 tons . 


Michigan. 


'20. 


(5,400 tons. 


San Francisco. 


'30. 


6,000 tons. 


Minotaure. 


'20. 


900 tons. 


San Jose. 


'30. 


6,000 tons. 


Miranda. 


'20. 


1,100 tons. 


San Mateo. 


'31. 


5,900 tons. 


Missouri. 


'20. 


6,800 tons. 


San Pedro. 


'31. 


5,900 tons. 


Nevada. 


'18. 


5,700 tuns. 


Washington 






Oregon (M.V.) 


'29. 


7,700 tons. 


(M.V.) 


'29. 


7,700 tons. 


Saint Andre. 


'12. 


5,300 tons. 


Winnipeg. 


'18. 


8,400 tons. 


Saint Domingue. 


'11. 


3,100 tons. 


Wisconsin. 


'29. 


8,100 tons. 




Wyoming. '30. 


8,100 tons. 








(COMPAGNIE GeNERALE d' 


'Armement Maritimes.) 




Allier. 


'32. 


4,300 tons. 


Grande-Terre. 


'32. 


1,900 tons. 


Ardeche. 


'31. 


4,200 tons. 


Petite Terre. 


'30. 


1,600 tons. 


Aveyron. 


'23. 


4,800 tons. 


Saint Clair. 


'29. 


3,800 tons. 


Basse Terre. 


'30. 


1,600 tons. 


Saint Tropez. 


'19. 


2,300 tons. 



Sainte Maxime. '11. 4,200 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls: Black except '* Colombie " and "Cuba" 
which have white. Boot-topping : Red except above two ships which have green. 

Ventilators : White. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Havre via Plymouth to New York. Bor- 
deaux via Vigo and Halifax to New York. Havre to Cuba and Mexico. Havre to 
Gdynia. Havre to Havana, Cuba, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and Pacific ports. 
Marseilles to Morocco, Algeria and North African ports. 



538 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

TRANSPORTS MARITIMES A VAPEUR, SOCIETE GENERALE DE 

Marseilles. 

Passenger Ships. 



[10] 



Alsina. 


■21. 


8,400 tons. 


Campana. 


'29. 


10,800 tons. 


Florida. 


'26. 


9,300 tons. 


Mendoza. 


'20. 


8,200 tons. 


Sidi Bel Abbes. 


'29. 


4,400 tons. 


Sidi Brahim. 


'10. 


2,400 tons. 


Sidi Mabrouk. 


'06. 


3,900 tons. 



(Operated on behalf of French Government.) 
Gouverneur General 
Laiieriere. '23. 3,500 tons. 





Cargo 


Vessels. 




Capitaine Paul 










Le merle. 




'21. 




4,900 tons. 


Mont Agel. 




'20. 




4,600 tons. 


Mont Everest. 




'18. 




5,100 tons. 


Mont Viso. 




'21. 




4,500 tons. 


Sidi-Aissa. 




'27. 




2,600 tons. 


Sidi Okba. 




'29. 




2,800 tons. 


(COMPAGNIE DE 


Navigation 


France - Ameriqtje . ) 


Guaruja. 




'21. 




4,300 tons. 


Ipanema. 




'21. 
539 




4,300 tons. 



[3] 



* Ships and the Sea 

Transports Maritimes — (Conld.) 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red. Masts and 

Derricks : Grey. Ventilators : White. Inside of Cowls : Red. 

Services: — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Marseilles to Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante, 

Almeria. Dakar, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Montevideo, Buenos Aires. Marseilles 

to Spain, Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Rosario. Cargo only. Same as above; also, 

Marseilles and Spain to New Orleans. Marseilles to North African ports. 



TRASATLANTICA, COMPAfflA. (Spanish) 
Barcelona. 



[i] 



Antonio Lopez. 


'91. 


6,000 tons. 


Manuel Arnus. 


'23. 


7,600 tons. 


Argentina. 


'13. 


10,137 tons. 


Manuel Calvo. 


'92. 


5,600 tons. 


Buenos Aires. 


'87. 


5,200 tons. 


(3 masts.) 






Cristobal Colon. 


'23. 


10,800 tons. 


Marques de 






Habana. 


'23. 


10,600 tons. 


Comillas. 


'28. 


9,900 tons. 


Juan Sebastian 






Montevideo. 


'89. 


5,200 tons. 


Elcano. 


'28. 


10,000 tons. 


(3 masts.) 






Magallanes. 


'28. 


9,700 tons. 


Uruguay. 


'13. 


10,300 tons. 



Distinguishing Features: — Hulls: Black. Boot-topping: Red. Ventilators: Black. 

Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Services: — Passenger, Mail and Cargo. Spanish ports to Portugal and South 
American ports. Spanish ports to New York and Cuba. Spanish ports to Canary 
Islands and Central American ports. Spanish ports to West Coast of South America. 



540 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



TRASMEDITERRANEA, COMPAfflA.* (Spanish) [11] 

Barcelona. 







Passenger Ships (Motor). 






Ciudad de Algeciras. 


'27. 


800 tons. 


Ciudad de Malaga. 


'31. 


1,600 tons. 


Ciudad de Alicante. 


'30. 


2,400 tons. 


Ciudad de Palma. 


'30. 


4,000 tons. 


Ciudad de Barcelona. 


'29. 


4,000 tons. 


Ciudad de Se villa. 


'27. 


6,300 tons. 


Ciudad de Cadiz. 


'29. 


4,600 tons. 


Ciudad de Tarragona. 


'33. 


1,600 tons. 


Ciudad de Ceuta. 


'28. 


900 tons. 


Ciudad de Valencia. 


'30. 


2,500 tons. 


Ciudad de Ibiza. 


'32. 


2,000 tons. 


Domine. 


'36. 


6,900 tons. 


Ciudad de Man on. 


'30. 


1,600 tons. 
Passenger ! 


Fernando Poo. 

Ships (Steam). 


'34. 


6,900 tons. 


Ciudad de Melilla. 


'07. 


1,200 tons. 


Isla de Teneriffe. 


'21. 


5,100 tons. 


Isla de Gran Canaria. 


'21. 


5,100 tons. 
Cargo 


Legazpi. 

Vessels. 


'04. 


4,300 tons. 


Alhambra. 


'08. 


1,700 tons. 


Rey Jaime I. 


'11. 


2,300 tons. 


Aragon. 


'02. 


1,900 tons. 


Rey Jaime II. 


'06. 


1,400 tons. 


Capitan Segarra. 


'18. 


2,300 tons. 


Rio Francoli. 


'09. 


2,300 tons. 


Escolano. 


'19. 


3,100 tons. 


Rio Mino. 


'15. 


2,900 tons. 


Generalise. 


'08. 


3,400 tons. 


Rio Navia. 


'15. 


2,900 tons. 


Jacinto Verdaguer. 


'00. 


1,600 tons. 


Rio Segre. 


'21. 


2,700 tons. 


Mallorca. 


'14. 


2,200 tons. 


Rio Tajo. 


'17. 


3,400 tons. 


Navarra. 


'08. 


1,700 tons. 


Romeu. 


'18. 


3,100 tons. 


Plus Ultra. 


'28. 


4,300 tons. 


Torras y Bages. 


'02. 


1,300 tons. 


Poeta Arolas. 


'19. 


3,300 tons. 


Villa de Madrid (M.V.)'31. 


6,900 tons. 



541 



Ships and the Sea 

Trasmediterranea — (Conld.) 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Passenger ships white, others black. Boot- 
topping : Red. 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Barcelona to the Canary Islands. Barcelona 
to the Balearic Islands and other Spanish ports. 

TYNE-TEES STEAM SHIPPING CO. LTD. (British) [63] 
Newcastle- on -Tyne. 
Passenger Ship. 



Dunstanburgh. 
Gateshead. 

(3 masts.) 

Akeld. 

(3 masts.) 
Alnnick (M.V.) 
Bamburgh. 
Beal (M.V.). 
Biltno. 

Distinguishing 
Red. Ventilators 
Services : 



'12. 
'17. 



'22. 



'14. 
'36. 
'20. 



New Londoner. '12. 1,400 tons. 

Cargo Vessels. 
1,100 tons. Lindisfarne. '25. 

700 tons. Middlesbro'. '24. 

Newminster. '25. 
Cargo Vessels (with engines aft). 

600 tons. Crag. (3 masts.) '03. 

Cragside. '35. 



600 tons, 
tons. 
700 tons. 
Thornaby. 



Craster. '35. 

Glen. (M.V.) '35. 

Lowick. '09. 

'35. 1,100 tons. 



1,000 tons. 
1,000 tons. 
1,000 tons. 

500 tons. 
500 tons. 

800 tons. 

tons. 

600 tons. 



Features: — Hulls : Black (at one time grey). Boot-topping : 
Black. Inside of Cowls : Red. Masts and Derricks : Cream. 
er and Cargo. Newcastle to London, Antwerp, Rotterdam, 
Ghent and Terneuzen. 
542 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



UNION-CASTLE MAIL STEAMSHIP COMPANY LTD., THE (British) [155] 

(U.C.) 

London, E.C.3. 

Mail Vessels from Southampton 

Motor. 
Athlone Castle. '36. 25,500 tons. Stirling Castle. 

Carnarvon Castle. '26. 20,100 tons. Warwick Castle. 

Winchester Castle. '30. 20,100 tons. 



'36. 
'30. 



* Armadale Castle. 
Arundel Castle. 
Balmoral Castle. 



Steam. 
'03. 13,000 tons. Edinburgh Castle. '10. 

'21. 19,000 tons. *Kenilworth Castle. '04. 

'10. 13,400 tons. Windsor Castle. '22. 

* In reserve 



25,500 tons. 
20,400 tons. 



13,300 tons 
13,000 tons. 
19,000 tons. 



Intermediate Passenger Vessels from London. 







Motor. 






Dunbar Castle. 


'30. 


10,000 tons. Dunvegan Castle. 


'36. 


15,000 tons 


Dunnottar Castle. 


'36. 


15,000 tons. Llangibby Castle. 

Steam. 


'29. 


12,000 tons 


Dunluce Castle. 


'04. 


8,100 tons. Grantully Castle. 


'09. 


7,600 tons, 


Durham Castle. 


'04. 


8,200 tons. Llandaff Castle. 


'26. 


10,800 tons, 


Garth Castle. 


'10. 


7,700 tons. Llandovery Castle. 


'25. 


10,600 tons. 


Gloucester Castle. 


'11. 


8,000 tons. Llanstephan Castle. 
543 


'14. 


11,300 tons, 



Ships and the Sea 

Union-Castle — (Co)Ud. ) 

Cargo Vessels. 

Dromore Castle. '19. 5,200 tons. 

Dundrum Castle. '19. 5,300 tons. 

Roslin Castle (M.V.). '35. 7,000 tons. 

Rothesay Castle 

(M.V.). '35. 7,000 tons. 

Sandgate Castle. '22. 7,600 tons. 

Sandown Castle. '21. 7,600 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Lavender-grey (some cargo ships have black). 
Boot-topping : Reddish brown. Ventilators : White. Inside of Cowls : Red. 
Names : All " Castles." " Saxon " (broken up 1935) was last of old Union Co., 
whose vessels used to have plain yellow funnels. The names of all ships are painted 

very distinctly in yellow, outlined in black. 
Services: — Mail. Southampton to Madeira, Capetown, Port Elizabeth, East 
London and Durban (calling at Mossel Bay homewards on alternate weeks). Inter- 
mediate : — London and Plymouth to Las Palmas, Teneriffe, Ascension, St. Helena, 
Lobito, Capetown, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban, Lourenco Marques and 

Beira, returning by East Coast route. 
East African : — London to Gibraltar, Tangier, Marseilles, Palma, Genoa, Port Said, 
Suez, East African ports, connecting with mail vessels at Durban and returning by 

West Coast route. 
Cargo : — New York to South and East Africa and Mauritius. Glasgow to the Cape 

(direct). 



544 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

UNION STEAM SHIP COMPANY OF NEW ZEALAND LTD. 

(U.S.N.Z.) (British) [166 & 168] 

(Canadian Australasian Line Ltd.) 
(Union Royal Mail Line.) 
Wellington, New Zealand. 



Passenger Ship (Motor). 

Aorangi. '24. 17,500 tons. 

Passenger Ships (Steam). 



(Canadian Australasian.) 



Awatea. '36. 14,000 tons. Monowai. '26. 10,900 tons. 

Makura. '08. 8,100 tons. Niagara. '13. 13,400 tons. 

Maori. , '07. 3,500 tons. (Canadian Australasian. ) 

Marama. '07. 6,500 tons. Rangatira 

(T.E.V.). '31. 6,200 tons. 

Maunganui. '11. 7,500 tons. Wahine. '13. 4,400 tons. 

Wainui. '30. 1,600 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Green with gold band. Boot-topping : Red. 
Ventilators : White (small vents brown). Inside of CovjIs : Red. Names : Maori 

names. 







Cargo Vessels (Motor). 






Hauraki. 


'22. 


7,100 tons. Limerick. 


'25. 


8,700 tons. 


Kauri. 


'36. 


2,400 tons. Matua. 


'36. 


3,900 tons 



545 



Union S.S. Co.— (Conid.) 



Ships and the^Sea 







Cabgo Vessels 


(Steam). 






Kaikorai. 


'18. 


3,200 tons. 


Kowhai. 


'10. 


800 tons. 


Kaimai. 


'24. 


1,400 tons. 


Narbada. 


'15. 


9,000 tons. 


Kaimiro. 


'29. 


2,600 tons. 


Omana. 


'15. 


2,600 tons. 


Kairanga. 


'22. 


2,800 tons. 


Opihi. 


'86. 


1,100 tons. 


Kaiwarra. 


'19. 


3,100 tens. 


Poolta. 


'21. 


1,700 tons. 


Kakariki. 


'26. 


900 tons. 


Talune. 


'30. 


2,700 tons. 


Kalingo. 


»27 


2,000 tons. 


Waikouaiti. 


'14. 


3,900 tons. 


Eanna. 


'11. 


1,900 tons. 


Waimarino. 


'30. 


3,100 tons. 


Karepo. 


'29. 


2,600 tons. 


Waimea. 


'09. 


500 tons. 


Karetu. 


'24. 


3,200 tons. 


Waiotapu. 


'13. 


6,000 tons. 


Kartigi. 


'25. 


2,300 tons. 


Waipahi. 


'25. 


1,800 tons. 


Karu (M.V.). 


'35. 


1,100 tons. 


Waipiata. 


'26. 


2,800 tons. 


Kekerangu. 


'19. 


3,100 tons. 


Wairuna. 


'14. 


5,800 tons. 


Kini. 


'30. 


1,400 tons. 


Waitaki. 


'34. 


2,200 tons. 


Kiwitea. 


'25. 


2,300 tons. 


Wingatui. 


'14. 


2,400 tons. 


Koranui. 


'14. 


1,300 tons. 









Distinguishing Features (Cargo vessels): — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : Red 
(with a white dividing line in some ships). Upperworks : Buff in most cases. Venti- 
lators : Brown. Karnes : Mostly " Maori " names commencing with " K " or 
" W." " Limerick " is operated in the U.K. -Australia trade by the Federal Steam 

Navigation Co. 
Services: — Mail and Passenger. Sydney to Vancouver via Auckland, Fiji and 
Honolulu, maintained by the Canadian Australasian Line. Sydney to San Francisco 
via Wellington, Raratonga and Tahiti, maintained by the Union Royal Mail Line. 
New Zealand Coastal and Inter-Island Services. New Zealand to Tasmania and 

Australia. 
546 



Some WelllKnown Shipping Companies 



UNITED BALTIC CORPORATION LTD. 

(Anglo -Baltic Line.) 

("U.B.C.") 

London, E.C.3. 



(British) 



[134] 



Baltallin. 

Baltannic. 

Baltara. 

Distinguishing 



'20. 1,300 tons. 

'13. 1,700 tons. 

'18. 3,300 tons. 

Bal: rover. 

Features: — Hulls : 



Balteako. '20. 1,300 tons. 

Baltrader. '19. 1,700 tons. 

Baltraffic. '18. 3,300 tons. 
'13. 4,900 tons. 

Black. Boot-topping : Green with white 



dividing line. Ventilators : Cream. Inside of Cowls : Blue. Masts and Derricks : 

Cream. Names : All have profix " Bait." 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. London via Kiel to Danzig, Gdynia, Klaipeda 
(Memel), Riga and Tallin (Reval). 



UNITED FRUIT CO. (U.S.A.) 

(The Great White Fleet.) 

Boston, Mass. 

Some of these vessels fly Panama or other foreign flags. 

(Balboa Shipping Co. Inc.) 



[29] 



Darien (T.E.V.). 


'24. 


4,300 tons. 


Musa. '30. 


5,900 tons. 


La Playa (T.E.V.). 


'23. 


3,700 tons. 


Platano. '30. 


6,000 tons. 


Macabi. 


'21. 


2,80.0 tons. 


San Benito (T.E.V.). '21. 


3,700 tons. 


Manaqui. 


'21. 


2,800 tons. 


San Bias. '20. 


3,600 tons. 


Maravi. 


'21. 


2,800 tons. 


San Bruno. '20. 


3,600 tons. 


Mayari. 


'21. 


2,800 tons. 
San Pablo. 


San Gil. '20. 
'15. 3,300 tons. 


3,600 tons. 



547 







Ships and the Sea 






United Fruit — (Contd.) 




(Mayan S.S 


. Corp.) 






Argual. 


'27. 


2,500 tons. 


Iriono. 


'27. 


4,100 tons. 


Baja California. 


'14. 


1,600 tons. 


Lempira. 


'14. 


3,300 tons. 


Castilla. 


'27. 


4,100 tons. 


Nicarao. 


'20. 


1,400 tons. 


Choluteca. 


'21. 


2,500 tons. 


Olancho. 


'21. 


2,500 tons. 


Comayagua. 


'21. 


2,500 tons. 


Orotava. 


'27. 


2,600 tons. 


Cuyamapa. 


'14. 


3,300 tons. 


Tela. 


'27. 


4,100 tons. 


Hibueras. 


'20 


1,400 tons. 
(United Fruit 


Telde. 
S.S. Corp.) 


'27. 


2,600 tons. 


Abangarez. 


'09. 


4,700 tons. 


Sogua. 


'14. 


3,300 tons. 


Calamares. 


'13. 


7,200 tons. 


San Jose. 


'04. 


3,400 tons. 


Carrillo. 


'11. 


4,700 tons. 


San Mateo. 


'15. 


3,300 tons. 


Coppename. 


'08. 


3,400 tons. 


Santa Marta. 


'09. 


4,700 tons. 


Esparta. 


'04. 


3,400 tons. 


Saramacca. 


'08. 


3,200 tons. 


General Lee. 


'08. 


4,700 tons. 


Sixaola. 


'11. 


4,700 tons. 


General Pershing. 


'08. 


4,700 tons. 


Suriname. 


'08. 


3,200 tons. 


General Sherman. 


'08. 


4,700 tons. 


Tivives. 


'11. 


4,700 tons. 


La Perla. 


'25. 


3,800 tons. 


Toloa. 


'17. 


6,500 tons. 


Limon. 


'04. 


3,400 tons. 


Turrialba. 


'09. 


4,700 tons. 


Metapan. 


'09. 


4,700 tons. 


Ulua. 


'17. 


6,500 tons. 


Pastores. 


'12. 


7,200 tons. 


Zacapa. 


'09. 


4,700 tons. 



Camden. 



(United Fruit Tanker Corp.) 

'21. 6,700 tons. (Tanker; engines aft.) 



548 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

United Fruit— (Contd.) 

(United Mail S.S. Co.) 

Passenger Ships. 
Antigua. '32. 7,000 tons. Quirigua. '32. 7,000 tons. 

Chiriqui. '32. 7,000 tons. Talamanea. '31. 7,000 tons. 

Peten. '33. 7,000 tons. Veragua. '32. 7,000 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : White. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 
Buff. Inside of Cowls : Red. Masts and Derricks : Buff. Some of the ships fly 

the Panaman or Honduras flag. 
Services : — Passenger and Cargo. New Orleans to all West Indian, Central American 

and Panaman ports. 



VEREENIGDE NEDERLANDSCHE SCHEEPVAART MAATSCHAPPIJ, 

NAAMLOOZE VENNOOTSCHAP. (Dutch) [16] 

(United Netherlands Steam Navigation Co.) 

Controlled jointly by the following Companies: — 

S.M. Nederland. 

koninklijke nederlandsche s.m. 

Java -Chin a- Jap an Lijn. 

koninklijke paketvaart m. 

Nederland sch Amerika Lijn. 

rotterdamsche lloyd, s.m. 

" De Maas," N.M.S.M. 

Gravenhaage (The Hague) Holland. 



549 



Bloemiontein. '34. 



Ships and the Sea 

Vereenigde — ( Contd. ) 

Maintains the following services: — 

" HOLLAND AFRIKA LIJN " N.V. DIRECTIE-EN-AGENTUUR MAATS. 
(Holland Africa Line.) 

Amsterdam. 
Passenger Ships (Motor). 
10,100 tons. BoscMontein. '28. 

Jagersfontein. '34. 10,100 tons. 

Passenger Ships (Steam). 

900 tons. Nijkerk. '15. 

6,500 tons. Randfontein. '22. 

5,900 tons. Springfontein. '21. 

Services: — Hamburg, Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Antwerp to Cape Town, Port 
Elisabeth, East London, Durban, Lourenco Marques, Beira via West Coast and 
return via British East African ports and Suez Canal. Hamburg, Amsterdam and 
Antwerp to Port Said, Port Sudan, Mombasa, Tanga, Zanzibar, Dar-Es-Salaam, 
Mozambique and Beira, returning via South African ports. 
" HOLLAND-OOST-AZIE LIJN " N.V. DIRECTIE-EN-AGENTUUR M. 
(Holland East Asia Line.) 
Rotterdam. 
Passenger Ships. 
8,700 tons. Serooskerk. 

8,700 tons. Zuiderkerk. 

8,000 tons. 



Holland. 
Heemskerk. 

Meliskerk. 



'23. 

'19. 
'19. 



7,100 tons. 



5,800 tons. 
5,500 tons. 
6,400 tons. 



'22. 
'23. 
'16. 



'22. 
'22. 



6,600 tons. 
6,600 tons. 



Gaasterkerk. 

Grootekerk. 

Meerkerk 

Services: — Antwerp, Hamburg, Amsterdam and Rotterdam to Genoa, Port Said, 

Colombo, Singapore, Manila, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Yokohama, Kobe, Dalny, Taku 

Bar, Tientsein, Tsingtau. 

550 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Vereenigde — ( Conid.) 

" HOLLAND-AUSTRALIE LIJN " N.V. DIRECTIE-EN-AGENTUUR M. 

(Holland Australia Line.) 

Rotterdam. 

Aagtekerk. '34. 6,800 tons. Almkerk. '34. 6,800 tons. 

Services: — Bremen, Hamburg, Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Antwerp to Fremantle 

Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane. 

"HOLLAND-BRITSCH-INDIE LIJN" N.V. DIRECTIE-EN-AGENTUUR M. 
(Holland British India Line.) 
Rotterdam. 
Hoogkerk. '11. 5,100 tons. 

Meerkerk. '16. 7,800 tons. (Four masts.) 

Streetkerk. '21. 6,200 tons. 

Services: — Bremen, Hamburg, Antwerp, Rotterdam, Amsterdam to Port Said, 
Suez, Colombo, Madras, and Calcutta. Bremen, Hamburg, Antwerp, Rotterdam, 
Amsterdam to Port Said, Suez, Karachi and Bombay. 

" HOLLAND WELT-AFRIKA LIJN " N.V. [15] 

(Holland West Africa Line.) 

Amsterdam. 

Amstelkerk. '29. 4,300 tons. Maaskerk. '29. 4,300 tons. 

Distinguishing Features (of all Vereenigde ships) : — Hulls : Black. Boot-topping : 

Pink. Ventilators : Some black, some brown. Inside Red. Names : End in 

" -kerk " or " -tein." 

Services: — Hamburg, Amsterdam and Rotterdam to Freetown, Takoradi, Accra, 

Cape Coast Castle, Winnebah, Lagos, Appaa, Port Harcourt, Daal Calaabar, Santa 

Isabel. Bremen, Hamburg, Amsterdam and Rotterdam to Gold Coast and Cameroon. 

Bremen, Hamburg, Amsterdam and Rotterdam to Liberia and Benin. 

551 



Ships and the Sea 







WEIR, ANDREW, & CO. (British) 


[239; 






(Bank Line Ltd.) 










London, 


, E.C.3. 










Motor 


Ships. 






Alynbank. 


'25. 


5,200 tons. 


Larchbank. 


'25. 


5,200 tons. 


Birchbank. 


'24. 


5,200 tons. 


Levernbank. 


'25. 


5,200 tons. 


Cedarbank. 


'24. 


5,200 tons. 


Lossiebank. 


'30. 


5,600 tons. 


Clydebank. 


'25. 


5,200 tons. 


Myrtlebank. 


'25. 


5,200 tons. 


Comliebank. 


'24. 


5,100 tons. 


Nairnbank. 


'25. 


5,200 tons. 


Elmbank. 


'25. 


5,200 tons. 


Oakbank. 


'26. 


5,200 tons. 


Forresbank. 


'25. 


5,200 tons. 


Olivebank. 


'26. 


5,200 tons. 


Foylebank. 


'30. 


5,600 tons. 


Speybank. 


'26. 


5,200 tons. 


Glenbank. 


'24. 


5,200 tons. 


Springbank. 


'26. 


5,200 tons. 


Inverbank. 


'24. 


5,100 tons. 


Taybank. 


'30. 


5,600 tons. 


Irisbank. 


'30. 


5,600 tons. 


Tweedbank. 


'30. 


5,600 tons. 


Kelvinbank. 


'21. 


3,900 tons. 


Tynebank. 


'34. 


4,700 tons. 


Laganbank. 


'30. 


5,600 tons. 


Weirbank. 


'25. 


5,200 tons. 



(Indian African Line.) [240] 

Motor Ships. 

Congella. '14. 4,500 tons. Incomati. '34. 7,400 tons. 

Gujarat. '23. 4,100 tons. Isipingo. '33. 7,100 tons. 

Inchanga. '33. 7,100 tons. Kathiawar. '24. 4,200 tons. 

Luxmi. '24. 4,100 tons. 

552 



Weir— (Contd.) 

Aymeric. 

Cabarita. 

Deebank. 

Forthbank. 

Glenardle. 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Steamers. 



'19. 
'15. 
'29. 
'29. 
'21. 



5,200 tons. 
4,400 tons. 
5,100 tons. 
5,100 tons. 
4,600 tons. 



Lindenbank. 

Luceric. 

Tinhow. 

Trentbank. 

Tymeric. 



'30. 
'19. 
'13. 
'29. 
'19. 



Tankers. 



5,100 tons. 
6,700 tons. 
5,200 tons. 
5,100 tons. 
5,200 tons. 



Corabank. (M.V.). '30. 9,000 tons. Oyleric. '14. 6,100 tons. 

Gymeric. '17. 6,100 tons. Wyneric. '14. 4,500 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls: Black except "I" Class, which are white 
with buff riband. Boot-topping : Red except " I " Class, which have green. Masts 
and Derricks : Buff except " I " Class, which are white. Upperworks and Boats : 
Buff except " I " Class, which are white. Names : Mostly have suffix " bank " or 



Services: — "American and Indian Line." Calcutta, Chittagong, Rangoon and 
Colombo to Halifax, Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. " American 
and Indian Branch Service." Rangoon, Chittagong, Madras, Madras Coast, Colombo 
and Malabar Coast (filling up if necessary at Aden and Port Sudan) to Halifax, 
Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore. " American and Oriental Line" 
New York and California to Philippines, Japan, China, Java and Straits Settlements, 
returning to U.S.A. via Suez. " Bombay American Line." Bombay to New York 
and Philadelphia. Calcutta to River Plate Ports : — Calcutta to Santos, Montevideo, 
Buenos Aires, Rosario and Bahia Blanca. " Indian African Line." — India-Natal 
Line: — Carrying passengers and cargo; including in its itinerary Rangoon, Calcutta, 
Colombo, Beira, Madagascar (when opportunity offers), Lourenco Marques, Durban, 

553 



Ships and the Sea 

Weir— (Conid.) 

East London, Port Elizabeth, Mossel Bay and Cape Town. " Indian Chilian Line." 
Calcutta, Rangoon and Singapore to West Coast South American Ports. " Oriental 
African Line." Carrying passengers and cargo from Hong Kong, Bangkok, Singa- 
pore to Mauritius, Reunion, Madagascar, Lourenco Marques, Durban, East London, 
Port Elizabeth, Mossel Bay and Cape Town and vice versa. Taking cargo on through 
B.L. from Japan and China. " Gulf S. A. Line." U.S.A. and Gulf ports to S. and E. 
African ports. Regular sailings from Australia to Chile. Regular sailings from 

Australia to Peru. 







WESTFAL-LARSEN & CO., A/S. 

Bergen. 


(Norwegian) [32 






Motor Vessels. 






Berganger. 

Brandanger. 

Brimanger. 

Heranger. 

Hindanger. 


'32. 

'26. 
'29. 
'30. 
'29. 


6,800 tons. 
4,600 tons. 
4,900 tons. 
4,900 tons. 
4,900 tons. 

Tankers 


Hoyanger. 

Moldanger. 

Taranger. 

Trondanger. 

Villanger. 

(Motor). 


'26. 
'33. 
'30 
'32. 
'29. 


4,600 tons, 
6,800 tons, 
4,800 tons. 
6,800 tons. 
4,900 tons, 


Finnanger. 
Hallanger. 
Langanger. 
Nordanger. 


'28. 
'28. 
'30. 
>25. 


9,600 tons. 
9,600 tons. 
9,200 tons. 
9,300 tons. 


Orkanger. 
Spinanger. 
Storanger. 
Varanger. 


'28. 
'27. 
'30. 
'25. 


8,000 tons. 
7,400 tons. 
9,200 tons. 
9,400 tons. 



554 



Westfal-Larsen— ( Contd.) 



Evanger. 


'20. 


Hardanger. 


'24. 


Hosanger. 


'11. 


Kaupanger. 


'30. 


Leikanger. 


'23. 



'18. 


4,300 tons. 


'19. 


3,400 tons, 


'21. 


5,500 tons. 


'18. 


4,300 tons. 


'20. 


6,600 tons, 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

Steam Ships. 
3,900 tons. Porsanger. 

4,000 tons. Ravnanger. 

1,600 tons. Risanger. 

1,600 tons. Samnanger. 

4,000 tons. Torvanger. 

Tankers (Steam). 
Davanger. '22. 7,100 tons. Malmanger. '20. 7,100 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Grey. Boot-topping : Red. Ventilators : 
Yellow. Inside of Cowls : Red. Masts and Derricks : Yellow. Names : All have 

suffix " Anger." 

Services: — European ports to North Pacific ports. Petroleum trade and tramping. 

Until a short time ago the House Flag was a swallow-tailed pennant, red with broad 

blue strip in centre, with a narrow white at top and bottom of blue. 







WILHELMSEN, WILH. 




[5] 






Oslo. 












Motor Vessels. 






America. 


'21. 


4,900 tons. 


Talabot. 


'36. 


6,800 tons. 


(3 masts.) 






Talisman. 


'23. 


4,800 tons. 


Tai-Ping. 


'29. 


7,000 tons. 


Talleyrand. 


'27. 


6,700 tons. 


Tai Ping Yang. 


'29. 


6,900 tons. 


Tamerlane 


'36. 


7,000 tons. 


Tai-Shan. 


'29. 


6,800 tons. 


Tampa. 


'23. 


4,700 tons. 


Tai-Yang. 


'29. 


7,100 tons. 


Tancred. 


'25. 


6,100 tons. 


Tai-Yin. 


'29. 


7,100 tons. 


Tarn. 


'33. 


6,800 tons. 


Taiwan. 


'24. 


5,500 tons. 









555 



Ships and the Sea 



WILHXLM9EN — (Contd.) 












Taronga. 


'27. 


7,000 tons. 


Toledo. 


'26. 


4,600 tons. 


Taurus. 


'36. 


5,000 tons. 


Topeka. 


'25. 


5,000 tons. 


Temeraire. 


'27. 


6,500 tons. 


Toronto. 


'28. 


5,000 tons. 


Templar. 


'29. 


6,700 tons. 


Tortugas. 


'23. 


4,700 tons. 


Teneriffa. 


'22. 


5,700 tons. 


Toulouse. 


'34. 


7,200 tons. 


(3 masts.) 






Touraine. 


'25. 


5,800 tons. 


Tennessee. 


'22. 


5,700 tons. 


Tourcoing. 


'24. 


5,800 tons. 


Thalatta. 


'22. 


5,700 tons. 


Trianon. 


'26. 


5,800 tons. 


(3 masts.) 






Tricolor. 


'33. 


6,900 tons. 


Thermopylae. 


'30. 


6,700 tons. 


Triton. 


'30. 


6,600 tons. 


Tigre. 


'2G. 


5,400 tons. 


Troja. 


'30. 


6,700 tons. 


Tijuca. 


'26. 


5,400 tons. 


Tudor. 


'30. 


6,600 tons. 


Tiradentes. 


'22. 


5,000 tons. 


Tungsha. 


'24. 


5,500 tons. 


Titania. 


'23. 


4,800 tons. 

Steam 


Ships. 






Bessa. 


'17. 


7,800 tons. 


Tana. 


'21. 


5,500 tons. 


Cubano. 


'21. 


5,800 tons. 


Thode Fagelund 


. '20. 


4,300 tons. 


Rinda. 


'17. 


6,000 tons. 


Troubadour. 


'20. 


4,500 tons. 


Simla. 


'17. 


6,000 tons. 


Tugela. 


'21. 


5,600 tons. 






Tankers. 






La Habra. 


'14. 


7,000 tons. 


Mirlo. 


'22. 


7,500 tons. 


Mantilla. 


'16. 


5,700 tons. 


Montana. 


'18. 


7,000 tons. 


Distinguishing Features 


: — Hulls : Black with white band 


. Boot 


-topping : Red. 



Masts and Derricks : White. 

Services : — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Norway to most principal ports of United 

States between Portland and Galveston. Texas ports and New Orleans to Dunkirk. 

556 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 

WlLHEIiMBEK — (Contd.) 

Scandinavian and Baltic ports to South Africa and Beira. Scandinavian, Baltic 

and Continental ports to British India, Ceylon, Burma, Java, Straits [Settlements, 

China, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. New York to Brazil and River Plate. 

New York to Norfolk, Los Angeles, Philippines, China and Japan. 



WOERMANN LINIE, AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT (German) [23] 

Hamburg. 

Passenger Ships. 

Adolph Woermann. '22. 8,600 tons. Wahehe. '22. 4,700 tons. 

Wadai. '22. 4,700 tons. Wangoni. '20. 7,800 tons. 

Watussi. '28 9,600 tons. 

Cargo Vessels. 

Livadia. '23. 3,100 tons. WagOgO. '15. 3,100 tons. 

(Owned by Hamburg-Amerika Line.) Wakama. '21. 3,800 tons. 

Wameru. '19. 4,100 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Silver grey. Boot-topping : Red. Venti- 
lators : Black. Inside of Cowls : Red. Some of the larger vessels may run in colours 
of Deutsche Ost Afrika Co. Masts and Derricks ; Deep cream. 
Services : — Mail, Passenger and Cargo. Hamburg to West Africa. 



557 



Ships and the Sea 







YBARRA & CO. (Spanish) 




[3] 






S( 


3ville. 










Motor 


, Vessels. 






Cabo Palos. 


'27. 


6,300 tons. 


Cabo San Agustin. 


'31. 


12,600 tons. 


Cabo Quilites. 


'27. 


6,600 tons. 


Cabo San Antonio. 


'30. 


12,300 tons. 




Cabo Santo Tome. 


'31. 12,600 tons. 










Steam Ships. 






Cabo Blanco. 


'09. 


2,200 tons. 


Cabo Nao. 


'93. 


1,500 tons. 


Cabo Carvoeiro. 


'09. 


2,000 tons. 


Cabo Ortegal. 


'19. 


3,700 tons. 


Cabo Cervera. 


'12. 


2,200 tons. 


Cabo Quintres. 


'16. 


2,900 tons. 


Cabo Corona. 


'03. 


1,500 tons. 


Cabo Razo. 


'26. 


2,900 tons. 


Cabo Creux. 


'19. 


3,700 tons. 


Cabo Roche. 


'22. 


2,800 tons. 


Cabo Cullera. 


'82. 


2,200 tons. 


Cabo Sacratif. 


'09. 


2,200 tons. 


Cabo Espartel. 


'20. 


3,700 tons. 


Cabo San Sebastian. 


'93. 


1,600 tons. 


Cabo Huertas. 


'22. 


2,800 tons. 


Cabo Torinana. 


'03. 


1,500 tons. 


Cabo La Plata. 


'08. 


2,000 tons. 


Cabo Tres Forcas. 


'14. 


2,300 tons. 


Cabo Menor. 


'12. 


2,000 tons. 


Cabo Villano. 


'20. 


3,800 tons. 


Distinguishing 


Features: — Hulls : 


Black. Boot-topping : 


Red. 


Ventilators : 


Black. Inside o 


f Cowls : 


Red. Masts and Derricks : All w.hite. Names : Nearly 



all "Cabo." 
Services: — Passenger and Cargo. Italy, France, Spain and Portugal to United 
States, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina. 
558 



Some Well Known Shipping Companies 



YEOWARD LINE LTD. (British) [125] 

Liverpool. 
60, Haymarket, London, S.W.I. (D. H. Drakeford.) 

AguUa. '17. 3,300 tons. Alondra. '22. 3,400 tons. 

Alca. '27. 3,700 tons. Ardeola. '12. 3,100 tons. 

Avoceta. '23. 3,400 tons. 

Distinguishing Features: — Hulls : Light grey; top strakes white. Boot-topping : 
Red. Ventilators : White. Inside of Cowls : Blue. Names : Spanish words 

beginning and ending in "A." 

Services: — Passenger {First-class only) and Cargo. Liverpool to North Spain, 

Portugal, Morocco, Madeira and Canary Islands. 



559 



CHAPTER XLI 

Flags and Funnels of British and Foreign Companies 



BRITISH SHIPPING COMPANIES (see pp. 562, 564, 566, 568, 570) 

Aberdeen and Commonwealth Line, London 
Aberdeen, Newcastle and Hull Steam Co. Ltd., Dundee 
Aberdeen Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., Aberdeen 
Adelaide Steamship Co. Ltd., Adelaide 
Ald Shipping Co. Ltd., Bristol . 
Alexander, David, and Sons, Glasgow 
Allan, Black and Co., Sunderland 
Anchor Line (1935) Ltd., Glasgow 
Anglo-American Oil Co. Ltd., London 
Anglo -Egyptian Mail Line, London 
Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co. Ltd., London 
Asiatic Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., London 
Australian-Oriental Line Ltd., Sydney 
Australian Steamships Proprietary Ltd., Sydney 
Australasian United Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., London 
Bailey, G. B., Cardiff 
Balls and Stansfield Ltd., Newcastle 
Barr, Crombie and Co. Ltd., Glasgow. 

560 



ILLUS. 

207 

112 

203 

246 

251 

267 

278 

23 

152 

196 

241 

212 

209 

271 

110 

87 

51 

46 



House Flags and Funnels of British Shipping Companies 



Belfast Steamship Co. Ltd., Belfast . 
Bell Bros, and Co., Glasgow 
BerwindmooFv S.S. Co. Ltd., Liverpool 
Bethell, Gwyn and Co., London 
Bibby Brothers and Co., Liverpool 
Bland, M. H., and Co. Ltd., Gibraltar 
Blue Star Line Ltd., London 
Bolton, F., and Co., London 
Bombay and Persia Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., Bombay 
Bombay Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., Bombay 
Booker Bros., McConnell and Co. Ltd., Liverpool 
Booth Steamship Co. Ltd., Liverpool 
bowring, c. t., and co. ltd., london. 
British and Continental S.S. Ltd., Liverpool 
British and Irish Steam Packet Co. Ltd., Dublin 
British India Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., London 
British Mexican Petroleum Co. Ltd., London 
British Tanker Co. Ltd., London 
Brocklebank, Thos. and Jno., Ltd., Liverpool 
Brown, Wm., Atkinson and Co., Hull 
Bruce, John, and Co., Glasgow 
Brussels Steam Ship Co. Ltd., London 
Bullard, King and Co. Ltd., London . 
Burmah Oil Co. Ltd., Glasgow . 
Burnett and Co., Newcastle 
Burns and Laird Lines Ltd., Glasgow 
t 561 



ILLUS. 

162 
219 
265 
111 
137 
170 
189 
6 
65 
163 
223 
1 
104 
268 
135 
114 
224 
192 
42 
86 
151 
222 
255 
269 
119 
150 



Ships and the Sea 



Burns Philp and Co. Ltd., Sydney 

Cairns, Noble and Co., Newcastle 

Campbell Bros, and Co., Newcastle 

Campbell, J. M., and Son, Glasgow 

Campbell, Ltd., P. and A., Bristol 

Canadian Australasian Line Ltd., Wellington 

Canadian National Steamships, Montreal 

Canadian Pacific Railway Co., Montreal . 

Canadian Pacific Steamships Ltd., London 

Capper, Alexander and Co., London 

Carrick, F., and Co. Ltd., Newcastle 

Carron Co., Falkirk 

Chambers, James, and Co., Liverpool 

Chapman, R., and Son, Newcastle 

Charlton, McAllum and Co. Ltd., Newcastle 

Charrington, Gardner, Locket and Co. Ltd., London 

chees wright and ford, london . 

China Navigation Co. Ltd., London 

City Line Ltd., Glasgow 

City of Cork Steam Packet Co. Ltd., Cork 

Clan Line Steamers Ltd., Liverpool 

Clark and Service, Glasgow 

Claymore Shipping Co. Ltd., Cardiff 

Clyde Shipping Co. Ltd., Glasgow 

Coastal Tankers Co. Ltd., London 

Coast Lines Ltd., Liverpool 

562 



c 



(220). 



. *T — 3 a 



^1 



Clan Line flag (57) is w 



BRITISH EMPIRE 

n at foremast by Houston ships (182) and by Scottish Shire ships (220). 





m 



1^ 

2. John Cory & Sons Ltd. 



II 







I 




3 The 



<s> 



3- Thos. Dunlop & Sons. 



IP 3 



IP 



'. Henderson & Co. 



IP 3 

4. Douglas & Ramsey. 



pn 

12. Watts, Watts & Co.Ltd. 



20. China Nav. Co. Ltd. 



Ill 



* 



Ipa 

13. W. Milburn & Co. Ltd 



03 

21. Jos. E. Murrell & Sons 



I 




6. F Bolton & Co. 



II 



. W. S. Miller & Co. 



II 




I 




|gg 



15. Capper, Alexander & C< 



FV< 



23. Anchor Line (1935) Ltd. 



i 






General Steam Nav. Co. L 



I 




II 




II 




Clyde Shipping Co. 



I 




28. Claymore Shipping 



IP 



IP 3 

30 The Hain S.S. Co 



11 



. Kaye, Son & Co. Ltd. 



I 




1. Coast Lines Ltd. 



Bl 




I 




IP 

36. Tumbull Scott & Co. 



I 




I 




I 




IP 



37. G. Heyn & Sons Ltd. 



I 




m 






1 




W. B. Elsworth 



i 




45- G. T. Gilhe & Blan 



I 



V 



46. Barr, Crombie & Co.Ltd. 



|pg 



II 



*+i 



1 



[ 1 (Livmfwi.) ba| 



R. Hughes & Co 
(L'pool) Ltd. 

(Ensile, .ft.) 



(r° 



i 




Balls & Stansfield 



a 




™w R „ h ,"' ( . nh 




F Carnck & Co. 




'Houlder Bros.fc C< 



h 



House Flags and Funnels of British Shipping Companies 



Commercial Cable Co., London 

Common Brothers, Newcastle 

Commonwealth and Dominion Line Ltd., London 

connell and grace ltd., london 

constantine, joseph, steamship llne ltd., middlesbrough 

Cook and Co. Ltd., J. W., London 

Cormack, James, and Co., Leith . 

Cory and Strick (Steamers) Ltd., London . 

Cory Colliers Ltd., Newcastle . 

Cory, John, and Sons Ltd., Cardiff 

cosens and co. ltd., weymouth . 

Crawford, A., and Co. Ltd., Glasgow 

Crosby, Son and Co. Ltd., West Hartlepool 

Cunard Steam Ship Co. Ltd., Liverpool 

Cunard White Star Ltd., Liverpool 

Currie, James, and Co., Leith 

Dalgliesh, R. S., Ltd., Newcastle 

Davies and Newman Ltd., London 

Dawson, F. S., Ltd., Cardiff 

Denhold, J. and J., Ltd., Glasgow 

Dodd, Thompson and Co. Ltd., London 

Donaldson Atlantic Line Ltd., Glasgow 

Donaldson Bros. Ltd., Glasgow 

Donaldson South American Line Ltd., Glasgow 

donking and sons ltd., t. h., middlesbrough 

Douglas and Ramsey, Glasgow . 

563 



172 



ILLUS. 

225 

66 

173 

75 

180 

118 

129 

72 

96 

2 

238 

41 

88 

171 

and 249 

79 

128 

277 

175 

142 

248 

84 

78 

83 

185 

4 



Sbips and the Sea 

Dover Navigation Company Ltd., London . 
Duff, T. L., and Co., Glasgow .... 
Dundee, Perth and London Shipping Co. Ltd., Dundee 
Dunlop, Thomas and Sons, Glasgow 
Eagle Oil and Shipping Co. Ltd., London . 
Eastern and Australian Steam Ship Co. Ltd., London 
Eastern Telegraph Co. Ltd., London . 
Edgar, J., and Co., Liverpool .... 
Elders and Fyffes Ltd., London 
Elder Dempster Lines Ltd., Liverpool 
Ellerman and Bucknall Steamship Co. Ltd., London. 
Ellerman Lines Ltd., Glasgow .... 
Ellerman's Wilson Line Ltd., Hull . 
Elsworth, W. B., Ontario ..... 
everard and sons ltd., frank t., london 
Federal Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., London 
Fisher and Sons Ltd., James, Barrow-in-Furness 
Fisher, Renwick Manchester-London Steamers Ltd.. 
France, W., Fenwick and Co. Ltd., London 
furness-houlder argentine llnes ltd., london 
Furness Lines, Liverpool ..... 
Gas Light and Coke Co., London 
General Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., London 
Gibbs and Co., Cardiff ..... 

Gibson, George and Co. Ltd., Leith . 
Gillespie and Nicol, Glasgow .... 

564 



260, 



261 



Newcastle 



ILLUS. 

274 

244 

143 

3 

126 

26 

197 

52 

227 

215 

101 

262, 263 

164 

44 

35 

184 

264 

117 

93 

56 

59 

77 



BRITISH EMPIRE 



1 



I 




58. Campbell Bros. & Co 



a 



66 Common Bros 




is Lines & 
J a& W 
Indies S.S. Co 



fE 



I 




I 





1 




Hunting & Sons Ltd. 



I 



L | S 



1 





1 




71 Pelton S.S. Co 



t* 



I" .... 



ssiix 

Tunisienne S.S. 74. John Kelly Lt. 



P. 




76. I. WiUiams & Co 



_c_ c 



HE 



if* 



IF 3 

^■"* The Pentwyo S.S 



e 




82 Wm. Sloan & Co. 



ft 

^™ ^'Donaldson S. Ameri 



Si 





[!► 



j^l 



8 4 Line Ltd. 



1 



<L 



88 Crosby, Son & Co 



1 



J. & C Harrison 



S JM. 



I 





Geo. T. Readhead 



t?. 




1 




E. R. Newbigin Ltd. 



™ 1 « Cory Colliers Ltd. 



Gafsa 

ith S.S. Co. Ltd^ 98 Withenngton 



IP 

TF3 m n q<s r« Ltd 



li 





u 



1 




I*] 

102 Chas Hill 8t Sons 



SP 



|>°5- J Morrison & Si 



pi 

, Lambert Bros Ltd 




I 



««< 



F C Strick & Co. 




i 




SPA 



. Bethell, Gwyn & Co. | & Hull Steam Co. 



201 
3 1 



House Flags and Funnels of British Shipping Companies 



Gillie t Blair Ltd., G. T., Newcastle 
Glen an » Co., Glasgow 
Glen Line Ltd., London 
Glover Brothers, London . 
Gow, Harlison and Co., Glasgow 
Great W" stern Railway Co., London 
Had ley b hipping Co. Ltd., London 
Hain Steamship Co. Ltd., London 
IHaldin and Philipps Ltd., London 
ttttfc Brothers, Newcastle . 
^9Bp>l* ine Ltd., Glasgow 
Ha and Dixon Ltd., London . 

Hari iON, J. and C, Ltd., London 
Harrison, T. and J., Liverpool . 
Hay and Sons Ltd., J., Glasgow 
Headlam and Sons, Whitby 
Henderson, P., and Co., Glasgow 
Hendry and Sons, P.D., Glasgow 
Henry, Alexander F., and MacGregor Ltd., Leith 
Heyn, G., and Sons Ltd., Belfast 
Hill, Chas., and Sons, Bristol 
Hogarth, H., and Sons, Glasgow 
Holt, Alfred, and Co., Liverpool 
Holt, J., and Co. (Liverpool) Ltd., Liverpool 
Hotjlder Bros, and Co. Ltd., London 
Houston Line of Steamers, London 

565 



ILLUS. 

45 
145 
165 
7 
147 
159 
231 

30 
247 
158 
261 
221 

89 

64 
138 
103 

19 
149 
109 

37 
102 
230 
127 
148 

55 
182 



Ships and the Sea 

huddakt parker ltd., victoria ....... 9 

Hughes and Co. (Liverpool) Ltd., Richard, Liverpool 
Hunting and Son Ltd., Newcastle ..... 

Indo-China Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., Victoria, Hong Kong 
Interstate Steamships Ltd., Sydney ..... 

Iranian Tanker Co. Ltd., London ..... 

Isle of Man Steam Packet Co. Ltd., Douglas, I.O.M. 
Jacobs, John L, and Co. Ltd., London .... 

Jamaica Banana Producers S.S. Co. Ltd., Kingston, Jam. . 
Jones, Richard W., and Co. ...... 

Kaye, Son and Co. Ltd., London ..... 

Kelly Ltd., John, Belfast ...... 

Kennaugh and Co., W. S., Liverpool ..... 

Khedive al Mail Steamship and Graving Dock Co. Ltd., Alexandria 
Lambert Bros. Ltd., London ...... 

Lamport and Holt Line Ltd., Liverpool .... 

Larrinaga S.S. Co., Ltd., Liverpool ..... 

La Tunisienne Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., London 
Lawther, Latta and Co. Ltd., London .... 

Limerick Steamship Co. Ltd., Limerick .... 

Liverpool and North Wales S.S. Co. Ltd., Liverpool 
Lobitos Oilfields Ltd., London ...... 

London and Edinburgh Shipping Co. Ltd., Leith 
London and North Eastern Railway, London . . . 187, 

London, Midland and Scottish Railway, London . ' . 242, 

London Power Co. Ltd., London ...... 

566 



ILLUS. 

and 198 

49 

69 

154 

186 

139 

167 

232 

133 

201 

3.\ 

74 

204 

24 

106 

136 

124 

73 

70 

62 

213 

10 

48 

233, 270 

250, 257 

174 



B 



BRITISH EMPIRE 



1 




B R 
™ Stephens. Si 



B 




British India S.N. 



m 



i 






I 








lps 




si 





a Scindia S.N. Co. 



i 




m 



R. S. Dalgliesh Ltd. 



IP 

*"~ James Cormack & 



^■" Lamport & Holt 



I 




IWlH 



131 Tankers Ltd. 




fl 



< 




'British & Irish S.P. 



j| S. & J. Thompson 



nP 



I J I II John Hay & Sons 








IB. 



1 



C.T 



iCoastal Tankers C( 



a 




a 




i 



p 

1 144. New Egyp 
Levant S. Co. Ltd. 



II 




IP 

146. Gibbt & Co. 



ill 









P D. Hendry & 



01 




1. Burns & La.rd L. 



IP 



ff Anglo-American Oi 



I 




0! 




n 




1 




IP* 

■ f11 Raeburn&Vere 



P° 



D 




I 



* 



Mcllwraith, Mc- 



IF" 

161. D. MacBrayne 



lh 

i6a. Belfast S.S. Co. Ltd. 



D 




n 









1 




a 




165. Glen Line Ltd. 



Isle of Man S.P Co 



a 



Union S.S. Co. of 



House Flags and Funnels of British Shipping Companies 

Lyle Shipping Co. Ltd., Glasgow 
Mac Andrews and Co. Ltd., Liverpool 
MacBrayne (1928) Ltd., David, Glasgow 
MacLay and McIntyre Ltd., Glasgow 
McCallum and Sons Ltd., Greenock . 
McCallum Orme and Co. Ltd., Glasgow 
McIl wraith, McEacharn Ltd., Melbourne 
Manchester Liners Ltd., Manchester 
Melbourne Steamshlp Co. Ltd., Melbourne 
Meldrum and Swinson, London . 

MlLBURN, W., AND Co. LTD., NEWCASTLE 

Miller, W. S. and Co., Glasgow 

Monks Ltd., John S., Liverpool . 

Morel Ltd., Cardiff 

Morrison, J., and Son, Newcastle 

Moss, H. E. and Co., Liverpool . 

Moss-Hutchison Line Ltd., Glasgow 

murrell, jos. e., and sons, west hartlepool 

Newbigin Ltd., E. R., Newcastle 

New Egypt and Levant Shipping Co. Ltd., London 

New Zealand Shipping Co. Ltd., The, Christchurch 

Nisbet, George and Co., Glasgow 

North of Scotland and Orkney and Shetland Steam Navigation 

Co. Ltd., Aberdeen .... 

Nourse, James, Ltd., London 
Orient Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., London 

567 



ILLUS. 

199 

216 

161 

234 

169 

181 

160 

183 

47 

5 

13 

14 

90 

67 

105 

253 

85 

21 

95 

144 

217 

188 

16 
258 
211 



Ships and the Sea 

Pacific Steam Navigation Co., Liverpool 

Pelton S.S. Co., Ltd., Newcastle 

Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Co 

Pentwyn Steamship Co. Ltd., Cardiff 

Perman, F. C, London 

Prince Line Ltd., London . 

Pyman Bros. Ltd., London . 

Kadcliffe (Evan Thomas) and Co., Cardiff 

Raeburn and Verel Ltd., Glasgow 

Rapp, Arthur A., London 

Readhead, George T., and Co., Newcastle 

Ridley (John), Son and Tully, Newcastle 

Rix and Sons, R., Hull .... 

Roberts, Hugh, and Son, Newcastle 

Robertson, Wm., Glasgow .... 

Robinson (Joseph) and Sons, North Shields 

Ropner Shipping Co. Ltd., West Hartlepool 

Royal Mail Lines Ltd., London 

runciman, w. and co. ltd., newcastle 

Saint Line Ltd., Liverpool .... 

Salvesen and Co. Chr., Leith 

Scindia Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., Bombay 

Seager, W. H. and Co. Ltd., Cardlff 

Shaw, Savtll and Albion Co. Ltd., London 

Shippick, S. J., Rochester .... 

Siemens Bros, and Co. Ltd.. London 

568 



London 



22 



ILLUS. 

200 

71 

and 206 

81 

29 

60 

94 

113 

157 

43 

92 

99 

177 

176 

11 

53 

34 

214 

91 

190 

193 

120 

115 

245 

205 

237 



BRITISH EMPIRE 



i 



. McAllum & Son 



I 



I! 



M. H. Bland & Co. 




1 




I 




I 




■■ I « J. Constantine S.S. 



D 





DC 



McAllum Orme & 




London Power Co. 



s 




I7S. F. S. Dawson Ltd. 



I 



(& 



Q o 



1 



I 



D 




■ >87 ' 

I^BIal L. &N.E. Rly. 



B 




1MH'.|I The Blue Stai 



B 




191. Cairns. Noble & Co 



B 



I 



|Chr.Salvesen & Co 



Canadian Nationa 
M * Steamships 






Huddart Parker Ltd. 




W*c 



. Ly|e Shipping Cc 



20ft. Pacific S.N. Co. 



2 



<fr 



iThompson S.S. Co. 





S. Kennaugh & 



P 




. R. W. Jones & Co. 




El 



Wm Thomson & 









Hi 




p 



p 



■K 



^g 



l| MacAndrews & Co. 



Cheeswright & Ford 



f= 



! "Turnbull. Marti. 



- Harris & Dixon Ltd. 



m 




McConnell & Co. Ltd 



a 



House Flags and Funnels of British Shipping Companies 

ILLUS. 

Sloan, William and Co., Glasgow ....... 82 

Smith, Sir William Reardon, and Sons Ltd., Cardiff . . . 178 

s outer, w. a. and co., newcastle ....... 40 

Southampton, Isle of Wight and South of England Royal Mail Steam 

Packet Co. Ltd., Southampton ....... 153 

Southern Railway, London ........ 235 

South Metropolitan Gas Co., London ...... 38 

Stephenson, Clarke and Associated Companies Ltd., London . . 80 
Stephens, Sutton Ltd., Newcastle . . . . . . .121 

Stott, Arthur and Co. Ltd., Newcastle ...... 122 

Straits Steamship Co. Ltd., Singapore ....... 279 

Strath S.S. Co. Ltd., Cardiff . . . . . . . 97 

Strick, F. E. and Co. Ltd., London ........ 108 

Sun Shipping Co. Ltd., London ........ 273 

Sutherland, B. J., and Co. Ltd., Newcastle ..... 256 

Sutton, E. J., and Co., Newcastle . . . . . . .123 

Tanfield S.S. Co., Ltd., Newcastle ....... 61 

Tankers Ltd., London ......... 131 

Tatem, W. J., Cardiff ......... 50 

Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co. Ltd., London . . 195 
Thompson, Stanley and John, Ltd., London . . . . .136 

Thompson Steam Shipping Co. Ltd., London . . . . 202 

Thomson, Henry M., London . . . . . . . . 17 

Thomson, William, and Co., Leith ....... 208 

Townsend Bros. Ltd., London ........ 156 

Trinder, Anderson and Co., London ....... 254 

569 



Ships and the Sea 

Tuenbull, Martin and Co. Ltd., London 

Turnbull, Scott and Company, London 

Turner, Brightman and Co., London . 

Tyne-Tees Steam Shipping Co. Ltd., Newcastle 

Union-Castle Mail Steamship Co. Ltd., London 

Union Steam Ship Co. of New Zealand, Wellington 

United Africa Co. Ltd., London 

United Baltic Corporation Ltd., London . 

United Molasses Co. Ltd., London 

Vacuum Oil Co. Ltd., London 

Wandsworth and District Gas Co., London 

Watts, Watts and Co. Ltd., London 

Weidner, Hopkins and Co., Newcastle 

Weir, Andrew, and Co., London 

Westcott and Laurance Line Ltd., London 

West Hartlepool Steam Navigation Co. Ltd., West Hartlepool 

Westoll, James, Ltd., Sunderland 

Williams and Co., I., Cardlff 

Williamson and Co., John, Glasgow . 

Witherington and Everett, Newcastle 

Yeoward Line Ltd., Liverpool 



239 



ILLUS. 

220 

36 

68 

63 

155 

168 

236 

134 

179 

32 

107 

12 

132 

and 240 

263 

252 

272 

76 

276 

98 

125 



570 



BRITISH EMPIRE 



fcj? 





IP 

ill m- 



&C1 




iG 



' GJH 

I 230. 

» M. Hogarth & S01 



Ch.s.c v 



JHadley Shipping C< 




QD 



Maclay & Mclntyl 







B 



;, Southern Railwaj 



81 24 ° 





242. L.M. & S. RIy. 





244- T L. Duff & C 




246. Adelaide S.S. Co 



R 




'Cunard White Stai 




250. L.M. & S. Rly. 




Aid Shipping Co. 
— " Ltd. 



-H II West Hartlepool 



IP 

=aH H. E. Moss & Co. 



F 

54. Trinder Anderson & 




fl 




(3 

258. James Nourse Ltd. 




1 Charrington, Gard- 
r, Locket & Co. Ltd. 

' E °f- A l 




EUennan Lines Ltd. 




EUerman Hall Line 




gEUerman City L11 
Ltd. 




•windmoor S.S 




|g|| P & A. Campb< 



m 









n 




fl" 



if- 








273. Sun Shipping Co. 



274. Dover Nav. Co. Ltd. 



n 




276. J. Williamson & Co. 



I IN Dairies &Newma 





House Flags and Funnels of Foreign Shipping Companies 



FOREIGN SHIPPING COMPANIES. 

ARGENTINE (see p. 596) 

Argentina C. de N. Mihanovich . 
Import, y Export, de la Patagonia, S.A. 
Transport de Petroleos, Comp. (Tankers) 

BELGIUM (see p. 598) 

American Petroleum Co., S.A. Belge (Tankers) 
Belgian Gulf Oil Co., S.A. (Tankers) 
Belgian State Railways (Flag worn as Ensign) 
Belgo -Argentine, Cie Royale 

" Cie Dens-Ocean," S.A 

Cockerill, John, S.A. ..... 

Deppe, Armement ...... 

Maritime Belge (Lloyd Royal) Comp. (Grey hulls) 

BRAZIL (see p. 600) 

COSTEIRA, C.N. DE N. 

Lloyd Brasileiro, C. de N. 

Lloyd Nacional, S.A. ..... 

Pereira, Carneira and Cia. Ltda. 

CHILI (see p. 602) 

Braun and Blanchard, S.A. Comp. 
Schwager, Cia. Carbon, y de Fund. 
Sud Americana de Vap., Comp. 

571 



ILLUS. 

3 

1 
2 



1 

8 
6 
5 
9 
7 
4 
2 and 3 



Ships and the Sea 
CHINA (see p. 614) 

China Merchants S.N. Co. .... 
Hong Kong, Canton and Macao Steamboat Co. 

DENMARK (see p. 616) 

Brown, P. Jun., and Co. (Grey hulls) 

Dampskibs, Forenede (Some grey hulls) 

Hansen, C. K. 

Holm, C. From (Tankers) 

Holm and Wonsild (Grey hulls) 

Islands, Etmskip 

Lauritzen, J. (White hulls) 

Moller, A. P. (Grey hulls) 

Ostasiatiske Komp. (Ships without 

Petersen, A. N. (Grey hulls) . 

Schmiegelow, A. (White hulls) 

SVENDSEN AND CHRISTENSEN 

FINLAND (see p. 626) 

Finland South America Line 

FlNSKA ANGFARTYGS 



Ltd. 



funnels, grey) 



ILLUS. 

2 

1 



5 

3 

10 

11 

7 

12 
4 
2 
8 
9 
6 
1 



FRANCE (see p. 628) 

Africaine d'Armement, Cie. 
auxiliaire de nav., cle. (t ankers ) 
Chargettrs Reunis, Cie. F. de Nav. 
Delmas Freres, Comp. 

572 



7 

8 

15 

4 



House Flags and Funnels of Foreign Shipping Companies 
FRANCE — contd. 

ElTAT FRANCAISE, Ch. de Fer .... 

Fabre, Cyp. ....... 

Fraissinet, Cie. ...... 

France -Amerique Cie. de N. . 

Gerance et d'Armement, S.A. (Cargo vessels) 

,, ,, ,, ,, (Passenger ships) 

Havraise Penin. de N. a Vap., Nouvelle Cie. 
L'Afrique Occid. Francaise, Cie. des T. M. (Grey hulls) 
L'Ouest, S.N. DE 
Messageries Maritimes, Cie. des 

„ „ „ (" Aramis ") 

Mixte Cie. de Nav. 
Paquet, Cie. de N. 

SCHIAFFINO ET ClE. CHAS. 

Sud-Atl antique, Cie. de N. . 
Trans atl antique, Cie Generate 
Transports Marit. a Vap., S.G. de 



GERMANY (see p. 634) 
Argo, A. G. . 

Baltisch-Amerikanische Petrol. Ges. (Tankers) 

Bernstein, Arnold 

Blumenthal, J. M. K. . 

Bolten, Aug. . 

Cords, Aug. . 

Deutsche Levante Linie 

573 



Ships and the Sea 
GERMANY— contd. 

Deutsche Ost-Afrika Limi: (Grey hulls) 
Essberger, J. T. (Tankers) 
Hamburg -Amerika Linie. 
Hamburg Bremen Afrika Linie 
Hamburg-London Linie 
Hamburg Sud -Amerika Linie 
" Hansa " Linie .... 
Horn, H. C 

KlRSTEN, A. . 

kunstmann, w. 

Leonhardt and Blumberg 

" Midgard " Deutsche Seeyekkehks. 

" Neptun " D.G. .... 

NORDDEUTSCHER LLOYD . 

,, ,, (Some cargo vessels) 

Oldenburg -Portugiesische Dampf. 
Red Star Linie .... 
Rickmers Linie (Green hulls) 
Russ, Ernst ..... 
Schmidt, H. . 
Siemers and Co. 
Sloman, R. M., Jr. 
Stinnes Rederei, Hugo (Engines aft) 
Unterweser Reederei . 
Waried Tankschiff Rhed. (Tankers) 
Woermann Linie (Grey hulls) 

574 



House Flags and Funnels of Foreign Shipping Companies 
GREECE (see p. 640) 
Embiricos, M. A. 
Embiricos, S. G. 
Hadjilias, E. E. 
Hadjilias, P. . 
National S.N. Co. Ltd. 
Rethymnis and Kulukundis Ltd. 



ITALY (see p. 642) 

"Adria," S.A. di Nav. Marit. 

Adriatica Comp. di Nav. (Mostly white hulls) 

Alta Italia Nav. . 

" Corrado," S.A. di Nav. 

" Garibaldi," S.A. Co-op. di Nav. 

Gerolimich and Co. 

" Istra-Trieste," S. di Nav. a Vap. (Grey hulls) 

" Italia "... 

Italo-Somala, S.A. di Nav. 

" La Columbia," S. Marit. 

Libera Triestina, Nav. 

Ligure, S. di Arma 

Lloyd Medtterraneo, S. Ital. 

Lloyd Triestino 

(White hulls) 
" Lussino," S. di Nav. a Vap. 
" Nova Genuensis," S.A. 
Parodi, E. V., S.A. 



di Nav. 



(Grey hulls) 



575 



Ships and the Sea 
ITALY — conid. 

" TlRRENIA " . 

" Transatlantica Italiana," S. di Nav. 
Tripcovich, D. and Ct., S.A. di Nav. 
Veneziana, S. di Nav. a Vap. 



(Flag worn as ensign) 



JAPAN (see p. 658) 

Govt, of Japan: Communications 
Kawasaki Kisen K.K. . 

j> ♦» >> 

Kokusai Kisen K.K. 
Mitsubishi Shoji Kaisha Ltd. 
Mitsui Bussan K. Ltd. . 
Nippon Yusen K.K. 
Osaka Shosen K.K. 
Toyo Kisen K.K. . 

NETHERLANDS (see p. 660) 

Curacaosche S. Maats. " La Corona," Ned. Sudische (Tankers) 

Erhardt and Dekkers . 

Halcyon-Lijn 

" hldlegersberg " s. maats. 

Holland West-Afrika Li.tn . 

Hollands che S. Maats. 

HUDIG AND VEDER 

Java-China-Japan Lijn (Mostly twin masts) 
Konink. Holland Lloyd 

576 



1LLUS. 

21 
13 

8 

7 



25 
18 
19 

29 
15 

28 

10 

6 

22 



House Flags and Funnels of Foreign Shipping Companies 

NETHERLANDS— contd. 

Konink. Nederland. S. Maats. 

Konink. Paket. Maats. (Some have white hulls) 

" Mjllingen," S. Maats. 

Muller, Wm. H. (Brown uppers) 

Nederland -Amerika. S. Maats. 

Nederland Koloniale Petrol Maats. (Tankers 

" Nederland " S. Maats. 

Nederlandsche Lloyd . 

Nederlandsche Zeerederij . 

Oceaan, Ned. S. Maats. 

" Oostzee " S. Maats. . _ 

Rotterdam-London S. Maats. (Engines aft) 

" Rotterdam " S. Maats. 

Rotterdamsche Lloyd (Grey hulls). 

S CHEEP. EN STEENKOLEN MAATS. 

" Triton " S. Maats. 

Van Es, P. A. and Co. . 

Van Nievelt Goudrtaan and Co. . 

Van Ommeren, Phs. (Tankers) 

Van Uden's Scheep. 

Vereenigde Nederland. S. Maats. 

VlNKE AND CO. .... 

" Zeeland " S.S. Co. . 



577 



Ships and the Sea 
NORWAY {see p. 664) 
Aaby, E. B. . 

Bachke and Co. .... 
Bergenske Damtsk. 

(White hulls) . 

Bl&BNSTAD, BltiBN and Co. (Grey hulls) 

Bobobstao A« rn:s. (Grey hulls) 
Bbuusoaabd Ki6stkbuds Damps. 

Fearnley and Eoeb 

Haaland, Chr. 

Hansen, Thorvald 

Klaveness, A. F. and Co. (Grey hull?: 1 

Kloster, Lauritz .... 

Knutsen, Knut (Many Tankers) 

MORLAND, A. J. 

Mowinckels Red., J. L. 
nordenfjeldske damrsk. 

,, ,, (" Pbins Olav ") 

Norske Amerikalinje (Grey hulls) 
Olsen, Fred., and Co. . 

,, ,, ,, (Grey hulled ships) 

Olsen, Korn. .... 
Olsen, O. Grolle . 
Olsen, Petter 

Pedersen, J. P. (Grey hulls) . 
Roed, Hjalmar and Co. 
sondenfjelds xorske dampsk. 

578 



tank* 



re) 



House Flags and Funnels of Foreign Shipping Companies 

NOSWAY— contd. 

sorensen, c. h. . 

Stavangerske Dampsk. 

Vesteraalens Dampsk. . 

Waage, Hagb. (Grey hulls: Tankers) 

Waage, R. and J. Stenersen (Grey hulls 

Wallem, Haakon J. 

Westfal-Larsen and Co. (Grey hulls) 

WlLHELMSEN, WlLH. 

Weangell, H. M. and Co. (Grey hulls) 



: Tankers) 



ILLUS. 

7 
16 

6 
18 
23 
34 
32 

5 
21 



POLAND (see p. 690) 

Gdynia-Amerika Linje . 

Polsko Brytyjskie Towar (Grey hulls) 

" Zegltjga Polska " S.A. 



PORTUGAL (see p. 692) 

Empresa Insulana de Nav. 
Nactonal de Nav. Comp. 



SPAIN (see p. 694) 

Altos Hornos de Vizc-aya, S.A. 

Arrendataria del Monop. de Petrol (Tankers) 

astigarraga hljos de 

De la Torre Y Alonso .... 

Sota, Sir Ramon de la 

579 



Ships andithe Sea 

SPAIN— <•<»«'</. 

TUASATI.ANTI' A, COMP. 

TSASMSDITERBAKEA, CrOMP. (White liulls) 

„ lNTKItlNSII.AItKS 

URQUIJO V AlDBOQA 

VA800KOADA, Co. Mr. Xav. 

Ybarra and Co. .... 

SWEDEN («M P . 702) 

BBATT, Adolf, and Co. .... 
Brostrom, Axel and Son 

Grangesberg-Oxelosund Trafik. (Grey hulls) 
Malmros, Jarl. (Grey hulls: mostly tankers) 

" NORDSTJERNAN " JOHNSON LlNE (Grey hulls) 

Schreil, Viktor (Grey hulls) . 
Svea, Stockholms Rederiakt. (Grey hulls) 
Svenska Amerika Linien (White hulls) . 
Svenska Amerika- Mexiko Linien . 
Svenska Lloyd ..... 

,, ,, (Cargo vessels: grey hulls) 

Svenska Ostasiatiske Komp. 
" Tirfing " Angf. ..... 

Transatlantic Rederi (Grey hulls) 
Transmark Rederi (Grey hulls: tankers) 
Waller, Per (Grey hulls) 



580 



House Flags and Funnels of Foreign Shipping Companies 
U.S.A. (see p. 722) 

American and Cuban S.S. Line 

American Diamond Lines Inc, 

American -Haw ah an S.S. Co. 

American Line S.S. Corp. 

American Mail Line Ltd. 

Baltimore Mail S.S. Co. 

Barber S.S. Lines Inc. . 

Clyde -Mallory Lines 

Colombian S.S. Co. Inc. (Grey hulls) 

Dollar S.S. Lines Inc. Ltd. 

Eastern S.S. Lines Inc. 

Export S.S. Corp. . 

Grace S.S. Co. Inc. 

Inter -Island S.N. Co. Ltd. 

LUCKENBACH S.S. Co. INC. 

Mallory, C. D. and Co., Inc. 
Matson Nav. Co. (Dark brown hulls) 
Munson Steamship Line 
Ocean S.S. Co. of Savannah 
Oceanic and Oriental Nav. Co. 
Oceanic S.S. Co. (White hulls) 
Pacific S.S. Lines Ltd. 
Peninsular and Occidental S.S. Co. 
Roosevelt S.S. Co. Inc. 
Southern Pacific S.S. Lines 
Standard Fruit and S.S. Corp. (White hulls) 

581 



Ships and the Sea 
U.S.A.— contd. 

Standabd Oil Co. of Cal. (Tankers) 
Standard Shipping Co. (Tankers) . 
Standard -Vacuum Trans. Co. (Tankers) 
United Fruit Co. (White hulls) 
Ward Line ...... 

Waterman S.S. Corp. .... 



illus. 

6 
15 

5 
29 
16 
22 



URUGUAY (see p. 728) 
Uruguaya, Comp. . 

YUGOSLAVIA (seep. 730) 
Atlantska Plovidba 

DUBROVACKA PAROB. PlOVIDBA 

Jadranska Plovidba 
jugoslavenski lloyd 
" Oceania," Brodarsko Ack. 
Polic, K. ; Jadran Brodarsko 
Prekmorska Plovidba 



58? 



CHAPTER XLII 

The Royal Navy, Imperial Communications 
and Sea Power. 

A PROMINENT man once said something to the effect that "History repeats 
itself because people were too foolish ever to learn from past events." 

How true this is has never been more evident than at the present time. 

Until the time of the Tudors no serious attempt was made to keep a regular 
fleet of purely fighting ships in existence and even then, in times of peace, 
the ships were more often than not hired out to merchants for trading 
purposes. 

Long before that, ships had been held more or less at the nation's disposal in 
the event of emergency and the Cinque Ports fleet might almost be reckoned as 
the first British navy ; founded towards the end of the eleventh century, it required 
the five ports of Sandwich, Dover, Hythe, Romney and Hastings to maintain and 
provide for the King's use a certain number of ships in return for certain privileges. 
Long afterwards, the towns 'of Winchelsea and Rye were added to the list, and 
places such as Deal and Walmer acted as limbs. 

King John, King Henry VIII, King Charles I and King James II, all among the 
most abused of English monarchs, were among the few men who realised the import- 
ance of a navy and who made strenuous efforts to achieve its establishment. 

583 



Ships and the Sea 

The primary cause of the Civil War wan t lie revolt of wealthy men of commerce 
against the imposition of Ship Money by the KiiiLT. 

The whole of British history shows that our misfortunes have come at a time 
when we have been defenceless against external attack; the Norsemen and the 
Normans conquered the country: the Dutch, six centuries later, sailed up the Thames 
and ravaged our shipping; the first Empire was lost owing to the inability to keep 
open our lines of communication. 

Apart from these major tragedies, our coasts were constantly being ravaged by 
Frenchmen, and Pretenders and Usurpers landed unchecked. 

The history of the world shows the same thing everywhere; ancient Greece, Car- 
thage and Rome fell because of their inability to keep secure on the sea. 

Spain lost an Empire in the sixteenth century; part of another in the nineteenth, 
and the remainder in the war with the United States in the present century. 

Portugal lost an Empire and so did Holland. 

Britain became supreme at sea after the Napoleonic Wars but she did not forbid 
the seas to others. 

Are we to be added to the long list of peoples who lost their heritage because 
they refused to pay the price of Admiralty? 

The end of the Great War left us still supreme at sea after a struggle that nearly 
brought us and Western civilization to our knees. Upon the Royal Navy alone 
our security rested and we were saved. 

At one period of the war we had just over six weeks supply of necessary food 
in the country and our merchant vessels were being sunk in hundreds. 

Then, we had something over 120 cruisers; now we have 50 and Imperial defence 
is rendered infinitely more vulnerable because the very mobility of all our fighting 
services, as well as a considerable proportion of our merchant ships, is dependent upon 
supplies of oil-fuel almost entirely obtained from countries outside the British Empire. 

584 






The Royal Navy, Imperial Communications and Sea Power 

There are 85,000 miles of ocean routes to protect and along these move, on the 
average, 1,850 British deep sea merchant vessels every day; in addition there are 
1,650 coastal ships. 

Fifty thousand tons of food and 110,000 tons of merchandise arrive in the British 
Isles every day and this, to keep alive 49,000,000 people; the population of the 
Empire is over 490,000,000. How about our responsibility to them? 

It has been publicly stated on more than one occasion by the highest authorities 
that the Royal Navy is no longer able to guarantee our security nor to protect our food 
supplies. 

Air power is here, but however far ahead one can see, it is going to be a long 
time before 85,000 miles of sea routes can be protected by aircraft; still longer 
before cargo in any quantities can be transported by air, when it is remembered 
that an average-sized cargo vessel carries about 8,000 tons weight of cargo. 

Nelson's cry was always for more and more cruisers; Lord Jellicoe's was the 
same more than an hundred years later. 

We lost an Admiral and two ships' companies in 1914 because they were pitted 
against ships with superior armament; they were outranged and outgunned. 

Hostilities to-day might mean a continuous series of Coronels, as many of our 
cruisers are incapable of standing up against their "opposite numbers." 

Not only is the Royal Navy reduced to sixty per cent of its 1914 strength but, 
worse still, it is unable to provide crews for existing ships; training establishments 
are emptied if it becomes necessary to bring a ship out of reserve and it takes seven 
years to train a seaman. 

The Royal Naval Reserve forms a useful stiffener, but if all Naval Reservists 
are withdrawn from their work in the Merchant Navy, the latter is crippled. 

Our Empire and prosperity has been made possible purely by sea-power and it 
has only been maintained by sea -power; 21,000,000 tons of British shipping stand 

585 



Ships and the Sea 

between us and ruin and we seem to glory in the fact that we are quite incapable 
of protecting it. 

God grant that we may never have a terrible awakening; we have been warned 
time and time again and we prefer not to listen. The very vitals of this Empire 
have been eaten into and we fail to read the writing on the wall. 

Are we fools? are we knaves? or are we merely apathetic and lethargic? refusing 
steadfastly and pigheadedly to recognise facts until we are actually face to face 
with problems and tragedies which need never have occurred. 

The possession of arms, alone, does not mean aggression; surely it is rather the 
spirit of a nation that counts. Because a man is a prize fighter, possessing better 
means of defence than the average man, he does not go about the world knocking 
people about; because a man has a shot gun to protect his crops he does not shoot 
his next-door neighbour. 

Locks on doors do not invite burglaries, and the possession of an umbrella is no 
inducement to the Heavens to open. 

Thousands of people spend a considerable annual sum on insuring against all 
and every possible contingency, against their house being burnt down, against 
losing their personal possessions and jewellery, against the possibility of rain inter- 
fering with outdoor sports and against the loss of profits, and yet practically no one 
gives a thought to the greatest insurance of all — security against attack. 

Britain's enemies long ago recognised her weak spot and they have not been 
inactive; the building up of foreign navies does not necessarily constitute a threat 
to our security but the constant dwindling of our own does, and the fate of us all 
and perhaps of civilization itself lies in our own hands. 



586 



CHAPTER XLIII 

Royal Marines and Naval Reserves. 

Royal Fleet Reserve. 

THERE is no reserve of officers who have served in the Royal Navy, but con- 
tinuous service ratings and petty officers are drafted on discharge into the Royal 
Fleet Reserve for a period of five years. 

It therefore constitutes a reserve of trained professional seamen, who are liable 
to be called out by Royal Proclamation in the same way as the other Reserves 
mentioned below. 

Royal Marines. 

Admiral Lord Charles Reresford once said of the Royal Marines, "'Their record 
is second to none. I have been with them on Active Service, Police Service, in daily 
routine and in gales of wind. I have had them with me everywhere and I tell you 
there is nothing like the Royal Marines." 

This is the opinion of everyone who has come into contact with them. 

The Royal Marines had their origin in 1664, when an Order in Council provided 
for a regiment of 1,200 "Land Soldiers to be distributed into His Majesty's Fleets 
prepared for Sea Service." The London streets were paraded by soldiery beating 
up for recruits who quickly came forward, mostly it is supposed from the Trained 
Bands of the City of London, and the new regiment received the name of the "Duke 
of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot." From this origin comes the 

587 



Ships and the Sea 
privilege, shared by few, of the Royal Marines being allowed to march through the 
City with drums beating, and with fixed bayonets. 

The history and activities of the corps cannot be dealt with here, but it is hoped 
that it is sufficiently widely known; wherever British warships have gone and wher- 
ever landing parties have been put ashore, there have been the Royal Marines playing 
a leading and glorious role. 

At the Naval mutinies in the eighteenth century, the Marines remained loyal 
and from that time their quarters in a ship have always been between the officers 
and the men, and known as the Barracks. 

There were, until the end of the war, two distinct branches, the Royal Marine 
Light Infantry, or Scarlet Marines, and the Royal Marine Artillery, or Blue Marines, 
but in the wave of economy which swept the country afterwards, the two were 
merged to form the Corps of Royal Marines; the scarlet uniform was done away 
with and all now wear blue in full dress. 

Officers and men undergo Infantry Training and instruction in Naval Gunnery 
and a smaller number are trained in Medium and Heavy land artillery, about one 
third of the guns of the fleet being manned by them. 

They supply buglers, bandsmen and officers' and Wardroom servants. 

Officers enter through Sandhurst or Woolwich, but the entire control of the corps 
is in the hands of the Admiralty. Men serve for twelve years and may then re-engage 
for a further nine years, after which they are eligible for pension. 

The assumed contempt of the men of the Royal Navy and Royal Marines for 
each other is amusing and not always understood by the uninitiated, because there 
is actually a very real comradeship and admiration between the two. The Royal 
Marines are known as "Jollies" or "Leathernecks" by the lower deck and the 
Royal Marine officer is spoken of as the "Soldier" in the Wardroom. 

588 



Royal Marines and Naval Reserves 
Royal Naval Reserve. 

The Royal Naval Reserve is not a body composed of men who have served in 
the Fighting Service and who have retired, as so many people imagine. 

It is a force composed almost entirely of officers and men of the Merchant Navy, 
who enrol in the R.N.R. and who receive naval training with the fleet or at naval 
establishments during their period of leave from their professional duties. 

Thus they are seamen trained in both branches of the sea service. 

The Naval Reserve Act was passed in 1859, but it was not until two years later 
that Commissioned ranks were introduced. 

The Royal Naval Reserve can only be called out by Royal Proclamation. 

During the Great War over 6,000 officers and men gave their lives and over 5,000 
decorations and awards were gained. 

As an appreciation of their services the uniform was in all respects made the 
same as that of the Royal Navy, with the exception that the lace on the sleeves 
consists of half-width intertwined gold lace instead of full-width straight stripes 
and that midshipmen wear a turnback of royal blue. 

When up for training in H.M. ships, officers and men receive the same pay as that 
of their equivalent rank in the Royal Navy and officers rank in seniority with those 
in the fighting service. 

The flag of the Reserve is the Blue Ensign and it may only be worn by those 
merchant ships commanded by an officer of the R.N.R. , providing that at least 
seven other officers and ratings in the ship are also members of the Reserve. 

The success of the Reserve depends almost entirely upon the support and encour- 
agement given by shipowners, some of whom give every facility to their officers 
to perform the necessary training, whilst others practically forbid their employees 
from becoming members. 

589 



Ships and the Sea 
Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. 

The Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve was originally known as tho Royal Naval 
Artillery Volunte* ra and it is a reserve similar to tho Royal Naval Reserve, except 
that all its members are civilians who go for periodical training in H.M. ships in 
the same way that the Territorial Army men go into camp with units of the Regular 
Army. 

In addition to tho periodical training, officers and men attend at their divisional 
headquarters throughout the year, a minimum of attendances being necessary. 

The divisions are London. Mersey, Severn, Sussex, Tyne, Clyde, East Scottish 
and Ulster, as well as throughout the Empire at Hong Kong and in Canada, Ceylon, 
Kenya, Newfoundland, New Zealand, South Africa and the Straits Settlements. 

In appreciation of their services in the war the uniforms were altered to conform 
to those of the Royal Navy in every way, except that midshipmen wear a turnback 
of maroon and that the gold sleeve lace is narrower and wavy and it is from this that 
the nickname of " Wavy Navy " originated. 



590 



Distinctive Marks of Rank 
on Shoulder Straps ^Sleeves 

Officers u the Royal Navy 

BBp^ [M5> [egx&j 



B H BIB 




" S B 




The rank of an Officer can be readily seen by the stripes that he wears on his sleeves or by 
the shoulder straps, and the branch to which he belongs is shown by the colour of the cloth 
between the gold lace. 



Executive Officers \ 



Engineer Officers 
Medical Officers 
Dental Officers 
Accountant Officers 



1 plain gold lace, but 

cloth between the 

. . Purple. 

Scarlet. 

. . Orange. 

.. White. 

Instructor Officers 



branches 
;old stripes :- 
Shipwright Officer 
Wardmaster Offiet 
Electrical Officers 
Ordnance Officers 
. Light Blue. 



' 'siinguished by coloured 

Silver Grey. 
Maroon. 
Dark Green. 
Dark Blue. 



CHAPTER XLIV 

Naval Ranks and Ratings 

"PLAG OFFICERS are those whose rank entitles them to fly their own flag from 
ships in which they are serving; that is to say, Rear-Admirals and above. 
Although a Commodore flies his broad pendant it is not quite in the same category. 

Flag Lieutenant is a Lieutenant attached to the staff of an Admiral as A.D.C. 
and is known as "Fkgs." 

Captain of the Fleet is the senior officer of Captain's rank in the fleet. 

Flagships are vessels carrying the flag of a flag officer. 

Admiral of the Fleet. — Limited in number to about seven; instituted after 
Trafalgar as a separate rank, although previous to that the Admiral in command 
of the senior squadron of a fleet bore the title. 

Admiral. — A word of Arabic extraction, meaning "Lord of the Sea." In use in 
the French Navy before our own and it first appears in English records towards the 
close of the thirteenth century. An Admiral is the senior Naval officer in a large 
fleet or establishment. He is carried more or less as a passenger in the flagship, 
his duties being confined to the fleet and not to the individual ship in which he lives. 

Vice-Admiral. — Immediately junior to an Admiral and either next in command 
or else commands a section of the fleet. 

Rear- Admiral. — Next below a Vice-Admiral; also commands a squadron or 
section of the fleet. 

Commodore. — A temporary rank or an appointment, similar to that of Brigadier 
or Colonel Commandant in the army. A Commodore is often in charge of Naval 

591 



Ships and the Sea 
Barracks or in command oi' a Destroyer flotilla. Introduced in about 1695 and 
originally applied only to the senior officer of a merchant fleet, in which capacity 
it has been revived in recent years. 

Captain. — The highest rank of an officer in command of an individual ship; 
originally was the Army officer in charge of the troops embarked for fighting purposes, 
as opposed to tho Master who was in charge of the ship. The supreme authority in a 
warship, he lives apart from the other officers and only enters the Wardroom at 
the invitation of wardroom officers. Until 1815 the rank of Post-Captain appeared 
in the Navy List and ho was an officer in command of the first six rates of ships only. 
Strictly speaking, even to-day the term Post-Captain should still be applied to those 
captains actually holding authoritative appointments. For example, a Captain in 
command of a warship is a Post -Captain whereas a Captain undergoing a course 
or otherwise not in command, is not a Post-Captain. A Captain is known as " The 
Owner " or " The Skipper " familiarly. 

Commander. — The senior executive officer in a ship and in a ship not carrying 
a Captain, is its Commanding Officer. Responsible for the whole of the upper-deck 
personnel and for the efficiency and smooth -working of the ship. Lives in the Ward- 
room and is spoken of as " The Bloke " by the lower deck. The name Commander 
came in in 1794, although previous to that it had been used in conjunction with 
other words. Because a Commander often has complete charge of small ships he 
is sometimes given the courtesy title of Captain (or " head ") ; this also being bestowed 
because in the days after the Napoleonic wars there was a surplus of Commanders 
and in order to give them employment they were appointed to battleships as " No. 2 
Captains." 

Lieutenant-Commander. — The actual rank was authorised in 1914, previous 
to which the term was " Lieutenant of over eight years' seniority," the narrow or 
half-stripe having been worn since 1877. The Senior Lieutenant -Commander is 

592 



Naval Ranks and Ratings 

known as " Number One " and he is more often than not the Navigating Officer 
or " Pilot." 

At present there is a very large surplus of Lieutenant-Commanders in the Service, 
owing to blockage in the higher ranks on account of shortage of ships, and sometimes 
they have to assist the junior watch-keeping officers, a large ship often carrying 
more " Two -and- a -half stripers " than Lieutenants. 

Lieutenant. — First reference to a Naval Lieutenant was in 1580 and come3 
from the French words " lieu," in place of, and " tenant," holding, that is, holding 
rank instead of the Captain. 

The lowest rank of Wardroom officer. 

Sub -Lieutenant. — Instituted in 1802 as a temporary relief to Midshipmen who 
had passed their examinations for higher rank but for whom no vacancy existed 
on the Lieutenants' list. Finally established in 1862. 

The " Sub " is in charge of the Gun-room, or junior officers' mess. 

Midshipman. — First mentioned in Queen Elizabeth's time and until the Common- 
wealth were seamen of at least seven years' service who worked amidships and who 
corresponded to the modern Petty Officer. First recognised as an Officer's rank 
in 1748 and to-day receive Appointments and not Commissions. They are very hard- 
worked and have charge of the picquet boats and thus acquire a considerable 
knowledge of boat-work. 

Known as " Snotties " throughout the service. They wear dirks and round jackets 
instead of the other officers' sword and frock coat. 

Cadet. — The lowest rank of Naval officer, the title being introduced in 1844. 

Warrant Officers. — Officers holding warrants in place of commissions; all 
appointed from the lower deck and correspond to Regimental Sergeant-Majors and 
Company Serge ant -Majors in the Army; live apart and wear cocked hats, sword and 
frock-coat on ceremonial occasions. 

U 593 



Ships and the Sea 

Chief Petty-Officers and Petty Officers. — The N.C.O.'s and constitute the 
backbone of the service. 

Leading Seaman. — A higher grade of Able-Seaman. The step between the latter 
and a Petty Officer. 

Able-Seaman. — The highest grade of seaman other than Leading Seaman. 

Ordinary-Seaman. — The first step above the bottom rung. 

Boy. — The lowest rating in a warship. 

Engineer Officers. — The highest rank of engineer officer is that of Vice-Admiral; 
otherwise ranks are the same as those in executive branch, with word " Engineer " 
prefixed. Their duties are self-explanatory. 

Surgeon Officers. — The highest rank is that of Vice-Admiral; otherwise ranks 
are same as executive branch, starting with Sub -Lieutenant and with prefix 
" Surgeon." 

Accountant Officers or Paymasters. — The highest rank is Vice-Admiral; 
otherwise ranks are the same as executive, with prefix " Paymaster." Paymaster - 
Cadets and Paymaster-Midshipmen are privileged to wear frock-coat and sword. 
Accountant officers have charge of all the secretarial and clerical work in a ship 
or establishment; they have charge of all payments, victualling, clothing, coding 
and cyphering work. They act as Judge -Advocates at Naval Courts Martial. In 
action they assist the gunnery or torpedo officers if not occupied in cyphering or 
they take official notes of the action. They are probably in charge of the anti-gassing 
arrangements in a ship and they are expected to have a thorough knowled e of all 
naval laws, regulations and procedure as well as International law and to act as 
guide, counsellor and friend to their brother officers. 

Paymasters act as personal secretaries to Captains and Flag Officers, the junior- 
paymaster in a ship usually acting in this capacity to the Captain and known an 
" The Secretary." 

594 



HOW TO DISTINGUISH 



THE PETTY OFFICERS, 
BOYS OF THE ROYAL NAVY 



© 



QS 



Q 



13 



E3 



i 



Q 



Q 



Q 



Q 



Q 



Q 







m 



D 



(1) Gunner's Mate. (2) Gunlayer, 1st Class. (3) Gunlaver, 2nd Class. (4) Captain of the Gun, 
1st Class. (5) Seamen Gunner. (6) Rangetaker, 1st Class. (7) Rangetaker, 2nd Class. 
(8) Rangetaker, 3rd Class. (9) Torpedo Gunner's Mate. (10) Torpedo Coxswain. (11) Leading 
Torpedoman. (12) Seaman Torpedoman. (13) Diver. (14) Yeoman of Signals. (15 and 16) 
Leading Signalman. (17) Signalman. (18) Petty Officer Telegraphist. (19 and 20) Leading 
Telegraphist. (21) Telegraphist. (22) Physical and Recreational Training Instructor, 1st Class. 
(23) Physical and Recreational Training Instructor, 2nd Class. (24) Good Shooting Badge. 
(25) Mechanician. (26) Stoker Petty Officer. (27) Stoker, 1st Class. (28) Chief Armourer. 
(29) Chief Shipwright. (30) Chief Petty Officer Artisan. (31) Shipwrights and Artisans. 
(32) Master-at-Arms. (33) Regulating Petty Officer. (34) Sick Berth Rating. (35) Submarine 
Deteotor Instructor. (36) Submarine Detector Operator, 2nd Class. (37) Submarine Detector 
Operator, 3rd Class. (38) Writer. (39) Supply Rating. (40) Cook. (41) Officer's Steward. 
(42) Officer's Cook. (43) Bugler. (44) Telegraphist Air Gunner. (45) Leading Seaman. 
(46) Petty Officer. (47) Chief Petty Officer Cap Badge. (48) Petty Officer Cap Badge. 



Naval Ranks and Ratings 



Equivalent Ranks in the Three Services. 

Naval Officers are senior to officers of equivalent rank in the other services. 
Ranks in the Royal Marines are the same as in the Army and carry the same 
seniority, except that a Major of Marines afloat ranks with a Naval Commander. 



Royal Navy. 
Admiral of the Fleet. 

Admiral. 
Vice -Admiral. 
Rear-Admiral. 
Commodore. 

Captain. 

Commander. 

Lieutenant - C ommander . 

Lieutenant. 

Sub -Lieutenant and Com- 
missioned Warrant 
Officer. 

Midshipman and Warrant 
Officer. 



Army. 
Field-Marshal. 

General. 

Lieutenant-General. 
Maj or-General. 
Brigadier or Colonel 

Commandant. 
Colonel. 

Li* 3 p- nt-Colonel. 
Mv ,, 
Captain. 
Lieutenant. 



Second-Lieutenant. 



Royal Air Force. 
Marshal of the Royal Air 

Force. 
Air Chief Marshal. 
Air Marshal. 
Air Vice -Marshal. 
Air Commodore. 

Group Captain. 
Wing-Commander. 
Squadron-Leader. 
Flight -Lieutenant. 
Flying Officer or Observa- 
tion Officer. 

Pilot Officer. 



595 



CHAPTER XLV 

Naval Uniforms 

TJNIFORM regulations were not laid down for the Royal Navy until 1748 for 
officers and 1857 for the lower deck, although many ship's companies were 
dressed alike for years previously and a more or less standard system prevailed. 

Much latitude was allowed, however, and some officers appeared to favour red 
coats and others grey with red facings — some dressed their ship's companies in 
weird rig- outs. 

Blue and white was finally chosen and it was said that the choice was made by 
King George II, who was so struck by the appearance of the First Lord's wife, the 
Duchess of Bedford, who was riding in the Row in a habit of these colours. 

The uniforms have undergone much change since those days but the prevailing 
colours of blue and white remain. 

In 1885 white uniform was authorised for foreign stations. 

In 1915 engineer officers were granted the curl in the upper row of lace and in 1918 
this was extended to Accountant officers and Surgeons. 

Aigutllettes (ropes of gold lace hung from the shoulder) are worn by officers of 
any branch serving on the personal staff of a Flag Officer or Commodore. 

Such officers and Naval Attaches wear them on the left shoulder. 

Aides-de-Camp to the King, Admirals of the Fleet and Honorary Physicians and 
Surgeons to the King, wear them on the right shoulder. 

596 



ARGENTINE 




Import, y Export, de 
la Patagonia, S.A. 




Transport, de 
Petroleos, Comp. 

(Taakers.) 




Argentina. C de N 
Mihanovtch 



Naval Uniforms 

These originate from the old days when a General's A.D.C. used to carry rope 
and tent pegs for the purpose of hobbling his own and his chief's horse and for 
convenience he carried them over his shoulder. 

The branch to which an officer belongs is indicated by the coloured cloth worn 
between the stripes as under: — 

Executive. — No coloured cloth. 

Engineer. — Purple. 

Surgeon. — Scarlet. 

Dental. — Orange. 

Accountant. — White. 

Instructors. — Light Blue. 

Shipwright and Constructors. — Silver Grey. 

Electrical. — Dark Green. 

Ordnance. — Dark Blue. 

Rank is indicated on each sleeve, except on the great-coat and in white uniform 
when it is worn on shoulder-straps. 

Midshipmen and Cadets wear no rank on sleeve but the former wear, on each side 
of the collar, a white patch with a buttonhole of white twist and the latter the same 
without the patch. 

Paymaster-Midshipmen and Paymaster-Cadets wear on sleeve and shoulder straps 
one half- width white stripe. 

White cap covers are worn in home waters from May 1st to September 30th, both 
dates inclusive. 
Distinguishing Badges — Ship's Company. 

Petty Officers and men, whether dressed as seamen or not, wear the rank badges 
and good conduct stripes on the left arm and non-substantive badges on the right arm. 

597 



Ships and the Sea 

Petty Officers (confirmed) wear jackets instead of jumpers; single breasted for 
working dress and double-breasted for Number I Dress. 

Chief Petty Officers wear similar jackets with the addition of three large gilt buttons 
on each sleeve; they do not wear good conduct badges but wear their non-substantive 
badges on the collar of their jackets. 

Seamen of the Royal Yacht wear cloth trousers and frocks in place of serge, as 
commanded bj 7 King Edward VII in 190G, when sergo was introduced into the rest 
of the Service. 



598 




I American Petroleum 
Co., S.A. Beige 

(Tankers.) 




6. Belgian State 

Railways. 
(Flag worn as Ensign.) 



BELGIUM 



SI 



I 




w 





ft 




D 



(Flag worn as Ensign.) 



'. John Cockerill, S.A 



n 

i'BelgianGulfOUCo. 




CHAPTER XLVI 

Naval Traditions and Customs 

TT is safe to say that no service in the world has such a wealth of tradition, customs 

and unwritten laws as the Royal Navy. The reason or origin for some is obvious, 
whilst that for others is lost in antiquity and can at best only be conjectured. 

Pernaps the best known to outsiders is that of saluting the Quarter-deck. Every 
officer or rating salutes the Quarter-deck and the most popularly held belief is that 
it originated from the days when a shrine or crucifix was carried aft and men crossed 
themselves or showed respect accordingly. Another theory is that it is saluted as 
being the place of command, the salute being for the Royal Authority behind the 
command. 

Officers salute when coming and going over the ship's side also, and a civilian should 
raise his hat in the same way. 

The Junior Officer gets into a boat first and leaves it last, unless he receives per- 
mission to do otherwise. One theory is that in the days when old wooden ships 
had high sides and were usually given a fresh coat of tar or paint when arriving 
off a port after being many days at sea, the junior officers managed to scrape off 
most of it on to their clothes before the turn came for the senior to come down. 
The most probable is, cuat it is merely a matter of courtesy to prevent keeping 
senior officers waiting in the small boat whilst juniors are coming down the gangway 
and to achieve the same effect at the other end. 

If the boat of some other ship has to be crossed to reach that of an officer's own 

599 



Ships and the Sea 
it is customary to ask t lie midshipman or coxswain in charge, " May I cross your 
boat please "; this is obviously just common courtesy. 

Crossing the line celebrations are probably the continuation of ages old religious 
rites; the Carthaginians sacrificed to their gods on passing the " limits of navigation," 
that is, to them, the Straits of Gibraltar; it is mentioned that in 1675 everyone 
had to pay a dollar or be ducked at the yard arm in passing through the Straits. In the 
eighteenth century also there were celebrations for passing through the Straits. The 
Norsemen held very special tests before a man was admitted to their navy and this 
may have something to do with the custom of having to pay a fine or to be "tested." 

The Royal Marine sentry on the forecastle always fires his rifle at sunset, a relic 
of the old days of flint-lock muskets, when it was done to ensure that the musket 
was properly charged for the hours of darkness. 

Firing salutes is a very old custom and was originally done with shotted guns. 
Not only are salutes fired on Royal birthdays, etc., but upon entering a foreign port 
the flag or office of the governor of the town is saluted. 

People of rank, both in and out of the Service, are also entitled to salutes from 
guns and there is a very rigid etiquette regarding it. 

Always an odd number of guns is fired, the top number for saluting rank being 
a Royal Salute of twenty-one guns. An Admiral of the Fleet is entitled to 19 and 
so on down the scale. 

The order of precedence of some of the ruling princes of India often causes con- 
fusion and it is always better to give more than the expected number, than less. 

Quite recently it was laid down that His Holiness the Pope shall be saluted on 
occasions when he may happen to be in a town or place visited by a British warship 
and he is entitled to one of twenty-one guns. 

One theory for courtesy salutes is that by having to unload guns for the purpose 
of saluting it was proof that a ship came to a port on a friendly visit. 

600 



BRAZIL 



| 




I. Costeira, C.N de N. 




Pereira, Carneira & 
Cia. Ltda. 



B 




|LN« 



E 




3. Lloyd Nacional, S.A. 



Lloyd Brasileiro, C 
deN. 



Naval Traditions and Customs 

The same theory applies to Manning -ship, because if everyone is on deck or aloft , 
the guns cannot be fired. 

Saluting Colours. — When Colours are hoisted in the morning they are saluted 
by the Colour Guard and by the band if the ship carries one; every officer who happens 
to be on deck turns aft and salutes while the National Anthem is being played; if 
in a foreign port, the National Anthem of that country is played after " The Kingc" 
This custom of guard for the Colours was instituted in 1797 by Lord St. Vincent, 
after the mutinies of that year. 

Colours. Colours for carrying when ashore in the same way as colours in the Army 
were only granted to the Royal Navy after the war; each Naval port has the King's 
Colour and the White Ensign defaced by a badge. 

King's Health is always drunk seated unless foreign officers are present. It is a 
much cherished privilege and there are many theories regarding its origin. 

The popular belief is that William IV, when serving m a warship, bumped 
his head against one of the beams in responding to this toast. Another is that 
George IV when Regent dined on board a man-of-war and, as the officers rose 
to drink his health he said, " Gentlemen, pray be seated, your loyalty is above 
suspicion." 

Quite possibly it may have originated because it was sometimes difficult to stand 
on account of the rolling of the ship. 

The President of the Wardroom Mess taps on the table with a mallet, and says, 
" Mr. Vice — the King," whereupon the Vice-President, the officer who happens to 
be at the foot of the table, lifts his glass and repeats, " Gentlemen — the King "; 
every officer present raises his glass whether there is anything in it or not and toasts 
" The King," sometimes accompanied by " God bless him." 

Passing of the Wine. Decanters of port and sherry are placed at the head, and 

601 



Ships and the Sea 

in the case of a large mess, at the foot as well, of the table with the dessert course 
and before the above ceremony, they are passed down each side, from right to left, 
when officers may, if they wish, charge their glasses. 

No one may smoke before the King's health is drunk — and it is courtesy not to 
light up even then until the President has done so or until he has given his permission. 

The King's health may be drunk in water if preferred. 

On Saturday nights at sea the toast in addition to " The King " is " Sweethearts 
and Wives." The reply is made by the junior unmarried officer present.. 

Table Etiquette. If an officer is late for dinner ho must apologize to the Mess 
President or he renders himself liable to a fine of port. 

No officer may leave the table before the passing of the wine without first asking 
permission of the President, who is elected weekly by the Mess Committee. 

There is no seating precedence at table beyond the fact that the President takes 
the head of the table, and no one need sit at the same place twice running unless 
he so desires. In this way the junior officer in the Mess may find himself next to 
the Commander, or even the Captain, if the latter is a guest of the Wardroom officers. 

An officer may ask for the wine to be passed round at his expense on occasions 
of his birthday, promotion, or if he is leaving to take up another appointment. 

Civilians dining in a warship should wear full evening dress even if the officers 
are wearing mess " undress " (corresponding to dinner jacket ashore). 

If the glasses are clinked accidentally it is said to be a forerunner of a sailor's 
death and may render the offender liable to a fine of port. 

Make and Mend. One afternoon a week, in addition to the week-end, is allowed 
as a holiday; it is usually a Thursday but can be varied to suit the convenience 
of the ship. On these days men used to, and still do, make and mend their clothes. 

Quarter-deck. The quarter-deck is reserved for the use of officers. If the Captain 
comes on deck the other officers cross to the port side, a custom from the old days 

602 



CHILI 



I 




Sud Americana de 
Vap., Comp. 




Braun and Blanchard, 
S.A. Comp. 




.Sen wager, Cia. 
Carbon, y de Fund. 



Naval Traditions and Customs 
when the port side was the side brought alongside the quay and in consequence 
hampered by brows and gangways. 

Starboard Side. For the above reason, the starboard side is the place of honour and 
senior officers and distinguished visitors are brought on board over this side if possible. 

Piping on Board. A very old custom, for which there is no actual authentic origin 
beyond the general custom of announcing all distinguished persons by fanfares of 
trumpets and so on. In sailing ship days, Captains visiting other ships often had to 
be hoisted on board in rough weather in Boatswains' chairs and pipes or calls had 
to be used to give the signal to hoist and vast (stop) hoisting. 

It is now customary to pipe twice, but in earlier days it was done three times. 

Splicing the Main Brace. The issue of an extra tot of rum; given very sparingly 
after a particularly arduous job or generally on some big occasion. The only three 
occasions on which the signal has been made since the war were on Armistice Day, 
1918, by order of the Commander-in-Chief, on the occasion of his late Majesty's 
inspection of the Fleet in 1931 and after the Jubilee Review in July, 1935. 

Oath of Allegiance. Officers of the Royal Navy and Royal Naval Reserve are not 
required to take the oath of allegiance to the Sovereign as their loyalty is taken for 
granted. This is a very cherished privilege not applying to the Royal Naval Volunteer 
Reserve. 

Small Boats. Getting in and out of boats has already been mentioned. The seats 
right aft are the seats of honour reserved for the senior officers. Boats with Gun- 
room officers only, come alongside the port gangway if there is one out on either side, 
for reasons already mentioned. • At night, boats under way are hailed by ships with 
cry, "Boat ahoy," and the answers are: 

If the boat coming alongside carries the Flag Officer or Captain, " the name of 
the ship," prefixed by " Flag ". If coming alongside with Wardroom officers, 
" Aye Aye ! " and with Gunroom officers, " No, no!" 

603 



Ships and the Sea 

Should the boat be passing the answer to the challenge will be " Passing." 
No weapon must be drawn in a mess without penalties and finally, speak of men as 
living in ships not on them; you don't live on a house and a good story is that of 
the old lady during the war, who told an acquaintance that her grandson, had 
a dreadful time out in the cold North Sea living on a torpedo, when all the time 
she wished to indicate that he lived in a (torpedo-boat) destroyer. 



604 



CHAPTER XL VII 

Ships' Badges and Naval Heraldry 

'"PHE origins and associations of flags used at sea have already been discussed 

in a separate chapter but there is a tremendous amount of interest to be had in 
the study of warship badges as well. 

From this year (1936) the designing of badges for ships of the Royal Navy has 
been in the hands of the Clarenceux King of Arms at the Royal College of Heraldry. 

Prior to the close of the war, in 1918, there was no system for allotting badges 
and crests and they were frequently the results of the artistic ingenuity of the 
commanding officers; perhaps a new Commander disapproved of the badge chosen 
by his predecessor, so that a multiplicity of designs for the same ship sprang up. 

Some of these unofficial badges were most ingenious and not always complimentary, 
although those for ships named after towns, cities or famous men were more often 
than not derived from the arms of the man or city as they are to-day. Here again, 
however, some were not correct because certain old-time Admirals and persons of 
rank adopted arms to which they were not entitled. 

The badge of H.M.S. Vivacious was a portrait of Mr. Lloyd George, whilst H.M.S. 
Tormentor had as her badge a large flea. One of the most popular in the fleet was 
that of H.M.S. Vanity, which depicted an alluring mermaid gazing at her reflected 
beauty in a hand mirror and the motto read: " If this be vanity who'd be wise." 

H.M.S. Conqueror chose the figure of Father Time with motto: " Tempus Omnia 

605 



Ships and the Sea 
Vincit." H.M. Destroyer Flirt adopted a butterfly and E.M.S. Spitfire had a cat 
with arched back and open mouth. 

All these were attractive but as has been said, they varied considerably from 
time to time and so in 191 S Major ffoulkcs suggested that a regular system should 
be introduced; the Admiralty agreed and Major ffoulkes held the post of 
honorary adviser until recently and was responsible for the design of over 550 
badges. 

In order to bo able to distinguish from a distance what class of ship the boats 
belonged to, it was decided to have different shapes for different classes and tests 
were carried out at Westminster to decide upon the most appropriate. 

As a result, the badges were fixed as follows : circular for Capital Ships, pentagonal 
for Cruisers, shield-shaped for Destroyers and diamond-shaped for all other classes. 
Each is enclosed by a border of cable and surmounted by the Naval Crown. 

The Naval Crown is very old and in a book dated 1746 called Signals for R.N. 
Convoys and Sailing and Fighting Instructions, there is an illustration of one with 
the following description: " Naval or Rostral Crown anciently given to the officers, 
etc., who were the first to grapple or board an enemy's ship," it is made up 
from sterns and sails of ships. 

At present the official badge is exhibited on the bows of the ship's boats, some- 
times up in front of the bridge of the ship, and usually on the inside of the doors 
leading into the after superstructure or the Captain's quarters. 

The same, or part of the same, badge usually appears on the brass tampions at 
the muzzles of the guns, although occasionally this may be a different one. 

The crest on the ship's note-paper and on ash-trays or mess plate is also usually 
all or a portion of the same badge, with the motto and name beneath on a scroll. 
Flagships often have a representation of the flag on their note-paper, and some 
ships boast more than one crest. 

606 



Naval Heraldry 




Naval Crown. 





H.M.S. "Hood: 
Battle-Cruiser. 



H.M.S. "London:' 
Cruiser. 




H.M.S. " Versatile.' 
Destroyer. 



607 



Ships and the Sea 

At regattas and concerts there is usually a large representation of the ship's badge 
prominently displayed to give encouragement to those taking part. 

The finding of suitable badges for some ships was extremely difficult, especially 
so for those named on the alphabetical system; those taking names of flowers or 
animals presented no such difficulty but there are still some very clever ones in exist- 
ence. 

H.M.S. Whitley displays the Speaker's Mace, Mr. J. H. Whitley being at that 
time Speaker of the House; H.M.S. Sterling shows a golden sovereign, with the motto, 
" Good as Gold." 

There are interesting histories about the names of these two vessels because the 
first was to have been called " Whitby " after the town and the second, " Stirling " 
also after the town of that name, but typists' errors occurred and the errors were 
not discovered until countless papers and books had been prepared and so to save 
the expense of new copies, the mistakes were allowed to stand. 

H.M.S. Dainty has a lady's fan with the motto " Dulce Quod Utile," whilst that 
of H.M.S. Eclipse is particularly subtle; it shows the golden sun almost eclipsed 
by the black disc of the moon and bears the motto " Nunquam." 

H.M.S. Tactician has a chess-board with the word " Check-mate." 

There is interesting history behind most of them and apart from their aesthetic 
value they help us to learn and prize the Royal Navy's traditions and a final example 
will suffice; H.M.S. Vindictive has for a badge a masculine right hand grasping a 
curved broad sword or scimitar; so far this is the same as that borne by her prede- 
cessors, but to perpetuate her immediate predecessor's gallant action on St. George's 
Day, 1918, the arm is shown protruding from a white smoke-screen significant of 
the smoke cloud used on that occasion. 



608 



CHAPTER XLVIII 

Types of Warships 

Capital Ships. 

(^APITAL ship is the name given to a warship powerful enough to lie in the 

line of battle corresponding to the line of battleship in the days of sail. There 
are two types to-day, the battleship and the battle -cruiser, but the latter type is 
dying out and it is doubtful if any further will be built. 

Battleships. — Until the advent of the Dreadnought in 1907, battleship design 
had proceeded on very similar lines throughout the world for many years; ships 
had been equipped with four large guns arranged in two turrets, one forward and 
one aft and a battery of smaller guns distributed along the broadside. Certain steps 
forward had been taken just before the Dreadnought by introducing 9-2-inch guns 
into this battery in place of 6 -inch. 

Dreadnought staggered the world by having ten large guns, and all subsequent 
ships throughout the world were designed on this " all big-gun " principle and were 
known as dreadnoughts or super dreadnoughts. 

Improvements in design were introduced into each succeeding class and the size 
of the big gun was increased from 12-inch, through 13*5 and 15 to the present 16 -inch 
in triple turrets of the Nelson class. 

The most successful group of capital ships ever designed anywhere is the Queen 
Elizabeth class carrying eight 15-inch guns apiece, all arranged on the centre line, 

609 



Ships and the Sea 

but the ships are very old now and it is difficult to know what form of ship is going 
to replace them. 

Battle-Cruisers. — Were introduced in l ( .) 11 and were first oalled " Dreadnought 
cruisers" because they introduced into the large armoured cruisers 1 lie dreadnought 
principle of all big guns. They wore not originally intended for tho line of battle, 
as, to attain their very high Speed, much greater than that of battleships, they had 
to sacrifice much armour and protection. Their prime role was to support cruiser 
squadrons, a role they filled to perfection at the Falklands Battle and not to act 
as battle squadrons, as at Jutland, where the type Buffered heavily. 

H.M.S. Hood is the largest warship afloat and tho finest type of battle -cruiser, 
although in her case she alight almost be de s cri bed as a fast battleship, because 
she has had so much armour protection worked into her since she was completed. 

Cruisers. 

Tho term cruiser covers a very wide type of ship, ranging from the large 
8-inch gunned ships of the " Treaty " types down to small ships which are little 
larger than destroyer flotilla leaders. Largo numbors of cruisers are required, 
rather than large ships of individual superiority, in order to protect the trade 
routes. 

Cruisers also act as advance " eyes " for the fleet in the same way as the frigates 
of Nelson's day, and the fleet has always been crippled by the shortage of these 
light ships. 

Cruiser design, last century and early this, advanced until the heavy armoured 
cruiser became the battle -cruiser and constructional design seems to go in cycles. 

During the war, large numbers of light cruisers were built and more required, 
but to-day we are back to the heavy type, almost the same as the old armoured 
cruiser although lacking the latter's protection. 

610 



Types of Warships 

The latest types, however, seem to show a return to sanity and our greatest need 
is for a large fleet of fast, comparatively small ships for commerce protection and 
for showing the flag in distant ports. 

Aircraft Carriers. 

This type only developed during and since the Great War; in the early days liners 
and small fast cross -channel ships were taken over and adapted to carry seaplanes. 
Still further developments took place when very extensive alterations were made 
to ships, and they were practically entirely rebuilt and re -modelled as a definite 
type, such as the Argus, which was actually being built in this country as an Italian 
liner. 

The first ship actually designed and built as an aircraft carrier was Hermes and 
she has proved very successful. The giant carriers of all nations were originally laid 
down as cruisers or battleships. One type has no funnels or superstructure at all, 
the smoke and gases being taken over the stern by ducts running along the sides 
and another type has all superstructure pushed over to one side, both types having 
the effect of leaving a very large unencumbered flight deck upon which planes can 
land or from which they can take off. 

The large carrier is a mixed blessing on account of her size and the amount of 
protection she needs in the way of destroyer screens ; she is very lightly armed and 
protected and one heavy bomb on her vast flight deck would almost put her out 
of action. 

The modern tendency is. for smaller, less unwieldy craft, and for each capital 
ship and cruiser to carry her own plane which can be catapulted off a turntable or 
from the top of a turret. 



611 



Ships and the Sea 

Destroyers and Flotilla Leaders. 

Towards the close of last century a very small fast ship called a torpedo boat 
was introduced into the world's navies; she was practically unprotected and carried 
torpedoes with the idea of creeping among the enemy fleet under cover of darkness, 
delivering the deathblow and dashing away before she could be caught; to counter 
these a type of craft called " Torpedo Catcher " or " Torpedo Gunboat " was designed, 
but their speed was quite inadequate for the purpose and they proved unsatisfactory. 
During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 torpedo boats of an enlarged type proved 
ideal for the double duty of acting as torpedo boats and for hunting down and 
destroying the smaller craft. Gradually this type completely superseded the torpedo 
boat, and the torpedo boat destroyer has become the destroyer of to-day, the most 
useful class of ship in the whole service. 

A flotilla leader is merely an enlarged destroyer fitted with accommodation for 
the senior officer commanding the flotilla and the size has increased in some navies 
until it has become almost a light cruiser. 

A British destroyer flotilla consists of eight destroyers and one leader. 

Submarines. 

The first submarines were placed in commission in the Royal Navy in 1902 and 
were small boats capable of remaining under water for three hours, with no living 
quarters for the crew, which numbered six. 

The largest ship in the Service now is the "X.I." carrying a crew of 110 and 
armed with four 5-2-inch guns in addition to six torpedo tubes. 

During the war very large submarines were built which were driven by steam when 
on the surface in order to give them a speed which bore comparison with the battle 
fleet. 

612 



Types ol Warships 
Small Craft and Auxiliaries. 

In addition to the craft mentioned above there are minesweepers and minelayers, 
sloops and river gunboats, principally in use on the Yangtsze, and various types 
of repair and floating depot ships capable of supplying the needs of most units of 
the fleet beyond large refits which necessitate a visit to the dockvards t 



613 



CHAPTER XLIX 

British Naval Weapons 

[TNTIL recently all large modern naval guns were wire-wound, that is to say 
the inner tube was wound round with as much as 150 miles of wire. 

The Calibre is the diameter of the bore and guns are spoken of as being of so many 
calibres in length. 

Muzzle Velocity is the speed with which the shell leaves the gun, probably as much 
as 3,150 feet per second. m 

Muzzle Energy is the force or energy with which the shell leaves the gun, and is 
probably as much as 84,000 foot tons. 

The hundred -pound 6 inch shell is the heaviest to be man-handled, all the rest 
being loaded into the guns by hydraulic lift3. 

All guns above and including 8 inch are in turrets and so are some of the 6 
inch. 

The remainder are in shields or behind splinter screens. 

Until the Nelson class of ship we never had more than two guns in each turret, 
although the United States had long adopted the idea and had been followed in 
a modified way by Russia and Italy. It was thought that the third gun deflected 
somewhat from accurate shooting and that it was concentrating too much in one 
turret which, in the event of a lucky shot, could be put out of action completely ; 
it was adopted by us because of the need to economise weight. 

614 



CHINA 




■ Hong Kong. Canton & 
Macao Steamboat Co. 
Ltd. 



i 




China Merchants' S.N. 
Co. 



British Naval Weapons 

Nowadays all turret guns are placed on the centre line of the ship, the most satis- 
factory system; previous to that they had been tried "en echelon" or stepways 
across the deck but the strain on the sides of the ship were too great, and then came 
the superimposed gun, one turret firing above another, and we were the first to 
adopt this in destroyers, a method which has since been copied by practically all 
navies. 

The Main or Primary Armament m the heavy ships means the turret guns, and 
the Secondary Armament, the batteries of lighter guns, usually distributed along 
the sides and originally put in with the idea of beating off destroyer attacks. 

The principal guns in use in the Service to-day are as below: — 



Calibre 



Length 



(in inches) 


(in calibres) 


16 


45 


15 


42 


8 


55 


7-5 


45-50 


6 


45-50 


5-5 


50 


4-7 


40-50 


4 


40-45 


3 


45 


;< Pom-pom " 


. 40 



Weight 
(in tons) 
1031 
97 
16 \ 
13|-16 
6*- Sh 



lh- 



3 
2 
1 

If cwt. 



Weight of Shell 

(in lbs.) 

2,461 

1,920 

256 

200 

100 

82 

45-50 

31 

12-16 



Mines, Torpedoes and Depth Charges. 

The old type torpedo used to be a sort of rocket-like looking affair, fixed on to 
the end of a pole which was held by a bold operator standing in a small, fast-moving 

615 



Ships and the Sea 
boat, and which was discharged upon the latter's coming right on to the enemy 
ship, with very much more prospect of blowing the operator to pieces than of doing 
much harm to the intended victim. 

The modern torpedo is discharged from surface or submerged tubes, and on striking 
the water it is propelled by its own engines and kept on its course by gyroscopes. 

Most destroyers have deck tubes, sometimes grouped in threes or fours, and most 
capital ships have them submerged well below the water-line. 

The torpedo is driven by compressed air stored in an air-chamber and the air 
on being released is heated and expanded in a small engine which turns twin screws, 
one moving " clockwise " and the other " anti-clockwise." The war-head contains 
about 200 pounds of wet gun-cotton and is exploded on contact with the enemy ship. 

It is about twenty feet long and varies in girth from eighteen to twenty-four and 
a half inches, travels at a speed of about forty knots and has a range of three miles 
(effective). 

For practice purposes the war-head is removed and a weighted dummy substi- 
tuted; even this is a costly weapon and it is sometimes very difficult to recover after 
firing as it is not easy to spot such a small thing if there is anything of a sea on ; 
search continues for hours and even more so in these days of economy, although 
probably very much more fuel is expended by the seeking destroyers than would 
cover the cost of the lost torpedo. 

Mines are simply thin metal casings containing heavy charges weighing in all 
about 650 pounds, which explode on contact with a ship or other object. 

They came into prominence during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 and several 
splendid ships were sent to the bottom. 

They are of two classes, Observation and contact. The former is principally used 
for defending harbours or ports and is exploded when a ship passes over it, by an 
observer ashore by means of an electric current. 

616 



FINLAND 



i 




l. Finska Angfartygs 




2. Finland South America 
Line. 



DENMARK 




a 



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British Naval Weapons 

The contact mine is laid in the open sea and exploded immediately upon contact, 
the actual explosion being caused by the driving in of a " horn " which causes the 
fulminate of mercury contained in a glass tube to detonate. 

Contact mines are usually laid in fields and are anchored by a cable and heavy 
weight to the sea bed, the mines themselves floating a few feet below the surface ; 
they are either independent or else linked together so that it is next to impossible 
to avoid them all. 

They are laid by special craft or by destroyers fitted with mine rails and are just 
dropped over the stern or through a hole cut in the stern. 

They are swept up by drifters or vessels especially equipped with heavy sweeping 
gear, more or less in the same manner as fish are trawled for. 

The Paravane, invented during the last war, is carried on the bow of a ship and 
pushes the mines away from the side, brings them to the surface and cuts their 
mooring ropes and renders the ship carrying it practically immune from danger 
unless the actual stem comes into contact with a mine. 

Depth charges were introduced in the last war also and are simply large tins 
containing explosive charges which are dropped over the stern or thrown by special 
guns and which are set to explode at a given depth. They are the greatest weapon 
for use against submarines as their explosive range is big and a submarine ringed 
by several charges stands very little chance of escape. 



617 



CHAPTER L 

Royal Navy 

Personnel of the Royal Navy (including Royal Marines). 

Just under 95,000 in 1935 compared with over 146,000 in 1914. Figures (taken 
to the nearest thousand) for the following powers may be interesting: — 

United States . . 108,000 in 1935 compared with 67,000 in 1914. 

Japan .... 88,000 in 1935 „ „ 51,000 in 1914. 

France . . . 63,000 in 1935 „ „ 70,000 in 1914. 

Italy .... 55,000 in 1935 „ „ 40,000 in 1914. 



Ships of the Royal Navy. 

Figures for the principal naval powers are as under (excluding sloops, minelayers 
and all auxiliary craft): — 











Position {compared with 




1914. 


1918. 


1935. 


1914). 


British Empire 


. 467 


738 


278 


40% Decrease 


United States 


. 153 


260 


352 


130% Increase 


Japan 


. 116 


140 


203 


75% Increase 


France 


. 202 


203 


195 


3% Decrease 


Italy 


92 


162 
618 


181 


96% Increase 



Royal Navy 
A more detailed list of the various classes of ships is as follows:- 



British Empire. 


U.S.A. 


Japan, 


France. 


Italy. 


Capital Ships . 15 


15 


9 


9 


4 


Cruisers . 51 


26 


36 


44 


24 


Destroyers . 161 


227 


101 


46 


94 


Submarines . 51 


84 


57 


96 


59 



It must be remembered that whilst most of the British fleet has seen heavy war 
service, the foreign fleets are for the most part comprised of new and efficient ships ; 
1 year of war is reckoned as being equal to 2 of peace and some of our destroyers 
are incapable of keeping the seas. A certain number of ships are building, but they 
are nearly all replacements in the case of Britain and unless new provision is made 
our cruiser strength at the end of 1936 will be down to 36. 

Germany is allowed up to 35 per cent of British strength, but here again all the 
construction is modern. 

Distribution of the Fleet. 

The Royal Navy is at present distributed as follows: — ■ 

The Home Fleet, known formerly as the Atlantic Fleet and before that the 

Channel Fleet. 
The Mediterranean Fleet. 

The China Squadron, East Indies, American, African and West Indies Stations. 
The New Zealand Division. 
The Royal Australian Navy. 
The Royal Canadian Navy. 

The Royal Indian Navy, known until 1935 as the Royal Indian Marine. 

619 



Ships and the Sea 

Colouring. 

Ships of the Home Fleet are painted dark grey and those of the Mediterranean, 
New Zealand and Australian fleets, light grey. 

Cruisers and sloops on China Station have whito hulls and grey upperworks and 
funnels. 

Ships in East Indies and Red Sea and on American and West Indies Stations have 
white hulls with primrose yellow masts, funnels and yards. 

Sloops only, on American and West Indies and African Stations are grey all over. 

Fishery Protection Vessels, Depot Ships and many auxiliaries in Home waters 
have black hulls, light grey upperworks, and funnols varying between white, grey 
and black, submarines are painted on the ''protective colouring" systom. Those in 
Atlantic are grey green, those in the Mediterranean are royal blue and those in the 
Red Sea are black. 

The principal dockyards aro at: Portsmouth, Dovonport, Chatham and Sheerness 
at home, and at Gibraltar, Malta, Singapore, Hong Kong, Sydney, Bombay, Ascension, 
Bermuda, Halifax and Simon's Bay throughout the Empire. 

Scapa Flow, Cromarty and Portland are fleet bases. 

There are fortified fuelling bases at: Aden, Colombo, Mauritius, Cape Coast Castle, 
Port Stanley (Falklands), St. Helena, Sierra Leone and King George Sound, and 
unfortified fuelling depots at Auckland, Bridgetown, Brisbane, Cyprus, Durban, 
Hobart, Kingston (Jamaica), Perim, Penang, St. Lucia, Suez, Walvis Bay and 
Wei-hai-wei. 



620 



BRITISH 



Uniforms. 



♦Admiral, \ ice -Admiral. Rear- Admiral Commodoref Captain, 
or Commodore (2nd Class) 
(1st Class) 




Commander. Lieutenant- Lieutenant. Sub -Lieutenant. 
Commander. 

* Admiral of the Fleet has one stripe more than Admiral, i.e. four in all. 
t Ring separated from top stripe. 

621 



CHAPTER LI 

Ships of the Royal Navy and Dominion 
Navies arranged in Classes 

{Drawings not all to Scale) 

r ~pONNAGE is given in round figures only and in the case of a class of ship the average 

tonnage is given. On]}' the principal guns are shown and all ships have in addition 
a considerable number of smaller weapons. 

Ships of the Dominion Navies are included in this list. 
Battleships. Nelson Class. 

Nelson. Rodney. 

33,500 tons and 33,900 tons; 702 feet long overall; 46,000 S.H.P., 23 knots; built 
in 1927; 9 16-inch, 12 6-inch, 6 4* 7-inch A. A., 2 torpedo tubes. Nelson carries one 
plane. Known in fleet as " Queen Anne's Mansions " because the great bridge 
structure bears some resemblance to the well-known block of flats in London; also 
spoken of as " The Cherry Tree Class " because they were cut down by Washington 
(Treaty), being originally designed as larger ships. Complement: 1,361. 

Royal Sovereign Class. 

Ramillles. Resolution. Revenge. Royal Oak. Royal Sovereign. 

29,150 tons; 615/620 feet long overall; built 1916/1917; 8 15-inch, 12 6-inch, 4 
4-inch A. A., 2 torpedo tubes. Royal Sovereign and Ramillies carry plane which is 
catapulted off " X " turret. Ramillies has a tripod mainmast and larger bridges, 
Resolution has a large clinker-screen on funnel. 42,000 S.H.P., 22 knots. Complement: 
1,000/1,150. Queen EUzabeth d^^ 

Barham. Malaya. Queen Elizabeth. Valiant." Warspite. 

31,100 tons; 640 feet long overall; built 1915/1916; 8 15-inch, 12 6-inch, 4 4-inch 
A. A., 2 torpedo tubes; 77,000 S.H.P., 25 knots. Barham and Valiant carry a plane 

622 




Nelson and Rodney, 



Resolution. 




Royal Sovereign Class (Ramxllies has tripod mast) 
623 




Queen Elizabeth Class (Babham has tripod mast) 




Renown, Repulse. 
624 



Royal Navy 
which is catapulted off " X " turret. Barham has tripod to mainmast. All originally 
had two well-proportioned funnels but forward one was trunked into the after one 
and bridges were built up. Complement: 1,120/1,190. 

Battle Cruisers. 

Hood. 

42,100 tons; 861 feet long overall; 144,000 S.H.P., 31 knots; built in 1920; 
8 15-inch, 12 5'5-inch, 4 4-inch A.A., 6 torpedo tubes. Largest warship in the world 
and unequalled in appearance. Complement: 1,340. 

Renown. Repulse. 

32,000 tons; 794 feet long overall; 112,000 S.H.P., 28 knots; built in 1916; 6 15-inch, 
12 4-inch, 4 4-inch A. A., 2 torpedo tubes in Benown and 10 in Repulse. Complement : 
1,180/1,200. 

Cruisers. 

Southampton Class (Building) 
Birmingham. Newcastle. 

Glasgow. Sheffield. 

Liverpool. Southampton. 

Manchester. 

9,000 tons; 584 feet long; 96,000 S.H.P., 32 knots; 12 6-inch, 8 4-inch A.A., 
8 torpedo tubes (quadrupled, on deck) ; 2 aircraft and 1 catapult. Improved Amphions, 
which they resemble in appearance, but they have 3 guns in each turret. Southampton 
was originally named Polyphemus and Newcastle was originally named Minotaur. 
Complement: 700. 

x 625 




Leander Class. 




Amphion Class. 
626 




ferance et d'Arme- 
ment, S.A. 

j (Cargo vessels.) 




7. Afncaine d'Armement 
Cie. 



I 




8. Auxiliairede Nav. # Cte. 
(Tankers.) 




14. Cyp. Fabre 






15. Chargeurs Reurus 
Cie. F. de Nav. 




16 Sud-Atlantique, Cie. 
de N. 



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■ IS I A 




County Classes 

All ships not alike and in some, quarter-deck is being dropped one deck 
lower and large hangars are being put in between third funnel and 

mainmast. 




Enterprise (Note forward turret). 
Emerald similar but without forward turret. 
629 




Delhi, Despatch, Durban. 




Danae, Dauntless, Dragon. 

(Similar to above but without trawler bow.) 

630 




Hawkins, Effingham. 

Frobisher, similar 

Vindictive „ but with hangar forward of bridge. 




Capetown, Cairo, Calcutta, Carlisle, Colombo. 
(Trawler bow.) 

631 



Ships and the Sea 

County Class. 
Australia (R.A. Navy). Kent. 

Berwick. London. 

Canberra (R.A. Navy). Norfolk. 

Cornwall. Shropshire. 

Cumberland. Suffolk 

Devonshire. Sussex. 

Dorsetshire. 
9,800 tons; 633 feet long overall; 80,000 S.H.P., 32-25 knots; built between 1927 
and 1929; 8 8-inch, 4 4-inch A. A., 8 torpedo tubes (quadrupled, on deck). First 
cruisers built under Washington " Treaty " conditions. Each carries 1 plane and cata- 
pult and the ships vary considerably in appearance, some having bridge and foremast 
much closer to first funnel; as originally built they had much shorter funnels. 
Complement: 650. 

" E " Class. 
Emerald. Enterprise. 

7,600 tons; 570 feet long overall; 80,000 S.H.P., 33 knots; built in 1926; 7 6-inch, 
3 4-inch A. A., 16 torpedo tubes (quadrupled, on deck). Each carries one aircraft 
and catapult. Number 2 gun in Enterprise is in turret. Complement: 570. 

" D " Class. 

Danae. Diomede. 

Dauntless. Dragon. 

Delhi. Dunedin. 

Despatch. Durban. 

4,900 tons; 473 feet long overall; 40,000 S.H.P., 29 knots; built in 1918/1922; 
6 0-inch, 3 4-inch A. A., 12 torpedo tubes (tripled, on deck). Diomede and Dunedin 

632 




Ceres, Cardiff, Coventry, Curacoa, Curlew. 




Caledon. 
(also Calypso, Caradoc without flight platform.) 

633 



Ships and the Sea 

belong to New Zealand Division and former has Number 1 gun in turret, 
plement : 450. 



Com- 



Effingham. 
Frobisher. 



Improved Birmingham Class. 



Hawkins. 
Vindictive. 



9,800 tons; 605 feet long overall; 65,000 S.H.P., 30 knots; 7 7-5-inch, 3 4-inch 
A.A., 6 torpedo tubes. Magnificent ships due to be scrapped this year. Built 1924 
and 1925 except Hawkins, 1919. Vindictive has Number 2 gun removed to form 
hanger in front of bridge. Complement: 750. To have 7-5-inch guns removed 
and 6-inch put in their place. 



Cairo. 

Calcutta. 

Capetown. 



Carlisle Class. 



Carlisle. 
Colombo. 



Cardiff. 

Ceres. 

Coventry. 



Ceres Class. 



Curacoa. 
Curlew. 



4,300 tons; 450 feet long overall; 40,000 S.H.P., 29 knots; 5 6-inch, 2 3-inch A. A., 
8 torpedo tubes (quadrupled, on deck). Last five do not have trawler bows. Built 
between 1917 and 1919 except Capetown, 1922. Complement: 440. 



634 



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Seeverkehrs. . J 





Argus. 




Furious. 




Courageous and Qlqrious. 
635 



Ships and the Sea 

Early " O M ( '/'/--■. 

caledon. ( ahadoc. 

Calypso. 

4,200 tons; 450 feet long overall; 40,000 S.H.P., 29 knots; built 1917, 5 6-inch, 
2 3-inch A. A. Complement: 440. 

Adelaide Class (R.A. Navy). 

Adklaide. 

5,100 tons; 402 feet long overall; 25,000 S.H.P., 25-5 knots; built 1922; 9 6-inch, 
1 3-inch A. A., 2 torpedo tubes. 

Aibcraft Carriers. 

Courageous. Glorious. 

22,500 tons; 786 feet long overall; 90,000 S.H.P., 30 knots; built in 1917 and 
converted from light cruisers of shallow draught. Carry about 40 planes each and 
superstructure and funnels are right over on starboard side. Complement: 750 
(1,200 with R.A.F.). 

Argus. 

14,450 tons; 565 feet long overall; 20,000 S.H.P., 20 knots; 6 4-inch A. A., 20 planes. 
Originally being built as Italian liner but was purchased by British Government 
and completed in 1918. Complement 370. 

Ark Royal (Building), 

636 



Eagle. 




Ships and the Sea 

Eagle. 
22,600 tons; 667 feet long overall; 50,000 S.H.P., 24 knots; built in 1923; 9 6-inch, 
5 4-inch. Laid down as Chilean battleship but purchased by British Government 
and completed as carrier; superstructure and funnels right over on starboard side. 
Complement: 750. 

Furious. 
22,450 tons; 786 feet long overall; 90,000 S.H.P., 31 knots; built in 1925; 10 5-5- 
inch, 6 4-inch A.A. Carries about 30 planes. Originally designed as light cruiser 
of shallow draught but converted to carrier and at one time had large funnel. 
Complement: 750 (1,200 with R.A.F.). 

Hermes. 
10,850 tons; 598 feet long overall; built 1923; 6 5-5-inch, 3 4-inch A.A. ; can carry 
20 planes; 40,000 S.H.P., 25 knots. First ship actually designed as a carrier; super- 
structure and funnel right over on starboard side. Complement: 660. 

Seaplane Carriers. 

Albatross (R.A. Navy). 

4,800 tons; 443 feet long overall; 21 knots; built 1928; 4 4-7-inch; carries 9 sea- 



Pegasus. 
Now employed in experimental work. 

638 




CODRINGTON Class. 




Bruce Class. 




Broke Class. 
639 



Flotilla Leaders. 



Ships and the Sea 

Post War Types. 



codrington. 
Duncan. 
Keith. 
Kempenfelt. 



Exmouth. 
Faulknor. 
Grenville. 
Hardy. 



All about 1,400/1,500 tons; 322/342 feet long overall; 4 or 5 4-7-inch guns, 8 torpedo 
tubes (quadrupled, on deck). All very similar in appearance. 34/39,000 S.H.P., 
34/36 knots. Built 1928/1935. Complement: 175. 



Scott Class 



Bruce. 
Campbell. 
Douglas. 
Mackay. 



Malcolm. 
Montrose. 
Stuart. (R.A.N.) 



1,500 tons; 332 feet long overall; 5 4-7-inch, 1 3-inch A. A., 6 torpedo tubes (tripled, 
on deck); 40,000 S.H.P., 36-5 knots. Complement: 180. 



Broke. 

Keppel. 

Shakespeare. 



Shakespeare Class. 



Spenser. 
Wallace. 



1,500 tons; 329 feet long overall; 40,000 S.H.P., 36 knots; 5 4-7-inch, 1 3-inch 
A. A., 6 torpedo tubes (tripled, on deck); built 1919/1925. Complement: 180. 



640 



GREECE 



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2 - kundis Ltd. 



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6. M. A. Embiricos 



Royal Navy 

Destroyers. 

" A," " B," " 0," " D," " E," " F," " G," " H," " I " Classes of destroyers, all 
have same general outline and armament but varying considerably in bridge work, 
size of funnels and so on. 

1,350 tons; 323 feet long overall; 34,000 S.H.P., 35-5 knots; 4 4-7-inch, 8 torpedo 
tubes. Complement: 145. 

" I " Glass (Building). 
Icarus. Inglefield. 

Ilex. Intrepid. 

Imogen. Isis. 

Imperial. Ivanhoe. 

Impulsive. 

Hero Class (completed 1935/36). 
Hasty. Hostile. 

Havock. Hotspur. 

Hereward. Hunter. 

Hero. Hyperion. 

Greyhound Class (completed 1935/36). 
Gallant. Greyhound. 

Garland. Griffin. 

Gipsy. Glowworm. 

Grenade. Grafton. 

Fearless Class (completed 1934/35). 
Fame. Forester. 

Fearless. Fortune, 

flredrake. foxhound. 

Foresight. Fury. 

641 



Ships and the Sea 

Eclipse Class (completed 1934). 



Echo. 


Escapade. 


Eclipse. 


Escort. 


Electra. 


Esk. 


Encounter. 


Express. 




Defender Class (completed 1932/33). 


Dainty. 


Delight. 


Daring. 


Diamond. 


Decoy. 


Diana. 


Defender. 


Duchess. 




Canadian Class (R.C.N.). 


Saguenay. 


Skeena. 




Crusader Class (completed 1932). 


Comet. 


Crusader. 


Crescent. 


Cygnet. 



Amazon. 

Basilisk. 
Beagle. 
Blanche. 
Boadicea. 



! A " Class, 



Ambuscade. 



Beagle Class (completed 1931). 



Boreas. 
Brazen. 
Brilliant. 
Bulldog. 



642 



\m 



6. Gerolomich & Co. 




Veneziana, S. di Nav 
a Vap. 




D. & Ci. Tripcovich, 
S.A. di Nav. 




Lloyd Triestino. 

(White hulls.) 





m 



Libera Triestina, 
Nav. 




Adriatica Comp. di 
Nav. 

(Mostly white hulls.) 



^'"Adria", S.A. diNa- 



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Italo-Somala, S.A. 



IB 



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" E " and " F " Classes. 
{Except Esk and Express.) 




" C " and " D " Class. (Note bridge.) 




" A " and " B " Class. 
643 



Ships and the Sea 



AOASTA. 

Achates. 
Acheron. 
Activk. 



xVansittart. 

xVenomous. 

xVerity. 

Veteran, 
xvolunteer. 
xWanderer. 
xWhitehall. 



A casta Class (completed 1929). 

Antelope. 
Anthony. 
Ardent. 
Arrow. 



Admiralty Modified " \Y 



Class. 

Whitshed. 
Wild Swan. 

WlTHERINGTON. 
WlVERN. 

Wolverine. 
Worcester. 
xWren. 



1,100 tons average; 312 feet long overall; 27,000 S.H.P., 34 knots; 4 4-7-inch, 
6 torpedo tubes (tripled, on deck). Built between 1919 and 1924. Complement: 135. 

Those marked x have tall thin fore funnel and short fat aft one, those not marked 
have tall thick fore funnel and short thin aft one. 



Admiralty 
Valentine. 
Valkyrie. 
Valorous. 

Vampire (R.A. Navy). 
Vanessa. 
Vanity. 



Vanoc. 

Vanquisher. 

Vectis. 

Velox. 

Vendetta 

Vega. 



644 



Royal Navy 
Admiralty " F" Class — contd. 



Venetia. 

Venturous. 

Verdun. 

Versatile. 

Vesper. 

VlDETTE. 



VlMIERA. 
VlMY. 

Violent. 
Vivacious. 
Vivien. 
Vortigern. 



1,100 tons; 312 feet long overall; 27,000 S.H.P., 34 knots; 4 4-ineh, 6 torpedo 
tubes, except Velox, Versatile, Vimy and Vortigern, which have 5. Built 1918. 
Appearance similar to those of modified " W " class marked x. 



Admiralty " W " Class. 

Voyager. Westminster. 

Wakeful. Whirlwind. 

Walker. Whitley. 

Walpole. Winchelsea. 

Walrus. Winchester. 

Warwick. Windsor. 

Watchman. Wolfhound. 

Waterhen (R.A. Navy). Wrestler. 

Wessex. Wryneck. 
Westcott. 

1,100 tons; 312 feet long overall; 27,000 S.H.P., 34 knots; 4 4-inch, 6 torpedo 

tubes (tripled, on deck). Built 1918. Very similar in appearance to above classes 
but have taller mainmast. 

645 



Ships and the Sea 

Thornycrojt Modified M W " Class. 
WiMiAHT. Witch. 

1,100 tons; 312 feet long; 30,000 S.H.P., 35 knots; 4 4-7-inch, 6 torpedo tubes 
(tripled, on deck). Built 1920 and 1924. Almost equal height funnels and fore mas t 
is large flat-sided. 

Thornycrojt " IT" CUu 

WOLSI.V. W'OOLSTON. 

Same as above but built in 1918 and large flat-sided after funnel. 



Admiralty " S " Class. 



Sabre. 

Salad in. 

Sardonyx. 

Scimitar. 

Scotsman. 

Scout. 

Searcher. 

Shamrock. 

Shikari. 

Spindrift. 

Sportive. 

Stronghold. 



Sturdy. 

Tenedos. 

Thanet. 

Thracian. 

Trojan. 

Trusty. 

Turbulent. 

Stalwart. 

Success. 

Swordsman. 

Tasmania. 

Tattoo. 



VR.A.N. 



900 tons; 276 feet long overall; 27,000 S.H.P., 36 knots; 3 4-inch, 4 torpedo tubes 
Built in 1918, except Shikari, 1924, and Thracian, 1922. Complement: 100. 

646 



Royal Navy 

Thorny croft "S" B.C. Navy. 
Champlain. Vancouver. 

1,100 tons; 276 feet long overall; 29,000 S.H.P., 36 knots; 3 4-inch, 4 torpedo 
tubes. Built in 1919. 

Thorny croft " V " 
Viceroy. Viscount. 

Same as other " V " class but in appearance can be distinguished by short mainmast. 



Restless. 


Admiralty " R ' 


Class. 


Tempest. 


Rowena. 






Thrtjster. 


Sable. 






Torrid. 


Skate. 









900 tons; 276 feet long overall; 27,000 S.H.P., 36 knots; 3 4-inch, 4 torpedo tubes. 
Built in 1917 and to be disposed of this year. Complement: 100. 

Submarines. (First speed is surface and second submerged). 
Porpoise Class (Minelayers). 
Grampus. • Porpoise. 

Narwhal. Rorqual. 

1,500/2,100 tons; 270 feet long; 3,300/1,600 H.P., 15/8-75 knots; 1 4-inch, 8 torpedo 
tubes. Built between 1933 and 1936. Complement: 55* 

647 




Viceroy, Vim OUHT, WOLSKY, WoOLSTON. 



r^3t 



IMS5 




I wmXzm i d M&Zx* 



11 V " and " W " Classes (40). 




Veteran, Wild Swan, Wivern, Whitstied, 
wltherington, wolverine, worcester. 

648 



Royal Navy 

Thames Class. 
Clyde. Thames. 

Severn. 

1,800/2,700 tons, 325 feet long, 1 4-inch, 6 torpedo tubes; 22-5/10 knots. Built 
between 1932 and 1935. Thames was first submarine to exceed 21 knots. 
Complement: 60. 

Rainbow Class. 
Rainbow. Regulus. 

Regent. Rover. 

1,500/2,000 tons; 260 feet long; 4,400/1,300 H.P., 17-5/9 knots; 1 4-inch, 8 torpedo 
tubes. Built between 1930 and 1932. Complement: 50. 



Parthian Class. 




Pandora. 


Phoenix 


Parthian. 


Proteus. 


Perseus. 




e " O " Class but have a higher speed. 




Odin Class. 




Odin. 


Osiris. 


Olympus. 


Oswald. 


Orpheus. 


Otus. 


649 





Ships and the Sea 

Oberon Class. 
Oberon. Oxxey. 

Otway. 

1,400/2,000 tons; 280 feet long overall; 3,000 to 4,000/1,350 H.P.; 1 4-inch, 
8 torpedo tubes. Vary in appearance about conning towers and Oberon has a " Bull " 
nose. Complement : 54. 

" X " Class. 

X 1. 
2,400/3,600 tons; 350 feet long; 6,000/2,600 H.P., 19-5/9 knots; 4 5-2-inch, 
6 torpedo tubes; built 1925. Complement: 110. 

Swordfish Class. 
Seahorse. Sturgeon. 

Starfish. Swordfish. 

640/900 tons; 200 feet long; 1 3-inch, 6 torpedo tubes; 13/10 knots. Complement: 40. 

Shark Class. 
Salmon. Snapper. 

Sealion. Spearfish. 

Seawolf. Sunfish. 

Shark. 

Same as above; built between 1932/35. 

"H" Class. 

H.28. H.33. H.44. 

H.31. H.34. H.49. 

H.32. H.43. H.50. 

400/500 tons; 170 feet long; 4 torpedo tubes; 13/10 knots; built 1918. Complement : 

22. 

650 




Rainbow Class. 




Oxley, Otway. Odin Class. 
(Note bow.) 



Ships and the Sea 



L.18. 
L.19. 
L.21. 
L.23. 
800/1,500 tons; 



235 feet long overall; 



1 Class. 












L.26. 










L.56. 


L.27. 










L.69. 


L.53. 










L.71. 


L.54. 












1 4 -inch, 


6 


Of 


4 


torpedc 


• tubes 



17-5/10-5 



knots; built 1918/1924. Complement: 40. 

Cruiser Minelayer. 

Adventure. 
7,300 tons; 520 feet long overall; 40,000 S.H.P., 27-75 knots; built 1927; 4 4-7-inch 
A. A., 340 mines carried and lowered through holes in stern. Diesel-electric for 
cruising purposes and thin funnel is for Diesel. Complement: 400. 

Net Laying and Target Towing Ships. 

Guardian. Protector (Building). 

2,900 tons; 310 feet long; 6,500 H.P., 18 knots; 2 4-inch A.A. Built in 1932; 
designed for net-laying and photographic work. 

Minesweepers. 

Twin Screw Class. 

Aberdare. Elgin. Saltash. 

Abingdon. Fareham. Saltburn. 

Albury. Fermoy. Selkirk. 

Alresford. Forres. Stoke. 

Bagshot. Huntley. Sutton. 

Derby. Lydd. Ted worth, 

dundalk. pangbourne. tlverton. 

Dunoon. Ross. Widnes. 

652 






Royal Navy 



Halcyon. 

Hussar. 

Harrier. 



Halcyon Class. 
Niger. 
Salamander. 



Skipjack. 
Speedwell. 



Sloops. 



Grimsby Class. 
Grimsby. Lowestoft. 

Leith. Wellington. 

1,000 tons; 2 4-7-inch, 1 3-inch A.A. Built 1933/1935. Complement: 100. 
Grimsby Class (Building). 



Londonderry. 
Aberdeen. 

BlDEFORD. 

Dundee. 

Falmouth. 

Fowey. 

Folkestone. 
Hastings. 



Shoreham Class. 



Hastings Class. 



Fleetwood. 
Deptford. 

Milford. 
Rochester. 
Shoreham. 
Weston. 

Penzance. 
Scarborough. 



1,100 tons; 2 4-inch A.A.; 16 knots. Built 1928/32. 

Bridgewater Class. 



Bridgewater. 



Sandwich. 



653 



Ships and the Sea 
Anchusa Class. 



Bryony. 




Harebell. 


Chrysanthemum. 


Arabis Class. 




GODETIA. 




Rosemary. 


Lupin. 


Acacia Class. 
Foxglove. 




Coastal Convoy Sloops. 






Kingfisher. 




Puffin. 


Kittiwake. 




Sheldrake. 


Mallard. 






600 tons; 1 4-inch; 20 knots. 


Built 1935 and 1936. 


Complement: 60. 


River Gunboats. 






Aphis. 


Cricket. 


Moth. 


Bee. 


Gnat. 


Scarab. 


Cicala. 


Ladybird. 


Tarantula. 


Cockchafer. 


Mantis. 


Robin. 


Small River Gunboats. 






Falcon. 


Petrel. 


Seamew. 


Gannet. 


Sandpiper. 


Tern. 


Monitors. 






Erebus. 


Medusa. 


Minerva. 


Marshal Soult. 


Melpomene. 
654 


Terror. 



Patrol Boats. 
Dart. 
Spey. 

Depot Ships. 

Alecto. 
Cyclops. 
Greenwich. 
Lucia. 

Repair Ships. 

Assistance. 
Resource. 

Hospital Ship. 

Maine. 

Surveying Ships. 

Beaufort. 

Challenger. 

Endeavour. 

Fitzroy. 

Flinders. 



Royal Navy 

P.40. 
P.59. 



P.C.74. 



Medway. 

Penguin (R.A. Navy). 

Sandhurst. 

TlTANIA. 

Woolwich. 



Herald. 

Iroquois. 

Kellett. 

Moresby (R.A. Navy). 

Ormonde. 



Yachts. 



Enchantress (Admiralty Yacht and also used as sloop). 
Victoria and Albert (Royal Yacht). 



Target Vessel. 

Centurion (Old Battleship; wireless controlled). 
655 



Ships and the Sea 
Training Ship (Gunnery). 

Iron Duke (Former flagship of the Grand Fleet). 
Demilitarised under London Treaty but formerly carried 10 13-5-inch, 12 6-inch 
and was flagship of Lord Jellicoo at Jutland, 1916. 




Iron Duke. 




Adventure. 
656 



Uniforms. 

Insignia of rank on Sleeves 



FRANCE 



BBRIs 

V.A. V.A. in Vice- Contre- Capitaine 

Chief Command Amiral. Amiral. de 

of Staff, of Forces. vaisseau. 

rresponding to British Vice- Ad. Bear-Ad. Captain. 



Vice- Ad. Bear-Ad. 



SBIII 



Capitaine Capitaine 

de de 

fregate. corvette. 



Corresponding \ Comm > der Lieut. 
to British J 



Comm'der. 



Lieutenant Enseigne. Enseigne 

de 2e classe. 

vaisseau. 

Lieut. t . Lie . ut \ Sub-Lieut. 
(junior.) 

667 



CHAPTER LII 

Representative Ships of Foreign Navies 

FRANCE 

B6am. Aircraft Carrier. 22,100 tons; 600 feet long overall; 37,000 S.H.P. 
21»5lknots; built in 1927; 8 6-1-inch, 6 3-inch A.A. About 40 aircraft. Laid down 
in 1914 as battleship. 



;5SpP 







r 







B£abn (funnel on starboard side). 
658 




I. Kawasaki Kisen K.K. 



| 



i 




^ 



6. Kokusai Kisen K.K. 7- K- 



IP 

I. Kawasaki Kisen K.K 

w 

6. Kokusai Kisen K.K. 



11 
1 




r. Kawasaki Kisen K.K. 



JAPAN 



3. Osaka Shosen K.K. 

■Q 

Lfl 



IS 



|. Mitsui Bussan K. Ltd. 



$. Nippon Yusen K.K. 




Representative Ships of the French Nayy 




Courbet. Jean Bart. 




Paris. 



Courbet, Jean Bart, Paris. Battleships. 28,000 S.H.P., 20 knots; built in 1913 
and 1914; 12 12-inch, 22 5-5-inch, 7 3-inch A.A., 4 torpedo tubes. 

659 



Ships and the Sea 




Lorraine. Bretagne. Provence. 

Bretagne, Lorraine, Provence. Battleships. TF 22,100 tons; 21 knots; 544 feet 
long overall; built in 1915 and 1916; 10 13-4-inch, 14 5-5 inch, 4 3-9-inch, 4 torpedo 
tubes. 




Algerie. 
Algerie. Cruiser. 84,000 S.H.P., 31 knots; 10 
built in 1934; 8 8-inch, 12 3-9-inch A.A., 6 torpedo 
3 aircraft. 

660 



rail; 
.Ties 



Ih-r 



-~L_ 



NETHERLANDS 



II 




I 




I 



feotterdamsche Lloyd. 



IP 

4 " Triton " S Maat 




Qi 



B 







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IP 

8. Van Uden's Scheep. 



P 



1 



HiV 




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Petrol. Maats 



il 




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1 




. Nederlandsche Lloyd 



BP 

13- Scheep. en Steenkolen 



B 




Rotterdam-Lion S 



B 




Holland West-Afrik 



P 




s 




IP 1 

21. Oceaan, Ned. S. 




KB 

If* 23. VanNievelt 








26. Konink. Paket. Maa 








" Nederland " S. 



l : p.H, 

28. HollandscheS.Maa 




" Hillegersberg " S. I a0 •• Oostzee " 



P 



j I 



Representative Ships of the French Navy 




Colbert. 

Suffren, Colbert, Foch, Dupleix. Cruisers. 9,900 tons; 640 feet long overall; 
built in 1928/1931; 90,000 S.H.P., 32-5 knots; 8 8-inch, 8 3-5-inch, 8 3-inch A.A., 
6 torpedo tubes (tripled, on deck). Ships not identical, varying in bridge-work and 
masts. 

661 



DUPLEIX. 




Representative Ships of the French Navy 




Duquesne, Tourville. Cruisers. 10,000 tons; 627 feet long overall; 120,000 S.H.P. 
33 knots; built in]1928; 8 8-inch, 8 3-inch A.A., 6 torpedo tubes (tripled, on deck). 




Duguay-Tronin, Lamotte-Picquet, Primauguet. Cruisers. 7,300 tons; 594 feet 
long overall; 100,000 S.H.P., 34 knots; built in 1925; 8 6-1-inch, 4 3-inch A.A., 
12 torpedo tubes (tripled, on deck). 

663 



Ships and the Sea 




Emile Bertin. 

Emile Bertin. Cruiser. 5,900 tons; 580 feet long overall; 102,000 S.H.P., 34 knots; 
built 1934; 9 6-inch, 4 3-5-inch, 6 torpedo tubes (tripled, on deck). 




Plttton. 

Cruiser Minelayer. 4,800 tons; 500 feet long overall: 
built in 1931; 4 5-5-inch, 4 3-inch, A.A. 

664 



57.000 S.H.P.; 30 knots; 



NORWAY 



jppx 



II 



3 B-ruusgaard Kio- 



IP 

4. Hjalmar Roe'd & Cc 



1 



w 



i 



m 



a 




IB.. 



IP 



IP 




Ipn 



I 




I 



rrsn 



g 





All 



I 



w 



p 



I 





;. Bergenske Dampsk. 






J.L.MowinckelsRed. 



8l¥ 

M" Fred. Olsen & Co. 
34- Haakon J. Wallem 



jjfS 

•27. PetterOUen 
L— J I U 35- J.P.f^rsen 




m 



Norske Amerikalinje. 



m 



^ 



Westfal-Larsen & G 



Representative Ships of the French Navy 




Jeanne D'Aec. 
Cruiser. 6,500 tons; 558 feet long overall; 32,500 S.H.P., 25 knots; built in 1931 
6 -1-inch, 4 3-inch A. A., 2 torpedo tubes, 1 aircraft. 




Cassard Class. 



Cassard Class represents about 20 French destroyers. 2,400 tons; 425 feet long; 
i 5-5-inch, 6 torpedo tubes; 64,000/68,000 S.H.P., 36/37 knots. 



665 



GERMANY 



Uniforms. 

Insignia of rank on tleeves 




Admiral. 



Vize- Konter- Kapnan zur Seo & 

admiral. admiral. Fregatten kapitan 

(Vice-Ad.) (Rear-Ad.) (Captain.) 

^- -^ Stabsoffiziere. 

Flaggoffiziere. 




Korvetten Kapitan- 

kapitan. leutnant. 

(Commander.) (Lieut. - 

Stabsoliiziere. Comm.) 



Oberleut Leutnant 
z. See. z. See. 

(Lieut.) (Sub-Lieut.) 



Subalternoffiziere. 



666 



Representative Ships of the German Navy 




Deutschland. 




SCHEER. 



Deutschland, Admiral Scheer, Admiral Graf Spee. Battleships. 10,000 tons; 
609 feet long overall; 54,000 S.H.P., 26 knots; built in 1935/1936; 6 11-inch, 8 5-9-inch, 
6 3-4-inch A. A., 8 torpedo tubes. Each carries aircraft and catapult. 

667 



Ships and the Sea 




NlRNBERO. 




Leipzig. 

Niirnberg, Leipzig. Cruisers. 6,000 tons; 580 feet long overall; 60,000 S.H.P., 
32 knots; built 1935; 9 5-9-inch, 4 3-4-inch A. A., 12 torpedo tubes (tripled, on deck). 
Each carries 2 aircraft. 

668 



Representative Ships of the German Navy 




Konigsberg, Karlsruhe, Koln. Cruisers. 6,000 tons; 570 feet long overall; 65,000 
S.H.P., 32 knots; built 1929; 9 5-9-inch, 6 3-4-inch A.A., 12 torpedo tubes (tripled, 
on deck). Each carries 1 aircraft with catapult. 




Emden. 

Emden. Light Cruiser. 5,400 tons; 508 feet long overall; 46,600 S.H.P., 29 knots; 
built 1925; 8 5-9-inch, 3 3-4-inch, 4 torpedo tubes (paired, on deck). 

669 



Ships and the Sea 




Wolf and Mowe Classes of Destroyer, about 30 ships. 1,000 tons; 300 feet long; 
23,000 S.H.P., 34 knots; built between 1927 and 1930; 3 4-inch, 6 torpedo tubes 
(tripled). 




F. 1— F. 10. 

F.I — F.XVI. Destroyers. 1,600 tons; building; 5 5-inch, 8 torpedo tubes (quad- 
rupled), 40,000 S.H.P., 36 knots. 

670 



Uniforms. 

Insignia of rank on sleeves 



ITALY 




Ammiraglio Ammiraglio Ammiraglio Ammiraglio Contr- 
di Armata. di S quadra di S quadra, di Divisione. ammiraglio. 
designato di 
S 1 Armata*. 



British ■* 

equivalent. / 



Admiral. 



Vice- Admiral. 



Rear 'Admiral. 




BBBHH 



Capitano Capitano Capitano Tenente Sottotenente Guardia* 

di di di di di marina. 

Vascello. Fregata. Corvetta. Vascello. Vascello. 
British V Captain. Com- Lieut. Lieut. Sub -Lieut. Midship- 
equivalent j" mander Com. man. 

* Acting rank. 

671 



Shins and the Sea 
ITALY 




DORTA. DUILIO. 

Duilio, Doria. Battleships. 21,600 tons; 576 feet long overall; 35,000 S.H.P., 
22 knots; built in 1915; 13 12-inch, 16 6-inch, 12 3-inch, 6 3-inch A.A., 2 torpedo 
tubes. To be rebuilt and modernised. All turrets have 3 guns, except superimposed, 
which have 2 each. 

Cavour and Cesare were similar but are being entirely re-built and will be finished 
this year. 



672 



Representative Ships o! the Royal Italian Navy 




Bolzano. Cruiser. 10,000 tons; 627 feet long overall; 150,000 S.H.P., 36 knots; 
built in 1932; 8 8-ineh, 16 3-9-inch x\.A., 8 torpedo tubes. One aircraft and catapult. 




Pola. 
673 



Ships and the Sea 




CORIZIA. 




Zara. Fitjme. 



Zara, Fiume, Gorizia, Pola. Cruisers. 10,000 tons; 600 feet long; 95,000 S.H.P., 
32 knots; built in 1932; 8 8-inch, 16 3-9-inch A.A. One catapult. 

674 



Representative Ships of the Royal Italian Navy 




Trento, Trieste. Cruisers. 10,000 tons; 642 feet long overall; 150,000 S.H.P. 
35-5 knots; built in 1928; 8 8-inch, 16 3-9-inch A.A., 8 torpedo tubes. 




Montecuccoli and Duca D'Aosta classes. 

Giuseppe Garibaldi, Luigi di Savoia, Duca Degli Abruzzi, Eugenio di Savoia, Emanuele 
Filiberto, Duca D'Aosta. Cruisers. 6,800 tons; 613 feet long overall; 110,000 S.H.P., 
36-5 knots; built in 1936; 8 6-inch, 6 3-9-inch A. A., 6 torpedo tubes. Three aircraft 
and 1 catapult. Very similar ships, Montecuccoli, Muzio Attendolo. 

675 



Ships and the Sea 




Luigi Cadorna, Armando Diaz. Cruisers. 5,000 tons; 555 feet long overall; 95,000 
S.H.P., 37 knots; built in 1933; 8 6-inch, 6 3-9-inch A.A., 4 torpedo tubes (on deck). 
Two aircraft, 1 catapult. 




Giovanni Delle Bande Nere, Bartolomeo Colleoni, Alberto di Giussano, Ablerico 
da Barbiano. Cruisers. 5,100 tons; 556 feet long overall; 95,000 S.H.P., 37 knots; 
built 1930; 8 6-inch, 6 3-9-inch A.A., 4 torpedo tubes (deck). One aircraft and 1 
catapult. 

676 



Representative Ships of the Royal Italian Navy 




Dardo and Folgore Class destroyers, comprising about 8 ships. 1,200 tons; 315 feet 
long overall; 44,000 S.H.P., 3S knots; built 1933; 4 4-7-inch, 6 torpedo tubes (tripled). 




Navigatori Class destroyers, representing 12 ships. 2,000 tons; 351 feet long overall; 
50,000 S.H.P., 38 knots; built 1932; 6 4-7 inch, 4 torpedo tubes (paired). 



677 



JAPAN. 



Personnel and Uniforms. 

Insignia of rank—executive officers— sleeves 
(Changed to this; 1908.) 



Executive \ 




Branch: ) Tai-aho. Chu-sho. Sho-sho. Tai-sa. 

^British: g } Admi ™ 1 - Vice- Ad. Rear-Ad. Captain 



Chu-sa. 
Commander. 



Executive 
Branch : 




} Sho-i 



Tai-i. 



Chu-i. 



Sho-i: 



C ^Tsh ding } Ueut ' Com ' Lieutenant. Sub-Lieut. A ^g 

±5ntisn. J Sub-Lieut. 



678 



Sho-i Ko-hosei. 
Midshipman. 



Has a stripe 

half the width 

of a Sho-i. 



Representative Ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy 




Fuso, Yamashiro. Battleships. 29,300 tons; 673 feet long overall; 40,000 S.H.P., 
22-5 knots; built in 1915/1917 and rebuilt recently; 12 14-inch, 16 6-inch, 8 5-inch 
A. A., 2 torpedo tubes. 




Ise, Hiuga. Battleships. 30,000 tons; 640 feet long; 45.000 S.H.P., 23 knots; built 
1917/1918 and rebuilt recently; 12 14-inch, 18 5- 5-inch, 8 5-inch A. A , 4 torpedo tubes. 



679 



Ships and the Sea 




Nagato, Mutsu. Battleships. 32,700 tons; 700 feet long overall; 80,000 S.H.P., 
23 knots; built in 1920 and 1021; 8 16-inch, 20 5-5-inch, 8 5-inch A.A., 6 torpedo 
tubes. 




Kongo. Kirishima. 
680 



Representative Ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy 




Hahtjna. 

Kongo, Haruna, Kirishima. Battleships. 29,300 tons; 704 feet long; 64,000 
S.H.P., 26 knots; built in 1913/1915 and entirely reconstructed recently; 8 14-inch 
16 6-inch, 9 5-inch A. A., 4 torpedo tubes. 




Kaga. Aircraft Carrier. 26,900 tons; 715 feet long; 91,000 S.H.P., 23 knots; 
built 1924; 10 8-inch, 12 4 -7-inch A. A. Carries about 60 aircraft. She is being 
reconstructed and will have an island superstructure and funnel similar to H.M.S. 
Courageous. Similar ships in appearance are Akagi, Ryujo, Soryu, Hiryu. 

681 



Ships and the Sea 




Mikuma, Mogami, Suzuya, Kumano, Tonea, Chikuma. Light Cruisers. 8,500 tons; 
625 feet long; 90,000 S.H.P., 33 knots; built in 1936; 15 6-1 -inch, 8 5-inch A. A. 
12 torpedo tubes (quadrupled, on deck). 




Yubari. Cruiser. 2,900 tons; 435 feet long; 57,000 S.H.P., 33 knots; built in 
1924; 6 5-5-inch, 1 3-inch A. A., 4 torpedo tubes (on deck). 

682 



Representative Ships o! the Imperial Japanese Navy 




Atago, Takao, Chokai, Maya. Cruisers. 9,900 tons; 630 feet long; 100,000 S.H.P., 
33 knots; built 1932; 10 8-inch, 4 4-7-inch A.A., 8 torpedo tubes (paired, on deck). 




Nachi, Myoko, Ashigara, Haguro. Cruisers. 10,000 tons; 630 feet long; 100,000 
S.H.P., 33 knots; built 1929; 10 8-inch, 6 4-7-inch A.A., 12 torpedo tubes (quadrupled, 
on deck). 

683 



Ships and the Sea 




Kinugasa, Aoba. Cruisers. 7,100 tons; 580 feet long; 95,000 S.H.P.-, 33 knots; 
built 1927; 6 8-inch, 4 4-7-inch A. A., 12 torpedo tubes. Two planes each. 




Kako, Furutaka. 
built 1926; 6 8-inch. 



Cruisers. 7,100 tons; 580 feet long; 
4 4-7-inch A. A., 12 torpedo tubes. 
684 



95,000 S.H.P., 33 knots; 



Representative Ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy 




Jintsu, Naka, Sendai. Light Cruisers. 5,200 tons; 535 feet long overall; 90,000 
S.H.P., 33 knots; 7 5-5-inch, 2 3-inch A.A., 8 torpedo tubes (paired, on deck). 
Catapult. 




Kinu. 



Isudzu, Nagara, Natori, Yura, Kinu, Abukuma. Light Cruisers. 5,200 tons; 
535 feet long; 90,000 S.H.P., 33 knots; built 1923; 7 5-5-inch, 2 3-inch A.A., 8 torpedo 
tubes. Catapult. Similar ships with lighter bridge, Kutna, Tama, Ohi, Kiso, Kitakami. 



Ships and the Sea 







Isudzu. *Xatori. *Abukuma. 

Naoaba. Yura. 

♦Fitted with catapult. (Particulars : see previous pwje.) 




(Some have no shields to tubes.) 

Fubuki Class destroyers, representing about 23 ships. 1,700 tons; 367 feet long; 
40,000 S.H.P., 34 knots; built between 1928 and 1931; 6 5-1-inch, 9 torpedo tubes. 

686 



Representative Ships of the Imperial Japanese Navy 




Mutsuki Class destroyers, representing about 12 ships. 1,300 tons; 320 feet long; 
38,500 S.H.P., 34 knots; built 1927; 4 4-7-inch, 6 torpedo tubes. Similar ships with 
1 gun less, 19 of Kaya Class and Asi Class. 




Kaya Class {see shove for particulars). 
687 



: ' t:^V -» » - 







Ryujo. 




Akagi. 

{Aircraft Carrier.) 




Hosho. 
(Aircraft Carrier.) 

688 



UNITED STATES 



Uniforms. 







a 

< 



a 






a <s 

.2 a 



IIVII 



1-1 c 

3^ 



"55 
H 

689 



3*0 






UNITED STATES 



Uniforms. 

{Specialist Grades) 




Carpenter. Machinist. Medical. Supply. Construction. Boatswain. 




Civil 
Engineer. 



Gunner. Pay Clerk. 



690 



POLAND 




Zegluga Polska " 
S.A. 






■$■ 



2. Gdynia-Amerika Linje 







Polsko Brytyjskie 
Towar. 

(Grey hulls.) 



Representative Ships of the United States Navy 




Idaho, Mississippi, New Mexico. Battleships. 33,000 tons; 624 feet long overall; 
40,000 S.H.P., 21-5 knots; built 1917, but completely rebuilt recently; 12 14-inch 
12 5-inch, 8 5-inch A. A. One catapult on " X " turret and 1 on quarterdeck. 




Pennsylvania, Arizona. Battleships. 33,100 tons; 608 feet long overall; 33,400 
S.H.P., 21 knots; built 1916 but completely rebuilt recently; 12 14-inch, 12 5-inch, 
8 5-inch A. A. One catapult on " X " turret (not shown on drawing) and 1 on 
quarterdeck. 

691 



Ships and the Sea 




Oklahoma, Nevada. Battleships. 29,000 tons; 583 feei long; 25,000 S.H.P., 20-5 
knots; built 1016 but completely rebuilt recently; 12 14-inch, 12 5-inch, 8 5-inch A. A. 
One catapult on " X " tunvt and 1 on quarterdeck. 




New York, Texas. Battleships. 27,000 tons; 573 feet long overall; 28,100 S.H.P., 
19 knots; built 1914 but completely rebuilt recently; 10 14-inch, 16 5-inch, 8 3-inch 
A. A. One catapult on amidships turret. 

692 



PORTUGAL 



1 


1% 




H 


i EJ i Nj 


1 


Nacional de Nav., 
Comp. 


I 


2. 

Empresa Insulaila de 
Nav. 



Representative Ships of the United States Navy 




Arkansas. Battleship. 26,100 tons; 562 feet long overall; 30,000 S.H.P., 19 
knots; built 1912 but completely rebuilt; 12 12-inch,n6^5-inch,^8 3-inch A.A. One 
catapult on amidships superimposed turret. 




Colorado, Maryland, West Virginia, California, Tennessee. Battleships. 32,500 
tons; 624 feel long overall; 27,300 S.H.P., 21 knots; built 1921/23 and to be re-con- 
structed; 8 16-inch, 12 5-inch, 8 5-inch A. A., 2 torpedo tubes. One catapult on 
" X " turret and 1 on^quarterdeck. 

693 



Ships and the Sea 




Lexington, Saratoga. Aircraft Carriers. 33,000 tons, 888 feet long overall; 
180,000 S.H.P., 33-25 knots; designed as battle-cruisers and were to have had seven 
funnels but altered during construction and completed 1025; 8 8-inch, 12 5-inch 
A. A. Lexington carries 90 plants and Saratoga, 70 planes. 




Astoria, Minneapolis, New Orleans, Tuscaloosa, San Francisco, Quincy, Vincennes, 
Wicheta. Cruisers. 10,000 tons; 610 feet long overall; 107,000 S.H.P.J32 knots; 
some built in 1934 and others in course of construction; 9 8-inch, 8 5-inch A.A. 
Two catapults and 4 aircraft. 

694 



SPAIN 




gps 





IN 

5. De la Torre Y Alonso 



I 



\M 



I 



FA 



Vascongada, Comp. 




ire 




lr Ramon de la Sot 



Representative Ships o! the United States Navy 




Portland, Indianapolis. Cruisers. 9,800 tons; 610 feet long overall; 107,000 
S.H.P., 32-7 knots; built 1932; 9 8-inch, 8 5-inch A.A. Two catapults, 4 aircraft. 




Augusta, Chester, Chicago, Houston, Louisville, Northampton. Cruisers. 9,000 
tons; 600 feet long overall; 107,000 S.H.P., 32-7 knots; built 1931; 9 8-inch, 4 5-inch 
A.A., 6 torpedo tubes (tripled, on deck). Two catapults, 4 aircraft. 

695 



Ships and the Sea 




Pensacola, Salt Lake City. Cruisers. 9,100 tons; 570 feet long overall; 107 S.H.P., 
32-7 knots; built 1930; 10 8-inch, 4 5-inch A. A., 6 torpedo tubes (tripled, on deck). 
Two catapults, 4 aircraft. 




Omaha, Milwaukee, Raleigh, Detroit, Concord, Trenton, Memphis, Richmond, 
Marblehead, Cincinnati. Cruisers. 7,100 tons; 555 feet long overall; 90,000 S.H.P., 
33.5 knots; built between 1923/25; 10 6-inch, 4 3-inch, 6 torpedo tubes (tripled, on 

deck). 

696 



Representative Ships o? the Uni f ei States Navy 




Farragut Class destroyers, representing about 48 ships. 1,500 tons; 334 feet long; 
built between 1934 and onwards; 5 5-inch, 8 torpedo tubes; 42,800 S.H.P., 36-5 knots. 




Flush Deckers. 



Flush decked destroyers, representing about 180 ships. 1,200 tons; 314 feet long 
overall; 20,000 S.H.P., 35 knots; built between 1919 and 1920; 4 5-inch, 12 torpedo 
tubes (tripled, on deck). 

697 



Index of Ships 



Names set in Capital Letters denote Naval Ships. 

As this index is so considerable it has net been found 
possible to distinguish between ships bearing the same 
name in different Companies or of different Countries, 



A 




Abukuma 








685 


686 


Aachen . 


505 


"A" Class 




Aagtekerk 357, 551 


(Destroyers) 




Aalborghus 


456 


641, 642 


643 


Aarhus . 


456 


Acacia Class 


654 


Aba . 


447 


Acajutla . 


519 


Abana 


505 


Acasta . 


644 


Abangarez 


548 


Acasta Class 


644 


Abbazia . 


490 


Acavus . 


416 


AbERDAPvE 


652 


Accra . 


447 


Aberdeen 


653 


Achates 


644 


Abessinia 


466 


Acheron 


644 


Abingdon 


652 


Achilles 




Abosso . 3i 


18, 447 


473, 


481 


Abraham 




Achilles 


627 


Rydberg 


. 237 


Active . 


644 


Abraham 




Actor 


469 


Lincoln . 


. 512 


Adda 


447 



Adelaide . 636 
Adelaide Class 

(R.A. Navy) 636 
Aden ... 435 
Aden Mam . 480 
Adjutant. . 462 
Admiral Graf 

Spee . . 667 
Admiral 

Scheer . . 667 
Adolph 

Woermann . 557 
Adrar. . . 435 
Adrastus 

367, 473 
Adria . . 490 
Adventure 

651, 652 



Aegina . . 505 
Aeneas . . 473 
af Chapman . 237 
Afric Star . 422 
Africa Maru . 514 
African Prince 523 
Afrika . 411, 517 
Agamemnon 

473, 481 
Agapenor . 473 
Agra . . 532 
Aguila . 365, 559 
Ajax . . 473, 481 
Akagi . 679, 689 
Akagisan Maru 495 
Akaroa . 399, 528 
Akasisan Maru 

495 
Akeld. . . 542 



699 



Index 



Akershus. . 512 
Akibasan Maru 

496 
AkitaMaru . 502 
Alabama 456, 537 
Alacrity . . 247 
Alaska . 303, 537 
Alaska Maru. 515 
Alaunia . 375, 441 
Albania . . 531 
Albano . . 490 
Albatross . 462 
Albatross 

(R.A. Navy) 638 
Alberico da 

Barbiano . 676 
Alberta . . 476 
Alberto di 

Giussano . 676 
Albertville 384, 491 
Albion Star . 422 
Albtjry . . 652 
Alca . . 365, 559 
Alcantara 384, 524 
Alda . . . 505 
Aidinga . . 412 
Alecto . . 655 
Aleksandar I. 479 
Alemania . 466 
Alexandra 

456, 466 



Alexia 


416 


Amag] Maru 


502 


Alfred Jones. 


447 


Amapela 


530 


Algarve . 


456 


Amarapoora 




Algeria 


531 


:5.->j 


, 471 


Algerian . 


451 


Amasis . 


466 


Algerian Trine* 


522 


Amassia 


468 


Algfrie . 


660 


Amastra . 


416 


Alhambra 


541 


Amazon . 


(142 


Alipore . 


621 


Amazono. 


481 


Alk . . . 


505 


Amazzonia . 


490 


Alkmaar . 


481 


Ambuscade . 


642 


Allara 


412 


America . 


.-»;,.-, 


Aller . . 


505 


American 




Allier . . 


538 


Banker . 


523 


Almanzora 387 


524 


American 




Almeda Star 




Farmer . 


523 


377 


421 


American 




Almkerk . 3 57 


551 


Importer 


524 


Alnwick . 


542 


American 




Alondra . 365, 


559 


Merchant 


524 


Alouette . 


462 


American 




Alresford . 


652 


Shipper 


524 


Alrich 


468 


American 




Alsia . 


517 


Trader . 


524 


Alsina . 358, 


539 


American 




Alster 


505 


Traveler 


524 


Altai Maru . 


515 


Amerika . 386, 


517 


Alting 


484 


Amerikaland 


332 


Altona 


466 


Ammon . 


466 


Alva . 


248 


Amor 


481 


Alynbank 


552 


Amoy Maru . 


515 



Amphion. . 627 
Amphion Class 

625, 626, 627 
Amstelkork . 551 
Amsterdam 

332, 333, 396 
Amur Maru . 515 
Anadara . . 416 
Anatolia.. . 505 
Anchises . . 473 
Anchusa 

Class . . 654 
Ancylus . . 416 
Andalucia 

Star . 377, 421 
Andalusia . 531 
Andalusian . 451 
Andania . 375, 441 
Andre Lebon 

352, 494 
Anfa . . 520 
Anfora . . 488 
Angers . . 494 
Anglesey Coast 438 
Anglian Coast 438 
Ango . . . 434 
Angora . . 424 
Anna C. . 476 

Annaro . . 517 
Annie Johnson 

356, 508 



700 



Index 



Anselm . . 423 
Ansgir . . 505 
Antelobe . 644 
Anten . . 536 
Antenor . 366, 472 
Anthony . 644 
Antigua . 402, 549 
Antilles . . 537 
Antilochus . 473 
Antiochia . 466 
Antofagasta . 327 
Antonia . 375, 441 
Antonio 

Delfino . .467 
Antonio Lopez 540 
Anubis . . 465 
An vers vi lie . 491 
Anyo Maru . 502 
Aoba . . 684 
Aorangi . 372, 545 
Apapa . . 447 
A.P. Bernstorff 

456 
Aphis . . 654 
Apollo . . 627 
Appalachee . 415 
Aquitania 2, 159, 

188, 205, 326, 332, 

369, 441 
Ara ... 418 
Arabia . . 490 



Arabia Maru. 


514 


Ariadne 






Ababis Class 


654 


418, 454, 


481 


Araby 


525 


Arica 


537 


Aracataca 


448 


Ariel 


454 


Aragon . 


541 


Ariguani . 400, 


448 


Aramis . 406, 


493 


Arizona 




Arandora Star 




456, 537, 


691 


378 


421 


Arizona Maru 


514 


Arankola . 


424 


Ark Royal 




Aranmore 


437 


(Building) . 


636 


Arborea . 


533 


Arkaba . 


412 


Arbroath . 


445 


Abkansas 


693 


Archibald 




Arlanza 387, 


524 


Russell 


237 


Armadale 




Arcturus 




Castle . 372, 


543 


418, 454 


520 


Armando Diaz 


Ardeche . 


538 




676 


Ardent . 


644 


Arnfinn Jarl . 


506 


Ardeola . 365, 


559 


Aronda . 




424 


Abethusa 




Aroona . 




412 


311, 626, 


627 


Arracan . 




471 


Abethusa 




Arrow . 




644 


Class . 


627 


Arsa . 




488 


Argentina 




Arueas 




505 


456, 508, 534 


540 


Arundel Castle 




Argentine 


356 


369 


543 


Argo . . 


454 


Asahisan 




Argual 


548 


Maru 


495 


Argun Maru . 


515 


Asama Maru 




Argtjs 




362, 


501 


611, 635, 


636 


Ascama . 375, 


441 



Ascanius . 473 

Ashigara . 683 

Asi Class . 687 

Asia . . 303, 517 



Asie . 
Askania 
Askold 
Asni . 



434 
505 
186 
520 



Aso Maru 502, 514 
Asosan Maru 495 
Asphalion . 472 
Assiria . . 490 
Assistance . 655 
Assuan . . 465 
Assyrian . . 451 
Astoria . . 694 
Astra . . 246 
Astrea . . 481 
Astrida . .491 
Astronomer . 469 
Asturias . 384, 524 
Asuka Maru . 502 
Atago . . 683 
Atago Maru . 502 
Athenia . 361, 444 
Athlone Castle 

332, 543 
Athos II . . 494 
Atlanta . . 242 
Atlantian . 470 



701 



Index 



Atlantic Coast 438 
Atlantic Maru 480 
Atlantida . 530 
Atlantis . 388, 524 
Atlas ... 481 
Atlas Maru . 515 
Atle Jarl . 506 
Atmah . . 247 
Atreus . . 472 
Atsuta Maru 

362, 502 
Attika . . 505 
Attilio Deffenu 533 
Auditor . . 469 
Augsburg . 506 
Augusta. . 695 
Augustus 

326, 331, 409, 475 
Auk ... 462 
Aurania . 375, 441 
Aurigny . . 434 
Auris . . 416 
Aurora . . 482 
Aurora . . 627 
Ausonia . 375, 441 
Aussa . . 488 
Australia. . 425 
Australia 

(R.A. Navy) 632 
Australia Star 

378, 421 



Australien . 517 
Autolycus . 472 
Automedon . 473 
Avala . . 479 
Avelona Star 

332,334,378,422 
Aventino . . 490 
Aveyron . . 538 
Aviemore . 460 
AvilaStar 377, 421 
Avoceta . 365, 559 
Awatea . . 545 
Awobasan Maru 

495 
Axel Johnson 

356, 508 
Aymeric . . 553 
Ayrshire Coast 438 
Azay-le-Rideau 494 
Azrou . . 520 



Baarn 


481 


Bacchus . 


482 


Baden 


466 


Bage . 


327 


Bagshot 


652 


Bahia 


468 


Baikal Maru 


514 



Baja California 548 



Bajamar . 




510 


Baradine 


354 


Bakar 




477 


Barala 


424 


Balaklava 




536 


Baralt 


482 


Balboa 




508 


Barentsz 


484 


Balduin . 




512 


Barham 




Balfe . . 




487 


622, 624 


, 625 


Bali . . 




511 


Barj ora . 


424 


Ballycotton . 


437 


Barneveld 


481 


Balmoral 






Baroda . 


424 


Castle 


372 


543 


Barpeta. . 


424 


Baloeran 


354 


526 


Barrabool 


354 


Baltallin . 




547 


Barranca . 


448 


Baltannic 




547 


Bartolomeo 




Baltara . 




547 


COLLEONI . 


676 


Balteako 




547 


Baruga . 


412 


Baltic 


303 


454 


Basel 


511 


Baltrader 




547 


Basil . 


423 


Baltraffic 




547 


Basilisk 


642 


Baltrover 




547 


Bassa . 


448 


Balzac 


487, 


510 


Basse Teire . 


538 


Bamako 




520 


Bastant . 


511 


rs a TY"l i~mT»o' M 




542 


Batak 


485 


XjcXiLIX U U.I ei-l-1 




424 
511 

424 
453 


Batavia . 


511 


Bamora . 




Batory .391, 


461 


Bafiaderos 




Baud 


484 


Bandra . 




Bayano . 400, 


448 


Banfora . 




Bayard . 


511 


Bangkok 




435 


Bayern . 


466 


Bankura . 




424. 


"B" Class 




Bantam . 




485 


(Destroyers) 




Baoule 


. 


435 


641 


643 



702 





6. " Tirfing " Angf. 




7. Axel BrostrOm & Son 




ansatlantic Reden. 
tCrey hulls.) 



Per Waller. 

(Grey hulls.) 




15. Svenska Lloyd 



i 




Transmark Reder 




m 



i*r. 



I 



i 




5. Adolf. Bratl & Co 



6. " Tiffing " Angf. 



7. Axel Brostrom & Son 




^ 






IS? 








Index 



Beagle . 


642 


Benguela 


439 


BlDEFORD 


653 


Bokuyo Maru 502 


Beagle Class 


642 


Benjamin 




Biela . 


487 


Bolette . 


511 


Beal . . . 


542 


Franklin 


511 


Bilderdijk 


498 


Bollsta . 


511 


Bearn . 


658 


Benkoelen 


485 


Biltno 


542 


Bolsena . 


490 


Beaufort . 


655 


Ben-My-Chree 


Binfield . 


425 


Bolzano 


673 


Beaverbrae 




37 


4, 474 


Binnendijk 


498 


Bomma . 


511 


387, 


433 


Bennekom 


481 


Bintang . 499, 517 


Bondowoso 


527 


Beaverburn 




Beograd . 


477 


Bintoehan ' 


485 


Bonheur . 


487 


387, 


433 


Beppu Maru 


515 


Birchbank 


552 


Boniface . 


423 


Beaverdale 




Bereby 


448 


Biri . . 


511 


Bonn 


512 


387, 


433 


Berengar 


468 


Birmingham 


625 


Bontekoe 


484 


Beaverford 387 


,433 


Berengaria 


186 


Birmingham 


Bor . . 


511 


Beaverhill 387 


433 


188, 326, 371, 441 


Class (Im 




Boreas . 


642 


Bee . 


654 


Berenice . 


481 


proved) 


634 


Boren 


536 


Beemsterdijk 


498 


Berganger 


554 


Bitterfeld 


466 


Borgland 


511 


Beira 


456 


Bergenhus 


456 


Biyo Maru 


535 


Boringia . 


517 


Belawan . 


485 


Bergensfjord 




Blackcock 


462 


Boma 


448 


Belgium Maru 


480 


392, 509 


Blanche 


642 


Borneo Maru 


515 


Beljeanne 


390 


Berlin 


504 


Bled . . 


477 


Bosanka . 


444 


Belle Isle 


434 


Bernardin de 


Blenheim 


511 


Boschdijk 


498 


Bellerophon . 


473 


St. Pierre 




Blinjoe . 


485 


Boschfontein 


550 


Bellona . 


456 


352, 494 


Blitar 


527 


Boskoop . 


481 


Belpareil 


390 


Bernicia 


531 


Bloemfontein 




Bosna 


477 


Belvedere 


476 


Berouw . 


485 


35 


8, 550 


Bosphorus 


512 


Benares . 


533 


Berwick 


632 


Bloomersdijk 


498 


Both . . 


484 


Bendigo . 


354 


Bessa 


556 


BOADICEA 


642 


Bothnia . 


531 


Benedict 


423 


Bessheim 


511 


Bochum 


466 


Botnia 


456 


Bengal Maru 


502 


Betancuria 


511 


Bodegraven 


482 


Bougainville 


434 


Bengalen 


527 


Bhamo . 


471 


Bodnant 


448 


Brabant . 


511 


Bengasi . 


534 


Biafra 


448 


Boelongan 


485 


Bra-Kar . 


511 


Bengkalis 485, 


500 


Biarritz . 3£ 


6, 511 


Boissevain 


483 


Brandanger 


554 



703 



Index 



Brasil . 356, 508 


British 


British 




British 


Brasilien . 456 


Advocate 379, 428 


Dominion . 


428 


Industry . 429 


Bravo I . 


512 


British 


British 




British 


Brazen . 


642 


Ambassador 428 


Duchess 


429 


Inventor . 429 


Brazza 


434 


British 


British 




British Isles . 429 


Breda 


511 


Architect . 428 


Emperor 


429 


British Judge 429 


Breedijk . 


498 


British Ardour 428 


British 




British Justice 428 


Bremen . 


187, 


British Aviator 428 


Empress 


429 


British Lady. 429 


303, 304, 326, 327, 


British Beacon 430 


British 




British Lantern 430 


329, 382, 504 


British Captain 428 


Endeavour . 


429 


British Light 430 


Bremerhaven 506 


British 


British Energy 


428 


British Lord. 429 


Brenas . . 511 


Chancellor . 429 


British 




British Loyalty 428 


Brentra . . 488 


British Chemist 428 


Engineer 


429 


British Mariner 429 


Bretagne . 660 


British 


British Ensign 


429 


British 


Bridgewater 653 


Chivalry . 429 


British 




Merchant . 429 


Bridgewater 


British Coast 438 


Enterprise 


429 


British 


Class . . 653 


British Colonel 429 


British Faith 


428 


Motorist . 428 


Brighton . 399 


British Colony 429 


British Fortune 429 


British Officer 429 


Brilliant . 642 


British 


British 




British Petrol 428 


Brimanga . 411 


Commander 429 


Freedom 


428 


British Pluck 428 


Brimanger . 554 


British 


British Fusiliei 


429 


British Premier 429 


Brion . . 482 


Commerce . 429 


British General 429 


British Prestige 428 


Brisbane Maru 514 


British 


British Glory 


428 


British Pride 428 


Brisk . . 512 


Commodore 429 


British 




British Princess 429 


Britanica . 422 


British Consul 429 


Governor 


429 


British 


Britannia . 243, 


British Corporal 429 


British 




Progress . 429 


244, 246, 303, 407, 


British Courage 428 


Grenadier . 


429 


British 


414, 531 


British 


British Gunner 


429 


Reliance . 428 


Britannic 


Councillor . 429 


British Honour 428 


British Renown 428 


332, 333, 397. 441 


British 


British Hope 


428 


British 


British Admiral 428 


Diplomat . 428 


British Hussar 


429 


Resource . 428 



704 



Index 



British Sailor 429 
British Science 428 
British Scout 429 
British 

Sergeant . 429 
British Soldier 429 
British 

Sovereign . 429 
British 

Splendour . 428 
British Star . 430 
British 

Statesman . 429 
British 

Strength . 428 
British Thrift 428 
British Tommy 429 
British Trader 429 
British Union 428 
British Valour 428 
British Venture 429 
British 

Viscount . 429 
British 

Workman . 429 
British Yeoman 429 
Brittany . 399, 525 
Broadway . 413 
Broholm . . 456 
Broke Class 639 
Bronte . . 487 



Broughty 


445 


G 




Cabo Tres 






Browning 


487 






Forcas . 




558 


Bruce Class 


Cabarita . 


553 


Cabo Villano 


558 


639, 640 


Cabo Blanco . 


558 


Cacique . 




414 


Brunla 


512 


Cabo Carvoeiro 558 


Cadillac . 


376, 


415 


Bruse 


511 


Cabo Cervera 


558 


Caffaro . 




534 


Bruse Jarl 


506 


Cabo Corona. 


558 


Cagliari . 




534 


Bruyere . 


487 


Cabo Creux . 


558 


Cairo 


631, 


634 


Brynhild 


456 


Cabo Cullera. 


558 


Calabar . 




447 


Bryony . 


654 


Cabo Espartel 


558 


Calabria 




531 


Bucephale 


494 


Cabo Huertas 


558 


Calamares 




548 


Buena Vista 


511 


Cabo La Plata 


558 


Calchas . 




473 


Buenos Aires 




Cabo Menor . 


558 


Calcutta 


631, 


634 


508, 540 


Cabo Nao 


558 


Calcutta Maru 


502 


Buenos Aires 


Cabo Ortega! 


558 


Caldea 




489 


Maru . 364, 514 


Cabo Palos . 


558 


Caledon . 


633, 


634 


Buitenzorg 


. 527 


Cabo Quilites 


558 


Caledonia 






Bulgarian 


. 452 


Cabo Quint res 


558 


350, 


414, 


531 


Bullaren . 


. 535 


Cabo R-azo . 


558 


Calgary . 




448 


Bulldog 


. 642 


Cabo Roche . 


558 


California 


361, 


391, 


Bullmouth 


. 416 


Cabo Sacra tif 


558 


413, 414, 


456, 


488 


Bulysses . 


. 416 


Cabo San 




California . 


693 


Burgenland 


. 465 


Agustin 355 


558 


Calitea 




489 


Burgerdijk 


. 498 


Cabo San 




Caloria 




530 


Burgos 


. 512 


Antonio . 355 


558 


Calumet 




448 


Burma 


. 471 


Cabo San 




Calypso . 




482 


Burma Maru 


515 


Sebastian . 


558 


Calypso . 


633 


636 


Busho Maru 


. 515 


Cabo Santo 




Cambria . 


242 


333 


Buyskes . 


. 484 


Tome 327, 


355, 


Cambrian 


Coast 438 


Buzi . 


. 439 




558 


Cambridge 377 


, 454 


Byron . 327, 401 


i Cabo Torinana 


558 


i Camden . 




548 



705 



Index 



Cameronia . 


414 


Cape Town 


Carlisle 




u C " Class 




Campana 




Maru . . 480 


Class 


634 


(Early- 




358, 400, 448, 


539 


Capitaine Faure 494 


Carmarthen 




Cruisers) 


636 


Campania 


303 


Capitaine 


Coast 


438 


Cedarbank . 


552 


Campbell 


640 


Damiani . 497 


Carnaro . 


490 


Cefalu 


530 


Camphuijs . 


484 


Cap Norte . 468 


Carnarvon 




Ceiba 


530 


Campidano . 


534 


Cap Padaran 434 


Castle . 373, 


543 


Celebes Maru 


515 


Campidoglio 


490 


Cap St. Jacques 434 


Carnia 


488 


Celio . . 


490 


Canada 




Cap Tourane 434 


Carrillo . 


548 


Cellina 


488 


386, 453, 508, 


517 


Cap Varella . 435 


Carron 


434 


Celtic Star . 


422 


Canada Maru 


515 


Capitaine Paul 


Caiso 


488 


Centaur . 


473 


Canadia . 


531 


Lemerle. . 539 


Carthage 


521 


Centurion 


655 


Canadian 




Capitan 


Casanaie 


448 


Ceramic . 397, 


528 


Class (R.C.N.) 


Segarra . 541 


Casaregis . 


534 


Ceres . . 455, 


482 




642 


Caprella . . 416 


Cassard 




Ceres ■ 633, 


634 


Canberra 




Capsa . . 416 


Class . 


665 


Ceres Class 


634 


(R.A. Navy) 


632 


Caradoc 633, 636 


Cassel 


466 


Cerigo 


466 


Candida . 


246 


Caralis . . 533 


Cassequel 


439 


Cesare . 


672 


Cards . 


418 


Carare . 400, 448 


Castalia . 


415 


Ceylon 


533 


Cantal 


537 


Carbet . . 537 


Castilian . 


452 


C. F. Tietgen 


456 


Canterbury . 


399 


Cardiff . 633, 634 


Castilla . 


548 


Chagres . 


449 


Canton 


532 


Cardigan Coast 438 


Castor . 418 


455 


Chakdina 


424 


Canton Maru 


515 


Cardita . . 416 


Catalonia 


531 


Chakla . . 


424 


Capac 


463 


Cardium . . 416 


Cathav . . 


521 


Challenger 


655 


Cap Arcona 




Caribia . . 464 


Cavina . 400 


448 


Champlain 374 


537 


332, 410 


468 


Carica Milica 479 


Cavotjr . 


672 


Champlain . 


647 


Cap Corse 


458 


Carignano . 476 


C.B. Pedersen 


238 


Champollion 




Cap des Palmes 


Carimare . 537 


"C" Class 




351 


494 




459 


Carinthia. 374, 441 


(Cruisers) 


643 


Chancellor . 


469 


CapeUa .418 


454 


Carlier . . 491 


"C" Class 




Chantala 


424 


Capetown 631 


634 


Carlisle. 631, 634 


(Destroyers) 


641 


Chantilly . 


494 



706 



Index 



Charcas . 


463 


Chosa Mam . 


515 


Citta di 


City of Cardiff 450 


Charkow . 


456 


Choyo Mam . 


535 


Palermo 407, 533 


City of 


Chella . 353 


, 520 


Christiaan 




Citta di Savona 533 


Christiana . 450 


Chelma . 


453 


Huygens . 401, 


499 


Citta di Spezia 533 


City of Corinth 450 


Chemnitz 


506 


Chrysanthe- 




Citta di 


Citv of Delhi 450 


Chenonceaux 


494 


mum 


654 


Trapani. . 533 


Citv of Dieppe 450 


Cherca 


489 


Chyebassa 


425 


Citta' di Trieste 534 


City of Dundee 450 


Chesapeake . 


415 


Cicala . 


654 


Citta di Tripoli 534 


City of Dunkirk 450 


Cheshire . 


420 


Cilicia 


490 


Citta di Tunisi 


City of Durban 450 


Cheshire Coast 


438 


Cimbria . 


456 


407, 533 


City of 


Chester . 


695 


Cincinnati . 


696 


City of 


Eastbourne . 450 


Cheyenne 


415 


Cingalese 




Adelaide . 450 


City of 


Chicago . 


695 


Prince . 


522 


Citv of Athens 450 


Evansville . 451 


Chicago Mam 


515 


C.I.P. . . 


497 


City of 


City of Exeter 449 


Chichibu Mam 327, 


Circe Shell . 


416 


Auckland . 450 


City of 


329, 363 


501 


Citta di 




City of Bagdad 449 


Florence . 451 


Chikum A . 


682 


Agrigento . 


533 


City of 


City of 


Chile . . . 


517 


Citta di 




Barcelona . 450 


Glasgow . 451 


Chilka . . 


424 


Alessandria . 


533 


CityofBaroda 450 


City of 


Chincha . 


464 


Citta di Bastia 


533 


Citv of Bath. 450 


Guildford . 451 


Chindwin 


471 


Citta di 




City of Bedford 450 


Citv of Hankow 451 


Chinese Prince 


522 


Bengasi 


534 


City of Berlin 300 


City of 


Chinkoa . 


425 


Citta di 




City of 


Hereford . 451 


Chipana . 


464 


Catania 


534 


Birmingham 450 


City of 


Chiriqui . 402, 


549 


Citta di Genova 




City of 


Hongkong . 355 


Chitral . . 


521 


407, 


533 


Brisbane . 450 


City of 


Choan Mam . 


514 


Citta diLivorno 


533 


City of Bristol 450 


Johannesburg 451 


Chokai . 


683 


Citta di Marsala 533 


City of Cairo 450 


City of Khios" 451 


Choko Mam 


514 


Citta di Messina 533 


City of 


Citv of Kobe 451 


Chojo Mam . 


514 


Citta di Napoli 




Canterbury . 449 


City of 


Choluteca 


548 


407, 


533 


City of Canton 450 


Lancaster . 451 



707 



Index 



Citv of 




City of Simla. 


449 


Ciudad de 




Clan 


Leicester 


452 


City of 




Malaga 


541 


Macfarlane 436 


City of Lille 


451 


Singapore . 


451 


Ciudad de 




ClanMacfadyn 436 


City of London 


449 


City of Sydney 


451 


Melilla . . 


541 


Clan 


Citv of Lyons 


451 


City of tokio 




Ciudad de 




Macgillivray 436 


City of 




403 


451 


Montevideo . 


395 


Clan 


Manchester . 


451 


Citv of Venice 


449 


Ciudad de 




Macilwraith 436 


City of 




City of 




Palma . 


451 


Clan Macindoe 436 


Mandalay . 


450 


Wellington . 


451 


Ciudad de 




Clan Macinnes 436 


City of Manila 


451 


City of 




Sevilla . 


541 


Clan Mackay 436 


City of 




Winchester 


451 


Ciudad de 




Clan Mackellar 436 


Marseilles . 


449 


City of 




Tarragona . 


541 


Clan Mackenzie 436 


City of 




Worcester . 


451 


Ciudad de 




Clan Mackinlay 436 


Melbourne . 


451 


City of 




Valencia 


541 


Clan Macnab 436 


City of Nagpur 


449 


Yokohama . 


451 


Clam . 


416 


Clan Macnair 436 


City of 




City of York . 


449 


Clan Alpine . 


436 


Clan 


Newcastle . 


451 


Ciudad de 




Clan Cameron 


436 


Macnaughton 436 


City of Norwich 


Algeciras 


541 


Clan Chisholm 


436 


Clan Macneil 436 




451 


Ciudad de 




Clan Colquhoun 436 


Clan Macphee 436 


City of Oran . 


450 


Alicante 


541 


Clan Farquhar 


436 


Clan 


City of Oxford 


452 


Ciudad de 




Clan Keith . 


436 


Macpherson 436 


City of Paris 




Barcelona . 


541 


Clan Macalister 436 


Clan 


303, 


449 


Ciudad de 




Clan Macarthur 436 


Macquarrie 436 


City of 




Buenos Aires 


395 


Clan Macaulay 


436 


Clan 


Pittsburgh . 


451 


Ciudad de Cadiz 541 


Clan Macbean 


436 


Mactaggart 436 


City of Rangoon 45 1 


Ciudad de 




Clan Macbeth 


436 


Clan Mactavish 436 


City of Roubaix 45 1 


Ceuta 


541 


Clan 




Clan Mac vicar 436 


City of 




Ciudad de 




Macbrayne . 


436 


Clan 


Salisbury 


451 


Ibiza 


541 


Clan Macbride 


436 


Macwhirter 436 


City of 




Ciudad de 




Clan Macdougall 


Clan Matheson 436 


Shanghai 


451 


Mahon . 


541 




436 


Clan Monroe 437 



708 



Index 



Clan Morrison 437 
Clan Murdoch 437 
Clan Murray. 437 
Clan Ogilvy . 437 
Clan Robertson 

437 
Clan Ronald 437 
Clan Ross . 437 
Clan Skene . 437 
Clan Stuart 437 
Clan Urquhart 

360, 437 
Clara ... 476 
Claude Chappe 494 
Clement . . 423 
Cleopatra . 536 
Clio . . 418, 455 
Cliona . . 416 
Clyde . . 649 
Clydebank . 552 
Clytoneus . 473 
Cobra . . 465 
Cochrane . . 448 
Cockchafer . 654 
codrington . 640 
codrington 

Class . . 639 

Colbert . 661 

Collegian. 360, 469 

Colombia 242, 

364, 481 



Colombie. 373, 537 
Colombo . . 476 
Colombo. 631, 634 
Colonial 

393, 439, 469 
Colorado . 694 
Columba . 418 
Columbia . 242 
Columbus 

326, 382, 504 
Comanchee . 415 
Comayagua . 548 
Comedian 
Comet . . 299 
Comet . . 642 
Cometa . . 418 
Comliebank . 552 
Commandant 

Dorise . . 495 
Commandant 

495 

494 
521 
494 
416 
696 
463 
552 
462 
475 



Commissaire 

Ramel . 
Comorin . 
Compiegne 
Conch 
Concord . 
Condor 
Congella . 
Conifer 
Conister . 



Conqueror . 605 
Conte Bianca- 

mano . 409, 476 
Conte di Savoia 

326, 408, 476 
Conte Grande 

409, 476 
Conte Rosso 

385, 490 
Conte Verde 

385, 490 
Contessa . . 530 
Contractor . 469 
Conus . . 416 
Conway . . 311 
Copeland. . 437 
Coppename . 548 
Coptic . . 528 
Corabank . 553 
Corbis . . 416 
Cordillera . 464 
Corfu . . 521 
Corinto . . 464 
Cormorant . 462 
Cornwall . 454 
Cornwall 311, 632 
Corrales . . 449 
Corsair . . 248 
Corsican Prince 523 
Corte II . . 458 
Corvus . . 418 



Costa Rica 

363, 481 
CO. Stillman 

332, 334, 357 
Cote D'Argent 406 
CoteD'Azur. 406 
Cottica . .481 
Counsellor . 469 
Countess of 

Dufferin . 242 
County . . 304 
County Class 

629, 632 
Courageous 

635, 636, 679 
Courbet. . 659 
Coventry 633, 634 
Courie . . 416 
Coya . . . 463 
C.P.A. Koch. 456 
Craftsman 360, 469 
Crag ... 542 
Cragside . . 542 
Cranfield . 425 
Craster . . 542 
Crefeld . . 504 
Cremer . . 483 
Crescent . 642 
Cressado . . 452 
Crested Eagle 462 
Cricket . . 654 



709 



Index 



Crijnssen. 


481 


Dahlia 




. 531 


David 




D'Entrecasteaux 


Crispin 


423 


Dahomey 


. 435 


Livingstone 


447 


435 


Cristales . 


449 


Daichi Maru 


515 


Davisian 


470 


Deptford . 653 


Cristobal Colon 540 


Daidou Maru 


515 


Daytonian 


470 


Derby . . 652 


Crusader 


642 


Daikvu Maru 515 


" D " Class 




Derbyshire 368, 420 


Crusader 




Dainty . 608, 642 


(Cruisers) 632 


, 643 


Der Deutsche 504 


Class . 


642 


Daishin Maru 515 


" D " Class 




Derna . . 534 


Crux 


418 


Dajak 


. 485 


(Destroyers) 


641 


Designer . . 469 


Cuba . . 373 


537 


Dakarian 


. 470 


Decoy . 


642 


Desirade . . 435 


Cubano . 


556 


Dakar Maru 


502 


Deebank 


553 


Despatch 630, 632 


Culebra . 


525 


Dalanas . 


. 507 


De Eerens 


484 


Destro . . 452 


Cumberland . 


454 


Dalgoma 


. 425 


Defender. 242 


469 


Detroit . 696 


Cumberland 


632 


Dalmatia L. 


. 490 


Defender . 


642 


Deucalion 473, 482 


Curaca 


464 


Dalny 


. 435 


Defender 




Deutschland 


Curacoa. 633, 


634 


Damsterdijk 


498 


Class 


642 


403, 465 


Curlew . 633, 


634 


Danae . 630, 632 


De Grasse 


537 


Deutschland 667 


Cushag 


475 


Danmark 411, 517 


Deido 


447 


Devon . 425, 525 


Custodian 


469 


Dannebrog 


248 


De Klerk 


484 


Devonshire. 632 


Cutty Sark 223 


,238 


Dardo and 




Delagoa Maru 


502 


Diamond . 642 


Cuyamapa . 


548 


Folgore 




Delambre 


487 


Diana . . 642 


Cyclops . 


473 


Class 


677 


De la Salle . 


537 


Diana 419, 457, 490 


Cyclops . 


655 


Darian 




470 


Delaware 


456 


Diana Dollar 443 


Cygnet . 


642 


Darien 




547 


Delfinus 


418 


Dido ... 452 


Cygnus . 


418 


Daring 




642 


Delftdijk 


498 


Dilga 


412 


Cyprian Prince 


522 


Darino 




452 


Delhi . . 


532 


Dilwara . 


424 


Cyrnos 


458 


Dam . 




447 


Delhi . 630, 


632 


Dinard . 


396 






Dart . 




525 


Delight . 


642 


Dinteldijk 


498 


D 




Dart 




655 


Delilian . 


470 


Diomed . 


472 






D'Artagnan 


494 


Deli Maru 


515 


Diomede 


632 


Dagmar . 


456 


Dauntless 


632 


Demodocus . 


472 


Dione 


485 


Dagomba 


447 


Davanger 




555 


Dempo . 354, 


526 


Diplomat 


469 



710 



Index 



Director . 


469 


Dixcove . 


447 


Dixie 


529 


Djambi . 


527 


Djebel- Amour 


497 


Djebel-Aures 


497 


Djebel-Dira . 


497 


Djenne 


520 


Docteur Pierre 




Benoit . 


495 


Dolium . 


417 


Dolius 


473 


Domala . 365, 


424 


D omine . 


541 


Dominia 




212, 


332 


Donau 


505 


Dora C. . . 


476 


Dorelian . 


470 


Doria 


672 


Doric Star . 


422 


Dorset . 454, 


377 


Dorsetshire 


632 


Dorsetshire . 


420 


Dortmund . 


466 


Douglas . 


640 


Douro 


457 


Dragon . 630 


632 


Dramatist 


469 


Drammensf j ord 



509 



Dreadnought 

609 
Drechtdijk . 498 
Dromore . 464 
Dromore Castle 

544 
Dronning 

Alexandrine 456 
Dronning Maud 

457, 506 
Drottningholm 

390, 531 
Dubac . . 444 
Dubravka . 444 
Dubrovnik . 444 
Due d'Aumale 537 
Duchess . 642 
Duchess of 

Atholl . 383, 433 
Duchess of 

Bedford. 383, 433 
Duchess of 

Richmond 

383, 433 
Duchess of 

York , 383 433 
Duchessa 

d'Aosta . 489 

DUGUAY- 

Trouin . 663 



Duilio . 409, 476 
Duiuio . . 672 
Duisberg . 465 
Duke of Argyll 

396 
Duke of 

Lancaster . 396 
Duke of 

Rothesay . 396 
Duke of York 396 
Dumana . . 424 
Dumra . . 424 
Dunbar Castle 

373, 543 
Duncan . . 640 
Dundalk . 652 
Dundee . . 653 
Dundee . . 445 
Dundrum Castle 

544 
Dundula . . 412 
Dunedin . 632 
Dunedin Star 

378, 421 
Dunkwa . . 447 
Dunluce Castle 

375, 543 
Dunoon . . 652 
Dunnottar 

Castle . . 543 
Dunstan . .423 



Dunstanburgh 542 
Dunster 

Grange . . 359 
Duntroon . 375 
DunvGgan 

Castle . . 543 
Dupleix 

435, 661, 662 
Duquesne 304, 663 
Durazzo . . 466 
Durban . 630, 632 
Durban Maru 502 
Durenda . . 425 
Durham .377, 454 
Durham Castle 

375, 543 
Durham Coast 438 
Durmitor . 444 
Diisseldorf . 505 
Duymaer van 

Twist . . 484 
Dwarka . . 424 



E 

Eagle . 637, 638 
Earl of Zetland 510 
Eastern Coast 439 
Eastern Prince 

360, 522 



711 



Index 



Ebani . . 


448 


Einar Jarl 


506 


Elisabethville 491 


Empress of 




Eboe . . . 


448 


Ek . . . 


512 


Ellenga . . 424 


Russia . 


433 


Ebro . . . 


457 


Ekma 


424 


Ellora . . 424 


Enchantress 


656 


Echo 


642 


Eknaren . 


535 


Elmbank. . 552 


Encounter . 


642 


' E " Class 




El Almirante 


529 


Elona . . 416 


Endeavour 




(Cruisers) 632, 


643 


El Argent ino 


459 


Elout . . 484 


242, 


243 


" E " Class 




Klax . 


416 


El Uruguay o 459 


Endeavour . 


655 


(Destroyers) 


641 


Elbe . . . 


505 


Elysia .' . 415 


Enggano . 


500 


EcLirsE . 608, 


642 


El-Biar . . 


497 


Emanuele 


England . 


456 


Eclipse Class 


642 


El Capitan . 


529 


FlLIBERTO 


England Maru 


480 


Edam 


498 


El Coston 




Duca DAosta 


Enterprise . 


242 


Edda 


489 


407, 


529 


675 


Enterprise 




Eddvstone . 


437 


Elderslie . 


300 


Emden . . 669 


629, 


632 


Edea . . . 


453 


El Dia . . 


529 


Emerald 629, 632 


Entrerios 


468 


Edinburgh 




El-Djezair 




Emile Bertin 664 


Erebus . 


654 


Castle . 372, 


543 


361, 


479 


Emile Francqui 491 


Erfurt . . 


505 


Edna 


419 


Electra . 


642 


Empire Star 


Eridan . 353 


494 


Edward Blyden 44 


El Estero 


529 


378, 421 


Erin . . . 


247 


Effingham 




Ellsleo . . 


529 


Empress of 


Erinpura 


424 


631, 


634 


El-Kantara 




Asia . . 433 


Eritrea . 


534 


Egba . . . 


448 


361, 


497 


Empress of 


Erlanger . 


506 


Egeo . . . 


489 


El Lago . 


529 


Australia 381, 433 


Erling Jarl . 


506 


Egholm . 


457 


El Libertador 


481 


Empress of 


Ermland . 


465 


Egitto 


489 


El-Mansour 




Britain . .186, 


Erria . 


517 


Eglantier 


491 


361, 


497 


326, 331, 332, 333, 


Esbjerg . 


456 


Egori 


448 


El Mundo . 


529 


334, 380, 433 


Escapade 


642 


Egra 


424 


El Occidente 


529 


Empress of 


Escolano 


541 


Egyptian 


452 


El Oceano 


529 


Canada . 381, 433 


Escort . 


642 


Egyptian 




El Orient e . 


529 


Empress of 


Esk . . 642 


643 


Prince . 


522 


Elephanta 


424 


Japan . . 331, 


Espana . 


468 


Eifel . . . 


468 


Elgin 


652 


333, 334, 380, 433 


Esparta . 


548 



712 



Index 



Esperance 


494 


F 




Esperance Bay 


412 






Esperia . 385, 


490 


Fabian 


452 


Esquilino 


475 


Falcon . 


654 


Essen 


466 


Falcon 


462 


Este . . . 


506 


Falmouth . 


653 


Estrella . 


418 


Falstria . 


518 


Estrellano 


452 


Fame 


641 


Ethiopia . 


424 


Faraday . 


401 


Etruria . 300, 


303 


Fareham 


652 


Eubee 


435 


Farragut 




Eugenio DI 




Class . 


697 


S A VOI A . 


675 


Fastnet . 


437 


Eumaeus 


473 


Faulknor . 


640 


Eupatoria 


468 


Fauna 


482 


Europa . 187, 


326, 


Fauvette 


462 


382, 386, 504 


517 


Faxen 


536 


Euryades 


473 


"F" Class 




Eurybates 


473 


(Cruisers) 


643 


Eurylochus . 


472 


" F " Class 




Eurymedon . 


473 


(Destroyers) 


641 


Eurypylus . 


472 


" F " Class 




Euterpe . 


482 


(Destroyers)— 




Evanger . 


555 


Germany 


670 


Exeter . 627, 


628 


Fearless 


641 


Exmouth 


640 


Fearless 




Explorateur 




Class .• . 


641 


Grandidier 




Federiko 




352 


494 


Glavic . 


444 


Explorer 


469 


Felix Roussel 




Express . 642 


,643 


353 


493 



Fella ... 488 

Feltre . . 488 

Fenicia . . 490 

Fennia . . 455 

Feodosia . 466 

Fermoy . 652 

Fernando Poo 541 

Fife Coast . 439 

Finlandia . 455 

Finnanger . 554 

Fionia . . 518 

FlREDRAKE . 641 

Firenza . . 534 
Fitzroy . . 655 
Fiume . 673, 674 
Flaminian . 452 
Flandre . . 537 
Fleetwood . 653 
Flinders . 655 
Flirt . . 606 
Flora . 457, 482 
Florida . 358, 539 
Floride . . 537 
Flush Deck 
Type Des- 
troyer . 697 
Flying Cloud 248 
Folgore Class 677 
Foch . 661, 662 
Folkestone 653 



Forbin . . 435 

Fordefjord . 509 

Fordsdale . 528 

Foresight . 641 

Forester . 641 

Forfarshire . 265 

Formosa . . 532 

Formose . . 435 

Forres . . 652 

Forresbank . 552 

Fortune . 641 

Fort Amherst 460 
Fort Archam- 

bault . . 435 

Fort Binger . 435 
Fort de Dou- 

aumont . 435 
Fort de Sou- 

ville . . 435 

Fort de Troyon 435 

Fort de Vaux 435 
Forth . .434 

Forthbank . 553 

Fort Lamy . 435 

Fort Medine 435 
Fort Towns- 

hend . . 460 

Foucauld 392, 435 

Fowey . . 653 

Foxglove . 654 

Foxhound . 641 



713 



Index 



Foylebank . 


552 


Fushimi Maru 


Garmula . 


425 


General San 


Fraissinet . 458 


362, 502 


Garoet 


527 


Martin . . 468 


France Maru 480 


Fusijama 


470 


Garonne . 


457 


General Sher- 


Francesco 


Fuso . 


679 


Garth Castle 




man . . 548 


Crispi . 406, 534 


Fuso Maru . 


514 


375, 


543 


General Met- 


Franconia 374,441 






Gascony . 


525 


zinger . . 494 


Franken . .506 






Gateshead 




Generalife . 541 


Frankenwald 466 


G 




445, 


542 


Genesta . . 242 


Frankfurt . 506 






Gatun 


530 


Genoa- Maru . 502 


Fredericia . 456 


Gaasterkerk 


550 


Gazana . 


425 


Georgia . 457, 468 


Frederik VIII 


Gaelic Star 


422 


" G " Class 




Georgic 


9, 327, 457 


Gairsoppa 


425 


(Destroyers) 


641 


332, 333, 397, 441 


Freiburg . . 466 


Galatea . 


242 


Generaal 




Gera . . . 466 


Frej . . 


455 


Galatea 


627 


Michiels 


484 


Gerusalemme 490 


Frenton 


696 


Galilea 


490 


Generaal van 




Getsuyo Maru 534 


Fresno Star 


422 


Gallant 


641 


der Heyden . 


484 


Gharinda . 425 


Friderun 


506 


Gallia 


531 


Generaal van 




Gibel Dersa 


Friesland 


465 


Gallipoli . 


534 


Geen 


484 


376, 421 


Frigga 


457 


Gamaria . 


425 


Generaal van 




Gibel Dris . 421 


Frisia 


531 


Gambada 


425 


Swieten 


484 


Gibel Kebir . 421 


Frobisher 


Gambhira 


425 


Generaal 




Gibel Zerjon. 421 


631, 634 


Ganda 


439 


Vershyck 


484 


Ginyo Maru . 503 


Frode . . 457 


Gandara . 


425 


General Von 




Giovanni Delle 


Ftjbuki Class 686 


Ganges Maru 


515 


Steuben 


504 


Bande Nere 676 


Fuji Maru . 514 


Gannet . 


462 


General Artigas 468 


Gipsy . .641 


Fukuken Maru 515 


Gannet 


654 


General Bona- 




Giulio Cesare 


Fukuyo Maru 535 


Ganymedes 


482 


parte 


458 


409, 476 


Fulda . . 504 


Garada . 


425 


General Lee . 


548 


Giuseppe 


Furious . 635, 638 


Garbeta . 


425 


General Osorio 


467 


Garibaldi . 675 


Furutaka . 684 


Garibaldi 


534 


General Per- 




Giuseppe 


Fury 


641 


Garland 


641 


shing . 


548 


Mazzini 406, 534 



714 



Index 



Glasgow 


625 


Gouverneur 




Grimsby Class 653 


Hakodate Maru 


Glasgow Maru 


480 


General 




Gripsholm 




503 


Glaucus . 


473 


Lafferiere . 


539 


390, 530 


Hakone Maru 


Glen . . . 


542 


Gouverneur 




Groix 


435 


362, 502 


Glenardle 


553 


General 




Groningen 


462 


Hakonesan 


Glenbank 


552 


Lepine . 


497 


Grootekerk 


550 


Maru . . 495 


Glorious 635 


636 


Gouverneur 




Guadeloupe 


537 


HakozakiMaru 502 


Gloucester 




General 




Guardian 


652 


Hakubasan 


Castle . 375 


543 


Tircnan . 


497 


Guaruja . 


539 


Maru . .496 


Gloucester 




Governor 


469 


Guilia 




476 


Hakusan Maru 


Coast 


439 


Gowrie 


445 


Guine 




439 


362, 502 


Glowworm . 


641 


Graecia . 


532 


Gujarat 




552 


Halcyon . 653 


Gnat 


654 


Grafton 


641 


Gurna 




425 


Halcyon 


Gneisnau 389 


504 


Grampus 


647 


Gwalia 




532 


Class . . 653 


Goalpara 


425 


Granada . 


530 


Gydnia 




. 531 


Halfdan . .457 


Godetia 


654 


Grande -Terre 


538 


Gymeric 




. 553 


Hallanger . 554 


Gogra 


425 


Grandon . 


468 






Hallaren . . 535 


Golconda 


435 


Grantully 




H 




Halle . . 466 


Golden Eagle 


462 


Castle . 375, 


543 




Hamburg 


Goldmouth . 


416 


Great Britain 


300 


Haakon 




403, 465 


Goldshell 


416 


Great Eastern 


212 


Adalstein 


506 


Hamburg Maru 515 


Goodwin 


437 


Great Western 


305 


Haakon Jarl 


506 


Hamm . . 466 


Goondi . 


412 


Grebe 


462 


Habana . 


540 


Hammeren . 535 


Gorizia . 673, 


674 


Greenwich . 


655 


Hagen 


466 


Hampshire 


Gorm 


457 


Grenade 


641 


Hague Maru 


515 


Coast . . 439 


Goslar 


506 


Grenville . 


640 


Haguro . 


683 


Hampton 


Gothia 


531 


Greyhound . 


641 


Hai Chen 


365 


Ferry . . 399 


Gothic Star . 


422 


Greyhound 




Hai Heng 


365 


Hanaus . . 466 


Gouverneur 




Class 


641 


Hai Li 


365 


Handa . . 403 


General 




Griffin . 


641 


Hakazaki Maru 


Hankow Maru 480 


Cambon 


497 


Grimsby 


653 






362 


Hansa . . 465 



715 



Index 



Hantonia 


396 


Hayo Maru 


535 


Hennonthis . 465 


Hindenburg 


466 


Harbin Maru 


515 


" H " Class 


Hero. . . 641 


Hindsholm 


457 


Hardanger 


555 


(Destroyers 


641 


Hero Class . 641 


Hirondelle 


462 


Hardy . 


640 


" H " Class 


Hertford . . 454 


HlRYU 


679 


Harebell 


654 


(Submarines 


) 650 


Hesperus. . 455 


Hispania 


532 


Haresfield 


426 


Hebe 457, 48 


2, 485 


Hessen . . 466 


Historian 


469 


Harold . 


457 


Hector . 366, 473 


Hibernia 


HlUGA 


679 


Harpa 


416 


Heemskerk 


550 


303, 333, 532 


Hiye Maru 




Harrier 


653 


Heian Maru 




Hibueras . . 548 


363, 502 


Haruna . 


681 


363, 502 


Highland 


Hjelmaren 


535 


Haruna Man 


i 


Heidelberg 


465 


Brigade 386, 525 


Hobsons Bay 


412 


362, 


Heito Maru 


514 


Highland 


Hofuku Maru 


Hastings 


653 


Heiyo Maru 


502 


Chieftain 


Hoggar . 


458 


Hastings 




Hektos . 


455 


386, 525 


Hohenstein 


468 


Class . 


653 


Helder . 


482 


Highland 


Hokkai Maru 


514 


Hasty 


641 


Helenus . 


473 


Coast . . 438 


Hokuroku 




Hatarana 


426 


Helgoy . 


511 


Highland 


Maru 


515 


Hatimura 


426 


Hellig Olav 


457 


Monarch . 386, 


Holland . 


550 


Hatipara 


426 


Helouan . 385, 


525 


Holstein . 


468 


Hauraki 


545 


Henri Jaspar 


491 


Highland 


Homefield 


426 


Havana Man 


l 515 


Henrik Werge- 


Patriot . 386, 525 


Homeric 




Havel 


505 


land 


507 


Highland 


326, 331, 334 


Havelland 


465 


Henzada . 


471 


Princess 386, 525 


Honolulu Maru 


Havenstein 


466 


Herald 


655 


Hikawa Maru 




515 


Havock 


641 


Heranga . 


411 


363, 502 


Hood 


176, 


Havre 


417 


Heranger 


554 


Hilary . 355, 423 


195, 199, 304. 610, 


Havre Maru 


515 


Hercules . 


482 


Himalaya . 490 


624, 625 


Hawaii Maru 


514 


Hereward 


641 


Himalaya 


Hoogkerk 


551 


Hawkins 63 


1, 634 


Hermes . 


482 


Maru . . 515 


Horai Maru 


514 


Hayatomo 




Hermes 




Hindanger 


Horn Shell 


416 


Maru 


514 


611, 62 


7, 638 


411, 554 


Hororata 


501 



716 



Index 



Hosanger . 555 

Hosho . . 688 

Hostile . . 641 

Hotspur. . 641 

Housatonic . 415 

Houston . 695 

Houtman 398, 484 

Howra . . 426 

Hoy anger . 554 

Hoyeisan Maru 496 

Hozan Maru . 515 

Hroar . . 457 

Hunter . . 641 

Huntingdon . 454 

Huntley . 652 

Huntsman . 469 

Hurunui . . 501 

Hussar . . 653 
Hussar . .248 

Hyperion . 641 



Ianava . 247 

Iberia . 464, 532 
Ibukisan Maru 496 
Icarus . . 641 
" I " Class 

(Destroyers) 

— Building . 641 



Ida . . . 


476 


lndrapoera 




Isis 


465 


Idaho 


691 


354 


526 


Isis . 


641 


Idarwald 


466 


Indus Maru . 


515 


Isla de Gran 




Idefjord 


509 


Ingeborg 


532 


Canaria . 


541 


Idomeneus . 


472 


Inglefield . 


641 


Isla de Tenerife 541 


Ikoma Maru . 


503 


Ingoma . 


360 


Island 


457 


He de Beaute 


458 


Ingram . 


506 


Isle of Arran 


462 


He de France 




Innaren . 


535 


Isle of Thanet 


399 


326, 371, 


537 


Innisfallen . 


406 


Isonzo 


489 


Ilex . 


641 


Intrepid 


641 


Isterlohn 


466 


Ilmatar . 364, 


454 


Inventor . 


469 


lstina 


479 


llorin 


448 


Inverbank 


552 


Istok 


479 


Imerethie II . 


520 


Iolanda . 


247 


Istria 


489 


Imogen . 


641 


Ionia . 


466 


Isudzu . 685 


686 


Imperial 


641 


Ionic 


528 


Italia 


490 


Imperial Star 




Ionic Star 


422 


Italian Prince 


522 


378, 


421 


Ipanema . 


539 


Itanage . 


356 


Impulsive . 


641 


Irene . 


482 


I tap age . 


356 


Inanda . 360 3 


469 


Iriono 


548 


Itape . 


356 


Incemore 


460 


Iris 419, 455 


482 


Itaquice . 


356 


Inchanga 




Irisbank . 


552 


Itauri 


466 


400 


552 


Irma . 


419 


IVANHOE 


641 


Incomati 400 


552 


Iron Duke . 


656 


Ivar . 


457 


Indefatigable 


Iroquois 


415 


Ivernia . 


532 




311 


Iroquois 


655 


Ivo Racic 


479 


India 




Irrawaddy . 


471 


Iwami Maru . 


515 


332, 411, 490 


518 


Isar . 


505 


Iwatesan Maru 


496 


Indiana . 


537 


Isarco 


489 


Ixion . 


472 


Indianapolis 


695 


Ise 


679 


Izabran . 


479 


Indian Prince 


523 


Iseo . 


490 


Izgled 


479 


Indier 


491 


1 Isipingo . 400 


, 652 


Izrada 


479 



717 



Index 



J 


Jessmore 


460 


Kagi Maru 


. 516 


Karnak . 


. 466 




Jeypore . 


521 


Kaijo Maru 


. 516 


Karoa 


. 424 


Jacinto Verdaguer 


JlNTSTT . 


685 


Kaikorai . 


. 546 


Kartigi . 


. 546 


541 


Joao Belo 


439 


Kaimai . 


. 546 


Karu . 


. 546 


Jagersfontein 


Johan de 




Kaimiro . 


. 546 


Kasagi Maru 


503 


358, 550 


Witt . 395 


499 


Kairanga 


. 546 


Kashi Maru 


. 480 


Jamaica 


Johan Van Olden- 


Kaisar-i-Hind 


Kashima Maru 


Pioneer . . 367 


barnevelt 




3 


32,521 


362, 502 


Jamaica 


397,401 


,499 


Kaiser 


. 465 


Kasongo . 


492 


Producer . 367 


Jolantha 


457 


Kaiwarra 


. 546 


Kastelholm 


. 531 


Jamaica 


Josefina Thor- 




Kakariki 


. 546 


Kasugasan 




Progress . 367 


den . 


327 


Kako 


. 684 


Maru 


. 496 


Jamaique . 435 


Josephine 




Kakoulima 


. 435 


Katanga . 


. 492 


Jan Pieters- 


Charlotte . 


491 


Kalingo . 


. 546 


Kathiawar 


. 552 


zoon Coen 


Juan Sebastian 


Kalmia . 


. 536 


Katholm 


457 


395, 499 


Elcano . 


540 


Kambove 


. 492 


Katiola . 


435 


Janssens . . 484 


Jugoslavia . 


477 


Kamo Maru 




Katoora . 


412 


Japan . . 533 


Juna . 


426 


.362, 502 


Katori Maru 




Japanese 


Juno . . 455 


482 


Kampar . 


483 


362, 502 


Prince . . 522 


Jupiter . 


419 


Kanan Maru 


516 


Katsuragi 




Ja.para . . 485 


Jutlandia 


518 


Kanna 


546 


Maru 


480 


Java . 411, 518 


Juvenal . 


327 


Kano Maru 


480 


Katsuragisan 




JavanesePrince 522 


Juyo Maru . 


535 


Kapara . 


413 


Maru 


496 


J. C. Jacobsen 457 


Jylland . 


456 


Karadjordje 


477 


Kaupanger 


555 


Jean Bart . 659 






Karagola . 


424 


Kauri 


545 


Jean Jadot . 491 


K 




Karamea . 


528 


Kawatiri 


546 


Jean Laborde 




Karanja . 


424 


Kaya Class 


687 


353,493 


Kaaparen 


535 


Karapara 


424 


Kedoe 


527 


Jeanne D'Arc 665 


Kabalo . 


491 


Karepo . 


546" 


Keith 


640 


Jelo ... 512 


Kabinda . 


491 


Karetu . 


546 


Kekerangu 
Kellerwald 


546 


Jervis Bay . 412 


Kaga . 


681 


Karlsruhe 


669 


466 



718 



Index 



Keli/ett 


655 


KlNO" . 


685 


Kelvinbank 


552 


KlNTJGASA 


684 


Kem . 


419 


Kinugasa Maru 480 


Kemmendine 




Kioto 


451 


354, 471 


Kiri Maru 


515 


Kempeneelt 


640 


KlPvISHIMA 


680 


Kenilworth 




Kirishima Maru 480 


Castle . 3^ 


2, 543 


Kishu Maru 


516 


Kenmore 


460 


Kiso . 


685 


Kennebec 


415 


Kiso Maru 


515 


Kent . . 454, 632 


Kistua 


426 


Kentucky 457, 537 


KlTAKAMI 


685 


Kenya 


424 


Kitano Maru 


503 


Keppel . 


640 


KitsurinMaru 514 


Keret 


419 


KlTTIWAKE 


654 


Kerguelen 


435 


Kiwitea . 


546 


Kertosono 


527 


KiyosumiMaru 480 


Khandalla 


424 


Kjobenhavn 


457 


Khin . . 


477 


Klipparen 


535 


Kidderpore 


521 


Knud 


457 


Kidoel . 


486 


Kofuku Maru 480 


Kiki Maru 


515 


Kohoku Maru 516 


Kilissi 


435 


Kohso Maru 


5)6 


Killarney 


438 


Kola 


426 


Kill or an 


238 


Koldinghus 


457 


Kinai Maru 


515 


Kolente . 


435 


Kindia 


435 


Koln . . 


504 


Kingfisher 


462 


KOLN . 


669 


Kingfisher 


654 


Kolsnaren 


535 


King Orry 


474 


Komaki Man 


i 480 


Kini . 


546 


Konan Maru 


516 



Kong Erik . 507 

Kong Haakon 457 

Kong Halfdan 507 

Kong Harald 507 

Kong Magnus 507 

Kongo . . 680 

Kongo Maru. 480 

Konigin Luise 465 

Konigsberg . 505 

'KoNIGSBEPvG 669 

Kora . ^ . . 419 

Koranui . . 546 

Kosciuszko . 461 

Koshun Maru 514 

Kosmos . . 327 
Kosoro . .477 

Kota Ageong 527 

Kota Baroe . 527 

Kota Gede . 527 

Kota Inten . 527 

Kota Pinang 527 

Kota-Nopan . 527 

Kota-Radja . 527 

KotaTjandi. 527 

Koutoubia . 520 

Kowhai . . 546 
Koyasan Maru 

496 

Koyo Maru . 535 
Kralj Alek- 

sandar I 329, 444 



Kralj ica 

Marija . 366, 479 
Kreta . . 466 
Kristianiafjord 509 
Kronprinsessan 



Margareta . 


508 


Kronprinz 




Wilhelm . 


303 


KUMA 


685 


KUMANO 


682 


Kumanovo . 


444 


Kumara . 


528 


Kulmerland . 


465 


Kungsholm . 




329, 390 


530 


Kurama Maru 


480 


Kuramasan 




Maru 


496 


Kurenai Maru 


514 


Kurmark 


466 


Kursan Maru 


516 


Kurt . . . 


238 


Kylemore 


238 


Kyphissia 


466 


L 




Laconia 374 


,441 


La Coruna . 


468 


Ladybird 


654 


Lady Brassey 


217 



719 



Index 



Lady Carlow 427 
Lady Cavan . 427 
Lady Cloe . 427 
Lady Connaught 

427 
Lady Drake . 380 
Lady Emerald 427 
Lady Galway 427 
Lady Hawkins 380 
Lady Leinster 427 
Lady Louth . 427 
Lady Martin 427 
Lady Meath . 427 
Lady Minister 427 
Lady Nelson 380 
Lady of Mann 

374, 474 
Lady Patricia 427 
Lady Rodney 380 
Lady Somers 380 
Lady Wicklow 427 
Lady Wim- 

borne . . 427 
Lafayette 374, 537 
Laganbank . 552 
Lagarto . . 519 
Laguna . 489, 519 
Laguna Belle 462 
La Habra . 556 
Lahn . . 505 
Lahore . . 521 



Laird's Isle 


. 432 


Laperouse 


494 


Leikanger 


655 


Lairdsben 


. 432 


Laplace . 


487 


Leipzig . 


668 


Lairdsbrook 


. 432 


La Plata Maru 


514 


Leith 


653 


Lairdscastle 


. 432 


La Playa 


547 


Le Maire . 


486 


Lairdsfcrry 


. 432 


Lapponia 


455 


Lematang 


486 


Lairdsglen 


. 432 


Lapwing . 


462 


Leme 


488 


Lairdsgrovo 


. 432 


Larchbank . 


552 


Lempira . 


548 


Lairdsheather 432 


Largs Bay 


412 


Leo . . 419 


455 


Lairdshill 


. 432 


La Rosarina . 


459 


Leopoldville 




Lairdsloch 


. 432 


Lassell 


487 


327, 384 


491 


Lairdsmoor 


. 432 


Laura C. . 


476 


Le Rhin 


520 


Lairdspool 


. 432 


Laurentic 


441 


Lesbian . 


452 


Lairdsrock 


. 432 


Laurits Swen- 




Le Terrible 


304 


Lairdsrose 


. 432 


son . 


511 


Letitia .361 


444 


Lalande . 


. 487 


Lautaro . 


519 


Leuna 


466 


Lalandia . 


. 518 


Lav . 


477 


Leverkusen . 


465 


Lamartine 


. 494 


L'Avenir 


238 


Levernbank . 


552 


Lamoriciere 


537 


Laverock 


462 


Leviathan 




Lamotte- 




Lawhill . 


238 


200, 


524 


Picquet 


663 


" L " Class 




Lexington 




Lancashire 




(Submarines) 


652 


187, 


694 


387, 


Leander 


627 


Liberty . 


.248 


Lancashire 




Leander 




Lieutenent de 




Coast 


439 


Class . 626, 


627 


la Tour . . 


495 


Lancastria 375, 441 


Leconte de 




Lieutenant St. 




Lancastrian 




Lisle 


494 


Loubert Bie 


495 


Prince . 


522 


Leda . . 419, 


455 


Lightning 


302 


Langanger 


554 


Leerdam . 


498 


Liguria . 


532 


Laomedon 


472 


Leeuwarden . 


462 


Lima . 


508 


La Paz 


519 


Legazpi . 


541 


Lima Maru . 


503 


La Perla . 


548 


Leighton 


487 


Limerick . 


545 



720 



Index 



Limon 


. 548 


London . 


632 


Luigi Cadorna 676 


Madoera . 


. 499 


Linden bank 


. 553 


London . 


445 


Luigi di Savoia 


Madras Maru 516 


Lindisfarne 


. 542 


London Citizen 459 


D'Aosta Duca 


Madrid . 


. 468 


Linnell . 


. 487 


London Cor- 




Degli Abruzzi 


Madura . 365, 424 


Linois 


. 435 


poration 


459 


675 


Maetsuycker 


. 483 


Lipari 


. 435 


Londonderry 


653 


Luna . .419, 482 


Magallanes 


. 540 


Lippe . 


. 505 


London 




Luneburg . 466 


Magdapur 


. 430 


Lisbon 


452 


Exchange . 


460 


Lupin . . 654 


Magdeburg 


. 465 


Lisbon Maru 


503 


Londonier 


492 


Lurline . .329, 


Magic 


. 242 


Livadia . 46 


>6, 557 


London Maru 


516 


405, 493 


Magician 


. 469 


Livenza . 


489 


Longships 


437 


Lusitania . 303 


Magnus . 


. 457 


Liverpool 


625 


Loreto 


519 


Lutetia . . 394 


Maha Chakri 


248 


Liverpool Maru 480 


Loriga 


519 


Luxmi . . 552 


Mahagi . 


. 492 


Livonia . 


242 


Lorina 


396 


Lycaon . . 472 


Mahana . 


. 528 


Ljubljana 


477 


Lorraine 


660 


Lydd . . 652 


Mahanada 


. 430 


LlandaffCast 


le 543 


Losada . 


519 


Lyngenf jord . 509 


Mahia 


. 528 


Llandovery 




Lossiebank . 


552 


Lynx ... 419 


Mahout . 


. 430 


Castle . 


543 


Loudon . 


483 


Lyons Maru . 503 


Mahratta 


. 430 


Llangibby 




Louga 


445 


Lyva . . . 419 


Mahronda 


. 430 


Castle . 31 


3, 543 


Lousiana 


456 




Mahroussa 


. 248 


Llanstephan 




Louisiane 


537 


M 


Mahseer . 


. 430 


Castle . 


543 


Louisville . 


695 


Mahsud . 


430 


Loanda . 


439 


Lowestoft . 


653 


Maasdam . 498 


Maidan . 


430 


Lobito 


439 


Lowick . 


542 


Maaskerk . 551 


Maid of Kent 399 


Lobos 


519 


Lubeck . 


466 


Macabi . . 547 


Maid of Orleans 396 


Lochee 


445 


Lucania 




Macedonier . 492 


Maiella . 


489 


Lochgoil . 


525 


136, 301 


303 


Macgregor 


Maihar 


430 


Lochkatrine 


525 


Luceric . 


553 


Laird . . 447 


Mailand . 


512 


Lochmonar 


525 


Lucia 


655 


Mackay . . 640 


Maimoa . 


528 


Logician . 


469 


Lucia C. . 


476 


Mactra . . 416 


Maimyo . 


430 


Lombardy . 


525 


Ludwigshafen 


468 


Madeline . . 242 


Main . 


505 



721 



Index 



Maine 


. 457 


Malmanger 


555 


Mantola . 365,424 


Marija Racic 


479 


Maine 


. 655 


Maloja . 351, 521 


Manuel Arnus 540 


Mariposa 405 


493 


Majang 


. 485 


Malolo . 405, 492 


Manuel Calvo 540 


Markhor . 


431 


Majestic 


. 200 


Mamari . 


528 


Manukai . 405, 493 


Marnix Van 




Majestic 


332, 300 


Mambika 


492 


Manulani 405, 493 


Sint Alde- 




Makala 


. 492 


Mampawa 


485 


Manunda 398, 412 


gonde .397 


499 


Makalla 


. 430 


Manaar . 


. 431 


Manx Maid . 474 


Marocco 


456 


Makasser 


. 485 


Manaqui . 


547 


Manxman . 474 


Maron 


472 


Makawao 


. 492 


Manchester 


625 


Maori . . 545 


Maros 


485 


Makaweli 


. 493 


Manchester 




Mapia . 485, 499 


Marques de 




Makian 


. 485 


Regiment 


379 


Marama . . 545 


Comillas 


540 


Makiki 


. 492 


Mandalay 


471 


Maravi . . 547 


Marrakech . 


538 


Makua 


. 492 


Mandar . 


485 


Marblehead 696 


Mars . 


482 


Makura 


. 545 


Mandasor 


431 


Marconi . . 487 


Marshal 




Mala 


. 492 


Manela . 365, 424 


Marco Polo . 490 


Soult . 


654 


Malacca 1 


laru 503 


Mangalore 357, 431 


Mardinian . 452 


Martaban 


471 


Malakand 


. 430 


Manhattan 379,524 


Marechal 


Marvel . 


512 


Malama 


. 492 


Manhukona 


493 


Gallieri . . 495 


Marwarri 


431 


Malange 


. 439 


Maniema 


492 


Marechal 


Mary Kingsley 


447 


Malaren 


. 535 


Manila Maru 


516 


Joffre . 353, 493 


Maryland 


457 


Malatian 


. 451 


Manini . 


492 


Marechal 


Maryland . 


693 


Malaya 


411, 518 


Manipi 


485 


Lyautey . 520 


Mary Slessor 


447 


Malaya 


. 622 


Manipur . 


431 


Margaret Dollar 443 


Ma say a . 


530 


Malayan 


Prince 


Manistee 


449 


Margaret 


Mashobra 365, 


424 




522 


Mano 


492 


Johnson 356, 508 


Masilia . 


532 


Malcolm 


. 640 


Manoa 


493 


Margrethe . 457 


Masirah . 


431 


Malda 


365, 424 


Manoeran 


499 


Maria . . 476 


Massaua . 


534 


Maliko 


. 492 


Manoora . 


412 


Mariette 


Massilia . 


394 


Malin 


. 304 


Mansuria 


532 


Pacha . 351, 494 


Masula . 


424 


Mallard 


. 654 


Mantilla 


556 


Marija 


Matadi . 


492 


Mallorca 


. 541 


Mantis . 


654 


Petrinovic . 479 


Matagalpa . 


530 



722 





7. Ocean S.S. Co. of 
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Index 



Matakana . 528 
Mataroa . 398, 528 
Mateba . . 492 
Mather an . 431 
Mathura . 357, 431 
Matiana . 365, 424 
Matina . . 449 
Matra . .431 
Matsonia 405, 493 
Matsu Maru . 515 
Matsumoto 

Maru . . 503 
Matsuye Maru 

503, 516 
Matt a win . 447 
Matua . . 545 
Maud . . 455 
Maui . . 405, 493 
Mauna Ala . 492 
Mauna Kea . 492 
Maunalei . 492 
Mauna Loa . 492 
Maunawili . 492 
Maunganui . 545 
Mauretania . 188, 

194, 269, 301, 303, 
304 
Mavis . . 462 
Maya . . 683 
Maya Maru . 503 
Mayari . . 547 



Mayebashi 




Meonia . 


518 


Maru 


503 


Merak 


484 


Mayflower 


242 


Merano . 


490 


Mayumbe 


492 


Mercer 


301 


Mazatec 


449 


Merchant 


469 


Mecanicien 




Mercier . 


492 


Moutte 


497 


Mercur 


419 


Mecklenburg 




Mercury 


311 


404, 466 


Merel 


462 


Med€a 


482 


Meriones 


472 


Medie II . 


520 


Merope . 


482 


Medon 


473 


Metapan . 


548 


Medusa . 


654 


Meteor 


419 


Medway 


655 


Mexico Maru 


514 


Meerkerk 


551 


Mexique . 


537 


Meknes . 


538 


M. G. Melchoir 


457 


Melbourne Maru 


Michigan 


538 




515 


Midas 


482 


Melchior Treub 484 


Middlesbro' . 


542 


Meliskerk 


550 


Middlesex 


454 


Melpomene 


654 


Midnatsol 


419 


Melville Dollar 443 


Midori Maru 


515 


Memel 


505 


Midzuho Maru 


514 


Memmon 


472 


Mihara Maru 


515 


Memphis 


696 


Mijer. 


483 


Menado Maru 516 


Mikasa Maru 


503 


Mendoza 358 539 


Miktjma . 


682 


Menelaus 


473 


Milano 


534 


Menes 


466 


MlKFOPvD 


653 


Menestheus . 


473 


Millais 


487 


Mentor . 


473 


Milwaukee 404 


.464 



MlLWACKEE . 696 

Min ... 495 

Minden . . 506 

Minerva . . 654 

Minneapolis 694 

Minnipa . . 412 

Minotaur . 625 

Minotaure . 538 

Minsk . . 457 
Mira . . 419, 455 

Miranda . . 538 

Mirlo ... 556 

Mirrabooka . 536 

Mirzapore . 521 

Mischief . . 242 

Mississippi . 691 

Missouri . . 538 

Mito Maru . 503 

Miyako Maru 516 
Modasa . 365, 424 

Modjokerto . 527 

Moena . . 500 

Moesi . . 485 

Mogami . . 682 

Mogami Class 682 

Moldanger . 554 

Moldavia . 521 

Momba . . 412 

Mona . . 474 
Monarch of 

Bermuda 359, 459 



723 



Index 



Mona's Isle . 474 
Mona's Queen 

374, 474 
Mongolia . 521 
Monmouth 

Coast . .439 
Monowai . 545 
Mont Agel . 539 
Montana . 556 
Montcalm 

385, 433 
Montclare 

383, 433 
montecuccoli 

Class . . 675 
Montenegro . 534 
Mont Everest 539 
Mont Viso . 539 
Monte Olivia 

410, 467 
Monte Pascoal 

410, 467 
Monterey 405, 493 
Monte Rosa 

410, 467 
Monte Sar- 

miento . 410, 467 
Montevideo . 540 
Montevideo 

Maru . . 514 
Montrose 383, 433 



AlONTBO&E . 640 

Monzinho . 439 

Mooltan . 351, 521 

Moonta . . 412 

Mopan . 449 

Moppo Maru 516 
Moresby (R.A. 

Navy) . . 656 
Moreton Bay 412 
Morioka Maru 503 
Mosel . . 505 
Moth . . 654 
Motrix . . 4 97 
Mowe Class 670 
Muansa . . 442 
Muinan . . 518 
Muirton . . 459 
Mulbera . 365, 424 
Mulcra . .412 
Mundalla . 412 
Mundra . . 425 
Munster . . 468 
Munsterland 465 
Murasaki Maru 516 
Muro Maru . 515 
Muroran Maru 503 
Muroto Maru 516 
Musa . . . 547 
Musician . . 469 
Mustapha II . 497 
Mutsu . . 680 



Mi tmki Class 687 
Mi/.io 
Attendolo 675 
Mvuko . . 683 
Myrmidon . 473 
Myrtlebank . 552 

N 

Nachi . . .683 
Nachi Maru . 515 
Nachisan .Maru 496 
Nagara . 525, 532 
Naqara . 685, 686 
ira Maru 502 
Nagasaki Maru 502 
Naoato . . 680 
Nagato Maru 503 
Nagina . . 426 
Nagisan Maru 496 
Nagpore . . 521 
Nahlin . . 248 
Nairnbank . 552 
Naea . . 685 
Nako Maru . 502 
Naldera . 350, 521 
Nalgora . . 426 
Nalon . . 525 
Nalpa . . 413 
Nankai Maru 515 
Nanking . . 532 



Nanking Maru 


516 


X a pier Star . 


422 


Naples Maru 


480 


Narbada . 


546 


Nardana . 


426 


Narenta . 


525 


Naringa . 


426 


Nariva 


525 


Narkurida 350, 


521 


Naruto Maru 


516 


Narutuo Maru 


502 


Narwhal 


647 


Nase Maru . 


516 


Nasmyth 


487 


Nasusan Maru 


496 


Natori . 685 


686 


Natia 


525 


Naumberg 


466 


Navarra 


541 


Navasota 


525 


Navigatori 




Class . 


677 


Nebraska 


525 


Neckar . 


505 


Nekka Maru 


514 


Nela . . . 


525 


Neleus 


472 


Nelson . 


181, 


609, 614, 622 


623 


Nelson Class 




622 


623 



724 



Index 



Neman j a . 479 
Neptun . . 419 
Neptune . 627 
Neptunia 

410, 475 
Nerbudda . 426 
Nereus . . 482 
Nero . . . 482 
Nestor . 366, 473 
Neumark . 466 
Neuralia . 425 
Nevada . 457, 538 
Nevada . . 692 
Nevasa . . 425 
New Brooklyn 448 
New Bruns- 
wick . . 448 
Newcastle . 625 
New Columbia 448 
Newfoundland 460 
New Londoner 542 
New Mexico 691 
Newminster . 542 
New Orleans 694 
New Texas . 448 
New Toronto 448 
New York 

403, 465 
New York . 692 
New Zealand 
Star . 378, 422 



Niagara . . 545 
Nicarao . . 548 
Nichifuka 

Maru . . 516 
Nichiyo Maru 534 
Nicoya . . 449 
Nictheroy . 525 
Nidaros . . 457 
Niederwald . 466 
Niels Ebbesen 457 
Nieuw Holland 

395, 484 
Nieuw Zeeland 

395, 484 
Niger . . 653 
Nijkerk . . 550 
Nike . . 536 
Nikola Pasic 444 
Nippon . . 533 
Nirpura . . 426 
Nirvana . 426 

Nishuka Maru 516 
Nitto Maru . 516 
Njassa . 442, 465 
Njegos . . 479 
Nogoya . . 525 
Nojima Maru 502 
Noora . . 412 
Nordanger . 554 
Nordic . . 536 
Nordmark . 466 



Nordsteirnen 419 

Nordstjernan 356 

Norefjord . 509 

Norfolk . . 454 

Norfolk . 632 

Norma . . 455 

Norman Star 422 

Normandie 

176, 187, 195, 301, 

303, 304, 305, 326, 

327, 329, 331, 370, 

408, 537 

Normannia . 396 

Northampton 695 

Northern 

Coast . . 439 
Northern 

Prince 360, 522 
Northumb er land 

334, 377, 454 
Northumbria 531 
Noshira Maru 502 
Noto Maru 502 

Nourmahal . 248 
Nova . .419 
Nova Scotia 460 
Nowshera . 426 
Nuddea . . 426 
Nurnberg . 668 
Nyassa . . 327 
Nynas . . 507 



O 



Oakbank 




552 


Oakland . 


465 


Oberon . 


482 


Oberon 


650 


Oberon Class 


650 


Observer 


469 


Ocean Coast 


438 


Oceana . 404, 


465 


Oceania 


410, 


475 


Oceanic 




300 


Odense 




456 


Oder 




505 


Odin 




457 


Odin 


649, 


651 


Odin Class 




649, 


651 


Odysseus . 


482 


Ohi . . . 


685 


Oigawa Maru 


516 


Oihoma . 


454 


Oita Maru . 


516 


Oklahoma 


692 


Olaf . . . 


457 


Olancho 


548 


Olbia . . 


533 


Oldenburg 


466 


Oliva 


466 


Olivebank 







238, 552 



725 



Index 



Olympic . 




186 


Orion 


627 


Oued Fes 


520 


Pacific Ranger 


459 


Olympier 




492 


Orkanger 


654 


Oued Grou 


520 


Pacific Reliance460 


Olympus 




649 


Orkney Coast 


439 


Oued Mellah. 


520 


Pacific Shipper 


459 


Omaha . 




696 


Ormara . 


426 


Oued Sebou II 


520 


Pacific Trader 


459 


Omana 




546 


Orm Jarl. 


507 


Oued Tiflet . 


520 


Pacuare . 


449 


Ombilin . 




486 


Ormer 


417 


( taed-Yquem 


520 


Padua 


238 


Ondo Maru 




515 


Ormonde. 


513 


Oued-Zem 


520 


Pahud . . 


484 


Ongoma 




469 


Obkondb 


655 


Ouemo 


459 


Pakoha . 


528 


Oorama . 




413 


Oronsay 383 


513 


Ouergha . 


520 


Palao Maru 


502 


Opawa 




501 


Orontes 383 


513 


Oxfordshire . 




Palatia . 


465 


Opihi 




546 


Oropesa . 


519 


368, 


420 


Palehleh . . 


486 


Oporto 




452 


Orotava 50G 


548 


OZLXY . 650 


651 


Palembang . 


527 


Op ten Noort 




Oroya 


519 


Oyleric 


553 


Palestina. 


490 


398, 


484 


Orpheus 


482 


Ozarda 


426 


Palima 


486 


Orama .383, 


513 


Orpheus . 


649 


P 




Pallao . 419, 


455 


Oranje Nassau 




Orphir . 398, 


483 




Palmella 


452 


404, 


482 


Orsova 


513 


P. 40 (Patrol 




Palopo 


486 


Orari 


501 


Ortinashell . 


416 


Boat) . . 


655 


Paludina 


417 


Orazio 


475 


Ortolan . 


462 


P. 59 (Patrol 




Pamir 


238 


Orbita . 388, 


519 


Oshima Maru 


496 


Boat) . . 


655 


Panama 


518 


Orcades . 389, 


513 


Osiris 


465 


Pacific . 303, 


508 


Panama Maru 


516 


Ordufia 388, 


519 


Osiris 


649 


Pacific Coast 


438 


Pandora 


649 


Oregon 303,456,538 


Ostrobotnia 


455 


Pacific 




Panqbouene 


652 


Orestes . 473, 


482 


Oswald 


649 


Enterprise 


460 


Papanui 


501 


Orford . 383, 


513 


Otaio 


501 


Pacific 




Paparoa 


501 


Oriente . 


364 


Otira 


528 


Exporter 


460 


Paraguay 


468 


Orinoco . 


464 


Otranto .383, 


513 


Pacific Grove 


459 


Parana . 


468 


Oriole 


462 


Ottar Jarl 


507 


Pacific 




Parigi 


486 


Orion 




Otus 


649 


Pioneer 


460 


Paris 




157, 248, 331, 


389 


Otway . 650, 


651 


Pacific 




326, 371, 512, 


537 


455, 48 


2 


513 


Oued el Abid 


520 


President 


459 


Paris 


659 



726 



Index 



Paris Maru . 


516 


Pellerin de 




Phemius . 


474 


Parkeston 


456 


Latouche 


537 


Phidias . 


487 


Parma 


238 


Penang . 


238 


Philoctetes 


472 


Parrakoola 


536 


Penang Maru 


503 


Philomel 


462 


Parthian 


649 


Penelope . 


627 


Phoenicia 


465 


Parthian 




Penguin 




Phoenix 


649 


Class . 


649 


(R.A. Navy) 


655 


Phrygia . 


465 


Pascal Paoli 


458 


Pennland 


362 


Piako 


501 


Pasir . 


486 


Pennsylvania 




Piave 


489 


Passat 


238 


361, 


413 


Pierre Loti 


494 


Pastores . 


548 


Pennsylvania 691 


Pijnacker 




Patella . 


416 


Pensacola . 


696 


Hordijk 


484 


Patia 


449 


Penzance 


653 


Pilsudski 




Patras 


484 


Peregrine 


462 


327, 391 


, 461 


Patria 




Pernambuco 


468 


Pinna 


417 


379, 453 


455 


Perla . . 


489 


Pionier . 


492 


Patricia . 465, 


531 


Perseus 472 


482 


Pladda . . 


437 


Patrician . 


469 


Perseus 


649 


Plancius . 398 


484 


Patroclus 366 


472 


Persian Prince 


522 


Planter . 


469 


P.C. 74 (Patrol 




Persic 


257 


Piatano . 


547 


Boat) . . 


655 


Persier 


492 


Pleioden . 


417 


Pecten 


416 


Perth . . 


445 


Plus Ultra . 


541 


Pedro Chris- 




Peru 


518 


Pluto . . 


482 


tophersen . 


508 


Peshawur 


521 


Pluton . 


664 


Peel Castle 


474 


Pestalozzi 


238 


Poelau-Bras 


499 


Pegasus . 


536 


Peten. . 402, 


549 


Poelau-Laut 


499 


Pegasus 


638 


Petite Terre 


538 


Poelau- 




Pegu . . 354, 


471 


Petka . . 


444 


Roebiah 


499 


Peiping . 


532 


Pefcrel . . 


462 


Poelau-Tello 


499 


Peisander 


473 


Petrel . 


654 


Poeta Arolas 


541 


Peking Maru 


516 


Peveril . 


475 


POLA 


673 



Polario . . 455 
Polarlys . 419 

Politician 360, 469 
Pollux . 419, 455 
Polonia . 461 

Polycarp . 423 
Polyphemus 625 
Pommern . 238 
Ponape . . 238 
Poolta . . 546 
Porpoise . 647 
Porpoise Class 

(Minelayers) 647 
Porsanger . 555 
Port Adelaide 440 
Port Alma . 440 
Port Auckland 440 
Port Bowen . 440 
Port Campbell 440 
Port Caroline 440 
Port Chalmers 

376, 440 
Port Darwin. 440 
Port Denison 440 
Port Dunedin 440 
Port Fairy . 440 
Port Fremantle 440 
Port Gisborne 440 
Port Hardy 440 
Port Hobart 440 
Port Hunter 440 



727 



Index 



Port Huon . 440 
Port 

Melbourne 440 
Port Napier . 440 
Port Nicholson 440 
Port Sydney . 440 
Port 

Townsvillo . 440 
Port 

Wellington 440 
Port Wyndham 

376, 440 
Porta . . 506 
Porthos . 352, 494 
Portland . 465 
Portland . 695 
Poseidon 455, 482 
Potsdam 389, 504 
Pracat . . 444 
Praga . . 490 
Prague 332, 333, 396 
Premjer . . 534 
Preradoric . 479 
Presednik 

Kopajtic . 477 
President 

Adams . 359, 443 
President 

Cleveland 359, 443 
President 

Coolidge 358, 443 



President 

Piaz 
President 

Doumer . 
President 

Fillmore 
President 

Garfield 
President 

Gomez . 
President 

Grant 
President 

Harding 
President 

Harrison 
President 

Hayes . 
President 

Hoover . 
President 

Jackson. 
President 

Jefferson 
President 

Johnson 
President 

Lincoln 
President 

Madison 



Dal 


537 


355, 


493 




443 


359, 


443 




417 


402, 


414 


380, 


524 


359, 


443 


359, 


443 


358, 


443 


402, 


414 


402, 


414 




443 


359, 


443 


402, 


414 



President 

MeKinley 402, 414 
President 

Monroe . 359, 443 
President 

Pierce . 359, 443 
President 

Polk . 359, 443 
President 

Roosevelt 

380, 524 
President 

Taft . 359, 443 
President van 

Buren . 359, 443 
President 

Wilson . 359, 443 
Prestolonaslednik 

Petar . . 477 
Preussen . 466 
Pbimauouet 663 
Primula . 455, 457 
Prince Albert 401 
Prinoe Baudouin 

329, 331, 401 
Prince Charles 397 
Prince Leopold 397 
Princesa Olga 

366, 479 
Princess 

Kathleen . 394 



Princess 

Marguerite . 394 
Principessa 

Giovanna . 476 
Principessa 

Maria . . 476 

Prinoe Andrej 444 

Prins Olav . 507 
Prinses 

Astrid . . 397 
Prinses Josephine 

Charlotte . 397 
Prinses 

Juliana . 329, 404 
Prinsesse 

Ragnhild . 507 

Priwall . . 238 

Prometheus . 473 

Prompt . . 238 

Protector . 652 

Proteus . 649 

Frotesilaus 472 

Provence . 660 
Providence . 

379, 453 

Ptarmigan , 462 

Puffin . . 654 

Pulaski . 461 

Pungue . 439 

PyrrhuB . . 474 



728 



URUGUAY 




Index 



Queda 


426 


Queen 




Elizabeth 




609, 


622 


Queen 




Elizabeth Class 


187, 622 


624 


Queen Mary 


159, 


162, 187, 188, 


195, 


294, 301, 326, 


327, 


329, 331, 332, 


334, 


370, 


441 


Queen of 




Bermuda 359, 


459 


Queen, The . 


214 


Querimba 


426 


Quernmore . 


460 


Quiloa 


426 


Quincy . 


694 


Quirigua 




402, 


549 


Quirinale . 


490 



Quorna 



412 



R 



Rab ... 477 
Ragnvald Jarl 507 
Raimund . 506 



Rainbow 


242 


" R " Class, 




Revenge 


622 


Rainbow 


649 


Admiralty 




Rex 




Rainbow Class 


(Destroyers) 


647 


187, 303, 304, 


326, 


649, 


651 


Reael 


484 


327, 329, 408, 


476 


Raj put ana 

351, 
Rajula 


521 

425 


Recca . . 489 
Recorder . 469 
Reculver 38, 39 


Rey Jaime I 
Rey Jaime II 
Rhakotis 


541 
541 
465 


Rakuyo Maru 


502 


Regent 


649 


Rhea . 455, 


481 


Raleigh 


696 


Regulus 


649 


Rhein 


465 


Ramillies 




Regulus . 


455 


Rheinland 


465 


622, 


623 


Reijniersz 


484 


Rhesus . 


472 


Ramses . 


465 


Reijnst . 


484 


Rhexenor 


474 


Ramsey Town 
Rancher . 


474 
469 


Reina del 
Pacifico 


332, 


Rhone 
Rialto 


457 

488 


Ranchi . 351, 


521 


333, 337, 385, 


519 


Richmond . 


696 


Randfontein 
Rangatira 


550 
545 


Reiyo Maru . 
Reliance . 


535 


Rigel . . 
Rinda 


418 
556 


Rangitane 




242, 403 


465 


Ring 


532 


384, 


500 


Remo 


475 


Rio de Janeiro 


468 


Rangitata 




Remuera 333, 


500 


Rio de Janeiro 




384, 453 


500 


Rendsburg . 


465 


Maru . 364, 


514 


Rangitiki 

333, 384 


500 


Rengat . 
Renown 624, 


484 
625 


Rio Francoli. 
Rio Mino 


541 
541 


Ranpura 351, 


521 


Repulse 624, 


625 


Rio Navia 


541 


Rantaupand j ang 

486 


Rescue 
Resolute 242, 


421 
403 


Rio Segre 
Rio Tajo 


541 
541 


Rapot 
Raranga . 


468 
528 


Resolution 

622, 


623 


Risanger 
Roald Jarl . 


555 
507 


Ravanger 


555 


Resource . 


655 


Robert F. 




Rawalpindi 




Restless 


647 


Hand 


415 


351, 


521 


Reteh . . 


484 


Robin 


654 



729 



Index 



Rockabill 


437 


Rotorua . 


453 


St. Catherine 


510 


Saint Tropez 


538 


Rochester 


653 


Roumelian . 


452 


St. Clair 


. 510 


Sainte Maxime 538 


Rochussen . 


484 


Rover 


649 


St. Clement 


510 


Sakishima 




Roek 


462 


Rowena 


647 


St. David 


. 376 


Maru 


516 


Roda 


465 


Roxen 


536 


St. Fergus 


510 


Salabangka 


500 


Rodney 




Royal Archer 


358 


St. Helier 


. 376 


Saladin . 


646 


181,622 


623 


Royal Eagle 


462 


St. Julien 


. 376 


Salamander 


653 


Rodney Star 


422 


Royal Fusilier 


358 


St. Louis 




Salawati . 


499 


Roggeveen . 


484 


Royal Oak . 


622 


404, 464 


Saleier 


500 


Rohna 


425 


Royal 




St. Magnus 


. 510 


Salmon . 


650 


Rokan 


483 


Sovereign 


622 


St. Ninian 


. 510 


Salt Lake 




Rokko Maru. 


503 


Royal Sovereign 


St. Ola . 


510 


City 


696 


Roland 




Class . 622 


623 


St. Patrick 


376 


Saltash . 


652 


455, 504 


506 


Royal Star 


422 


St. Rognvald 


510 


Saltbtjrn 


652 


Rolf Jarl 


507 


Royal William 


303 


St. Sunniva 


510 


Salvador 


519 


Roma 




Ruahine . 


500 


Saale 


505 


Sama 


530 


326, 410 


476 


Rufidji . 


442 


Saar . 


505 


Samala . 


449 


Romeu 


541 


Ruhr . . 


465 


Saarland 


466 


Samaria 




Romolo . 


475 


Rumphius 


484 


Sabbia 


489 


374, 441 


Rooseboom . 


484 


Runic 


257 


Sable 


647 


Sambre 


525 


Rorqual 


647 


Rushen Castle 


474 


Sabor. 


525 


Samnanger 


555 


Rosandra 


489 


Ruys 


483 


Sabre 


646 


Sampiero Corso 458 


Rosaura 


248 


Ryoyo Maru. 


534 


Sachsen . 


467 


San Adolf o 


446 


Rosemary . 


654 


Ryujo . 679, 


688 


Saga . 


457 


San Alberto 


446 


Roslin Castle 


544 


Ryuko Maru 


516 


Sagaing . 354, 471 


San Alvaro 


446 


Ross . 


652 


Ryukyu Maru 


516 


Sagtjenay 


642 


San Amado 


446 


Rota . 


457 






Sailor Prince 


523 


San Ambrosio 446 


Rothesay 




S 




Saint Andre 


538 


San Andres 




Castle . 


544 




Saint Clair 


538' 


446, 511 


Rotorua 386, 


500 


St. Andrew 


376 


Saint 




San Antonio 


538 


Rotterdam 393 


498 


St. Briac 


396 


Domingue 


538 


San Arcadio 


446 



730 



YUGOSLAVIA 




fbubrovacka Parob. 
Plovidba. 




P 5. Brodarsko Ack. 
" Oceania " 



■ HI 



2. Atlantska Plovidba 




6. Jugoslavenski Lloyd 




YUGOSLAVIA 




IP 



m 



B 





IP 

6. JugosUvenski Lloyd 





Index 



San Benito 




San Pedro 


538 


301, 547 


San Quirino . 


446 


San Bias 


547 


San Roberto . 


446 


San Bruno 


547 


San Salvador 


446 


San Gamilo 


417 


San Silvistre. 


446 


San Carlos 


512 


San Tibureio 


446 


San Casto 


446 


San Tirso 


446 


San Claudio 


446 


San Ubaldo 


446 


San Dario 


446 


San Valerio . 


446 


San Diego 


538 


San Zeferino . 


446 


San Fabian 


446 


San Zotico . 


446 


San Felix 


446 


Sancho Maru 


496 


San Fernand 


3 446 


Sanda 


437 


San Florentir 


10 446 


Sandgate 




San Francisc 


d 508, 


Castle . 


544 




538 


Sandhurst 


655 


San Francis 


CO 


Sandown 






694 


Castle 


544 


San Francisc 


D 


Sandpiper 


654 


Maru 


480 


Sandwich . 


653 


San Gaspar 


446 


Sangro 


476 


San Gill . 


547 


Sanjin Maru 


496 


San Jose 




Sanko Maru 


496 


512, 5c 


18, 548 


Santa Barbara 


463 


San Leon 


446 


Santa Catalina 


463 


San Lucar 


512 


Santa Cecilia 


464 


San Mateo 




Santa Clara 


463 


512, 5* 


Is, 548 


Santa Cruz . 


512 


San Melito 


. 446 


Santa Elena 




San Miguel 


. 512 


368 


, 463 


San Pablo 


. 547 


Santa Inez . 


463 



Santa Isabel 463 
Santa Lucia 

368, 463 
Santa Maria 463 
Santa Mart a 548 
Santa Monica 464 
Santa Paula 

368, 464 
Santa Kit a 463 

Santa Rosa 

368, 464 
Santa Teresa 464 
Santen Maru 496 
Santhia . . 425 
Santiago . 512 
Santos . . 508 
Santos Maru. 514 
Sanyo Maru 515 
Saparoea . 499 
Sapphire . 248 
Saramacca . 548 
Saranac . 376, 415 
Saratoga 187, 694 
Sardinia . . 512 
Sardinian 

Prince . 523 

Sardonyx . 646 
Sarpedon 366, 473 
Sarthe . . 525 
Saturnia . 410, 475 
Saturnus 418, 482 



Sauerland . 465 
Savannah . 299 
Savarona . 248 
Savoia . 248, 489 
Sawahloento 486 
Saxon . . 544 
Scalaria . . 417 
Scandinavia 532 
Scania . . 531 
Scarab . 654 

Scarborough 653 
Scharnhorst 

389, 504 
Scheer . . 467 
Scholar . . 469 
Schouten. . 484 
Schulschiff 

Deutschland 238 
Schuylkill . 415 
Schwaben . 506 
Scimitar . 646 
" S " Class, 

Admiralty 
(Destroyers) 646 
Scotia 

194, 303, 333, 532 
Scotsman . 646 
Scott Class. 640 
Scottish Coast 439 
Scottish Prince 

522 



731 



Index 



Scout 


G46 


Shamrock 1 V. 


2 12 


Siam . 


518 


Soythia . 3' 


4, 4 11 


Shamrock v. 




Siamese Prince 


522 


Seahorse 


660 


242, 


246 


Siantar . 


527 


Sealion . 


650 


Shamrock . 


646 


Siaoe 


L86 


Keainew . 


462 


Shanghai 




Sibajak 354 


526 


Skami.w . 


654 


Maru 480 


502 


Siberoet 


486 


Sbabchsb 


046 


Shantung 


532 


Sibigo 


486 


Seattle 


46.") 


Shark 


660 


Sibolga 


486 


Seattle Bfaru 


516 


Shark Class 


650 


Sirilia 


531 


Seawolf. 


650 


Shbfuxld . 


625 


Sicilian Prince 


523 


Segovia . 


512 


Sheldrake 


462 


Sidajoe . 


486 


Seikai Muru 


516 


Sheldraki: 


654 


Sidi-Aiasa 


539 


Seikyo Mam 


516 


Shell Hex IV. 


446 


Sidi Bel 




S9kkow Man 


i 516 


shell Hex v. 


44 6 


Abbea . 


539 


Selandia . 


518 


Shepperton 




Sidi Brahim 


539 


Selkirk . 


652 


Ferry 


399 


Sidi Mabrouk 


539 


Sena 


439 


Sheridan 


487 


Sidi Okba . 


539 


Senator . 


470 


Shiga Maru . 


516 


Sierra 




Sendai . 


685 


Shikari 


646 


Cordoba 


504 


Sepia 


416 


Shikiaan Maru 


496 


Sigli . . . 


486 


Serbino 


451 


Shinyo Maru 


502 


Sigrun 


457 


Serooskerk 


550 


Shirala 


425 


Sigurd Jarl . 


507 


Sesostris . 


467 


Shisen Maru 


516 


Silindoeng 


486 


Severn . 


649 


Shoreham . 


653 


Simaloer 


500 


Sevilla 


512 


Shoreham 




Simla 


556 


Shakespeari 


S 640 


Class . 


653 


Simnia 


416 


SHAKESPEARI 


s 


Shropshire . 


420 


Simon Bolivar 


481 


Class 


640 


Shropshire 


632 


Sinabang. 


486 


Shamrock I. 


242 


Shunko Maru 


516 


Sinaia 


453 


Shamrock II 


242 


Shuri Maru . 


516 


Singapore 


486 


Shamrock II] 


[. 242 


Si Kiang 


495 


Singkara 


486 



Singkep . 486, 500 

Sipan . . 444 

Sipirok . . 486 

Sipora . . 486 

Sirdhana . 425 
Sir Harvey 

Adamson . 425 

Sirii , . . 525 
Sirius 

148, 300, 419. 455 
Sir James Clark 

Ross . . 392 

Sirsa . . 426 

Sistiana . . 489 

Sitebondo . 527 

Sixaola . . 548 

's Jacob . 484 

Skate . . 647 

Skeena . . 642 

Skerries . . 437 

Skiensfjord . 509 

Skipjack . 653 

Skjold . . 457 

Slamat . 353, 526 

Sleipner . . 457 
Sloet van de 

Beele . . 484 

Siovenac . 477 

Snaefell . . 474 

Snapper . 650 

Soca . . , 477 



732 



Index 



Soekaboemi 


527 


Soemba . 


500 


Soerabaya 

Sogua 

Solen 


486 
548 
417 


Solferino 


512 


Somali 


521 


Somalia . 


534 


Somerset 


454 


Somerset Co 


ast 




439 


Somersetshire 


? 420 


Somme . 


525 


Soudan . 


521 


SOUTHAMPTO 


er 625 


South ampto 


N 


Class 


625 


Southern Cog 


Lst 438 


Southern 




Prince 36 


►0, 522 


Sovereign c 


F THE 


Seas 


199 


Soyo Maru 


. 534 


Spaarndam 

Spain 

Spearfish 


. 498 
. 194 
. 650 


Specialist 
Speedwell 


. 470 

653 


Speelman 
Spenser 


. 484 
. 640 



Spey . 


655 


Steigerwald . 


467 


Suecia . 407, 


508 


Speybank 


552 


Stella . . 


482 


Suecia 


531 


Sphinx . 352, 


494 


Stella 




Suffolk 


632 


Spica 


419 


Polaris .389, 


418 


Suffolk Coast 


439 


Spinanger 


554 


Stentor . 


472 


SUFFREN 


661 


Spindrift . 


646 


Sterling 


608 


Sulaco 


449 


Spirila 


417 


Stirling Castle 




Sultan 


652 


Spitfire 


606 


332, 334 


543 


Sultan Star . 


422 


Split . . 


477 


Stockwell 


431 


Sumatra . 490, 


533 


Spondilus 


416 


Stoke 


652 


Sumatra Maru 


516 


Sportive 


646 


Storanger 


554 


Sumire Maru 


515 


Springbank . 


552 


Stork . . 


462 


Sunfish . 


650 


Springfontein 


550 


Strathaird 381 


521 


Suomen Neito 


455 


Srbin . . 


477 


Strathearn 38, 39 


Suomen Poika 


455 


"S" R.C. Navy, 


Strathmore . 




Surabaya Maru 516 


(Destroyers) 


647 


331, 333, 334, 


388, 


Surada . 


426 


Srebreno 


444 




521 


Suriname 


548 


Srgj . . 


444 


Strathnaver 




Surrey 


454 


Staffordshire 


420 


381, 


521 


Stirto 


533 


Stagen 


486 


Streefkerk 


551 


Susak 


477 


Stalwart 




Stromboli 


512 


Sussex . 


632 


(R.A.N.) . 


646 


Stronghold 


646 


Suwa Maru 




Standella 


416 


Stuart 




362, 


502 


Starfish 


650 


(R.A.N.) . 


640 


SUZUYA . 


682 


Starling . 


462 


Stuart Star . 


422 


Svanhild 


457 


Stassfurt 


467 


Sturdy . 


646 


Svanholm 


457 


Statendam 




Sturgeon . 


650 


Svava 


457 


327, 392 


. 498 


Stuttgart 


504 


Svealand 


332 


Statesman 360 


, 470 


Stuyvesant . 


481 


Svein Jarl 


507 


Stavangerfjord 




Success 




Sverre 




391, 


509 


(R.A.N.) . 


646 


Sigurdsson . 


507 



733 



Index 



Sveti Vlaho . 


444 


Taian Maru 


503 


TaJamba 364, 425 


Tasmania 




Swaerdecroon 


484 


Taicho Maru 


516 


Talisman. 


. 555 


(R.A.N.) 


. 646 


Swartenhondt 


484 


Taikoku Muru 


516 


Talisse 


. 499 


Tasmania 




Swift . . 


462 


Tainan Maru 


516 


Talleyrand 




Maru 


. 480 


Swinburne 


487 


Tainui 


528 


357, 555 


Tatsuno Maru 503 


SWORDFISH . 


650 


Tai-Ping 


555 


Talma . 


. 425 


Tatsuta 




SWORDFISH 




Tai Ping Yang 


555 


Talthybius 


474 


Maru . 362, 501 


Class . 


650 


Tairea . 364 


125 


TaJune 


. 546 


Tatsutasan 




Swordsman 




Tairoa 


52S 


Tama 


685 


Maru 


. 496 


(R.A.N.) . 


646 


Tai -Shan 


555 


Tamara . 


532 


Tattoo 




Sydic 


536 


Taiwan . 


555 


Tamaroa 398, 528 


(R.A.N.) 


. 646 


Sydney 




Tai- Yang 


555 


Tamerlane 


555 


Taunus . 


. 468 


(R.A.N.) . 


627 


Tai-Yin . . 


555 


Tampa 


555 


Taurus 


. 556 


Sydney Maru 


480, 


Taiyo Maru 




Tana . 


556 


Tawali 


. 499 




515 


362, 


502 


Tanafjord 


509 


Taybank 


. 552 


Sydney Star 


378, 


Taizan Maru 


516 


Tancred 


555 


Teal . . 


. 462 




422 


Tajandoen 


499 


Tanfield 


426 


Teapa 


. 530 


Syra . . . 


467 


Tajima Maru 


503 


Tanganjika 




Tedworth 


652 


Syrian Prince 


522 


Takachiho 




442, 465 


Tegelberg 


. 483 






Maru . 364, 


514 


Tango Maru 


503 


Teiresias 


. 474 


T 




Takada 


425 


Tanimbar 


499 


Tekoa . 


. 501 




Takamisan 




Tannenberg 


465 


Tela . . 


548 


Taarnholm . 


457 


Maru 


496 


Tapanoeli 


527 


Telamon 


482 


Tabian . 


499 


Takao 


683 


Tarakan . 


499 


Telde 


548 


Tabinta . 


499 


Takao Maru 


516 


Taranaki 


528 


Telena 


416 


Tacoma . 


467 


Takaoka Maru 


503 


Taranger 


554 


Tellus 


418 


Tacoma Maru 


516 


Taketoyo Maru 503 


Tarantia 


415 


• Temeraire 


556 


Tacoma Star 


422 


Takliwa . 364, 


425 


Tarantula 


654 


Tempest 


647 


Tactician 


470 


Talabot . . 


555 


Tarn 


555 


Templar . 


556 


Tactician . 


608 


Talamaca 


402 


Taronga 


556 


Tenedos. 


646 


Tagliamento 


489 


Talamanca 


549 


Tasman . 


484 


Teneriffa 


556 



734 



Index 



Teneriffe . 468 
Tennessee 457, 556 
Tennessee . 693 
Tenyu Maru 534 
Teresa . . 476 
Terka . . 413 
Terror . . 654 
Tern . . 654 
Terukuni 

Maru . 363, 501 
Tetela . .449 
Teucer . . 474 
Tetjtonic . 300 
Tevere . 385, 490 
Texas . . 692 
Thalatta . 556 
Thames . . 649 
Thames Class 649 
Thanet . . 646 
Thedans . . 484 
Themistocles 528 
Theophile 

Gautier . 493 
Thermopylae 556 
Theseus . 474, 482 
Thist . . 242 
Thode 

Fagelund . 556 
Thornaby . 542 
Thracian . 646 
Thruster . 647 



Thyra . . 


457 


Thysville . . 


491 


Tiberius 


482 


Tidore . . 


483 


Tigre . 476 


556 


Tijuca 


556 


Tilapa 


449 


Tilawa 


425 


Timavo . 


489 


Tinhow 


553 


Tiradentes . 


556 


Tirpitz . . 


467 


Tisnaren 


535 


Titan . . 


474 


Titania . 


556 


TlTANIA 


655 


Titanic . 


301 


Titus . . 


482 


Tiverton 


652 


Tivives . 


548 


Tjaldur 


457 


Tjibadak 


478 


Tjibesar 


478 


Tjikandi . 


478 


Tjikarang 


356 


Tjikarank 


478 


Tjikembang . 


478 


Tjileboet 


478 


Tjimanoek . 


478 


Tjinegara 356 


, 478 


Tjisadane 356 


, 478 



Tjisalak . 


478 


Tordenskjold 


507 


Tjisaroea. 


478 


Tore Jarl 


507 


Tjisondari 


478 


Torfinn Jarl 


507 


Toba . . 


483 


Tormentor . 


605 


Toba Maru 


503 


Toronto . 


556 


Tobelo . 


483 


Torras y Bages 541 


Toboali 


483 


Torrid 


647 


Togian 


483 


Torvanger 


555 


Tokai Maru 


515 


Tortugas 


556 


Tokiwa Maru 


503 


Tortuguero 


448 


Tokushima 




Tosari . 483, 527 


Maru 


503 


Tottori Maru 


503 


Toledo . 


556 


Touareg 


458 


Tolga 


413 


Toulouse 


556 


Tolken . 


536 


Touraine 


556 


Toloa 


548 


Tourcoing 


556 


Tomboneton 


459 


Tourvikle 


663 


Tomislav . 


479 


Toward . 


437 


Tomohon 


483 


Tower Dale 


455 


Tomori . 


483 


Toyama Maru 503 


Tomsk . 


458 


Toyohashi 




TONEA 


682 


Maru 


503 


Tone Maru 


496 


Toyooak Maru 503 


Tongariro 


501 


Trajanus 


482 


Tongking 


518 


Transylvania 




Tonsbergfjord 509 


350, 


Toorie 


413 


Trave 


505 


Topdalsfjord 


509 


Traveller 


470 


Topeka . 


556 


Trentbank . 


553 


Topola . 


. 477 


Trento . 


675 


Toradja . 


483 


Trepca 


479 



735 



Index 



Trevessa 


. 301 


Tungsha . 


556 


| Ulster Queen 417 


V 




Trianon . 


. 556 


Tunis . . 


456 


Ulster Star . 417 






Tricolor . 


. 556 


Turakina . 


501 


Ulua 


. . 548 


Vaga 


419 


Trier . . 


. 506 


Turbinia 


300 


Ulysses 




Valencia 


532 


Trieste 


. 675 


Turbo . . 


417 


366 


, 472, 482 


Valentijn 


485 


Triglav . 


. 479 


Turbulent . 


646 


Umbria 


. 300 


Valentine . 


644 


Trigonia . 


. 416 


Turrialba 


548 


Umkuzi 


. . 431 


Valiant 


622 


Tripolitania 


. 534 


Tuscaloosa 


694 


Umlazi 


. 432 


Valkyrie 


644 


Triton . 


. 311 


Tuscania 


415 


Umona 


. 431 


Valkyrie II . 


242 


Triton . 482, 556 


Tuscan Star 


422 


Umtali 


402, 431 


Valkyrie III 


242 


Trocas 


. 416 


Tuskar . 


437 


Umtata 


402, 431 


Valorous . 


644 


Troilus 


. 472 


Tweedbank . 


552 


Umvoti 


. 431 


Valparaiso . 


508 


Troja . 467, 556 


Twickenham 




Umvuma 


. 431 


Vampire 


644 


Trojan . 


. 646 


Ferry 


399 


Una . 


. 477 


Van Cloon 


485 


Trojan Star 


422 


Tymeric 


553 


Unden 


. 536 


Van der Bosch 


485 


Trondanger 


554 


Tyndareus . 


474 


Upwey 




Van der 




Trondhjem 


. 507 


Tynebank 


552 


Grange 


. 359 


Hagen . 


485 


Trondjhem 


. 458 


Tys . . . 


458 


Urado Maru 516 


Van der Lijn 


485 


Trondh j emsf j ord 


Tyrifjord. 


509 


Utal Maru . 514 


Van der Wijck 


485 




509 






Urania 


. 490 


Van Diemen 


485 


Troubadour 


556 


U 




Uranus . 


. 418 


Van Goens . 


485 


Trusty . 


. 646 




Ursa 


. 417 


Van Heemskerk 


Tsukuba Maru 503 


Ubena . 404 


442 


Uruguay 






485 


Tsuruga Maru 503 


Uckermark . 


467 


356, 468 


, 508, 540 


Van Heutsz . 


483 


Tsushima Maru 503 


Uffe . . . 


458 


Urundi . 


. 442 


Van Imhoff 


485 


Tsuyama Maru 503 


Ulm . . . 


506 


Usa Maru 


. 516 


Van Lansberge 


485 


Tucurinca 


449 


Ulooloo . 


413 


Usambara 


. 442 


Van Linschoten 


Tudor . 


556 


Ulster Castle 


417 


Usaramo 


. 442 




485 


Tudor Star 


422 


Ulster Hero . 


418 


Ussukume 


i . 442 


Van Neck 


485 


Tugel 


556 


Ulster Monarch 417 


Ussuri Ma 


ru 442 


Van Noort . 


485 


Tula 


458 


Ulster Prince 


417 


Uyo Maru 


. 534 


Van Outhoorn 


485 



736 



Index 



Van O vers tra ten 

485 
Van Rees . 485 
Van Reibeck 485 
Van Rensselaer 481 
Van Riemsdijk 485 
Van Spilbergen 486 
Van Swoll . 485 
Van Waerwijck 485 
Vancouver . 647 
Vancouver 

Maru . 467, 480 
Vandyck 367, 487 
Vanessa . 644 
Vanity . 605, 644 
Vanoc . 644 

Vanquisher 644 
Vansittart 644 
Varanger . . 554 
Vardar . . 477 
Varela . . 425 
Varsova . 425 

Vasna . . 425 
11 V " Class 

Admiralty 

(Destroyers) 644 
" V " Class 

(Destroyers) 648 
" V " Class 

Thornycroft 

(Destroyers) 647 



Vectis . 




644 


Veendam 393, 


498 


Vega 


455 


Vega 




644 


Vela . 




419 


Velox . 




644 


Velsheda 




246 


Vendetta 




644 


Venetia 




645 


Venezuela 




481 


Venomous 




644 


Venturous 




645 


Venus 




329, 365, 418, 


482 


Veragua 402, 


549 


Verdun . 


645 


Verity 


644 


Versatile . 


645 


Vesper . 


645 


Vesta 




419, 455, 482, 


490 


Veteran 644, 


648 


Viceroy 647, 


648 


Viceroy of India 


333, 351, 


521 


Victoria 




385, 474, 


489 


Victoria and 




albert 




245, 247, 248, 


655 


Victoria Maru 


480 



Victorian 301, 390 
Victory 199, 293 
Vidar . . 458 

VlDETTE . 645 

Vidovdan . 479 
Vienna . . 332, 
333, 385, 396, 490 
Vigilant . . 242 
Vigo ... 468 
Viking 238, 422, 474 
Villa de Madrid 541 
Villanger 

411, 554 
Ville D'Ajaccio 458 
Villo D' Alger 

331, 372, 537 
Ville d' Amiens 494 
Ville de 

Strasbourg . 494 
Ville de Verdun 

494 
Ville D'Oran 

372, 537 

VlMIERA . . 645 

Viminale . 475 
Vimy . . 645 

VlNCENNES . 694 

Vindictive 

608, 631, 634 
Viola . . 454 
Violent . 645 



Virgilio . . 475 
Virginia 

361, 413, 458 
Virginian . 390 
Virgo . . 455 
Viscount 

647, 648 
Vistula . . 456 
Vita . . . 425 
Vivacious 605, 645 
Vivien . . 645 
Vogtland, . 465 
Vojvoda 

Putnik . . 417 
Volendam 393, 498 
Volsella . . 417 
Voltaire . 367, 487 

VOLTURNO . 451 

Volunteer . 242 

Volunteer . 644 

Von Dobeln . 454 

Vortigern . 645 

Voyager . 645 

Vulcania 410, 475 

Vulcanus . 482 



W 



Wadai 
Wagogo 



557 
557 



737 



Index 



Wahehe . 
Wahine . 
Waikouaiti . 
Waimana 
Waimarino . 
Waimea 
Wainui . 
Waiotapu 
Waipahi . 
Waipawa 400, 
Waipiata . 
Wairangi 400. 
Wairuna 
Waitaki . 
Waiwera 400, 
Wakama 
Wakeful 

WALKER 

Wallace 
Walpole 
Walrus . 
Wamem . 
Wanderer 
Wanderer . 
Wangoni 
War Bharata 
War Nawab 
War Nizam . 
War Sudra 
W T arfield . 
Warialda . 



557 
545 
546 

528 
546 
546 
545 
546 
546 
528 
546 
528 
546 
546 
528 
557 
645 
645 
640 
645 
645 
557 
470 
644 
557 
430 
430 
430 
430 
426 
426 



Warina . . 426 
Warora . 426 

Warrior . 300 
Warspite 311, 622 
Warwick . 645 
Warwick 

Castle . 373, 543 
Wasgenwald 467 
Washington 

379, 524, 538 
Watchman . 645 
Waterhen 

(R.A. Navy) 645 
Watussi . 404, 557 
Wayfarer . 470 
" W " Class, 

Admiralty 

(Destroyers) 645 
" W " Class, 

Admiralty 

Modified 

(Destroyers) 644 
" W " Class 

(Destroyers) 648 
" W " Class, 

Thornycroft 

(Destroyers) 646 
" W " Class, 

Thornycroft 

Modified 

(Destroyers) 646 



Weirbank 


552 


WINCHESTER 




645 


Wellamo 364, 


454 


Winchester 




Wellington 


653 


Castle . 373, 


543 


Welsh Coast 


439 


Windsor 


645 


Weser 


505 


Windsor Castle 




Wessex 


645 


369, 


543 


Westcott . 


645 


Wingatui 


546 


Western Coast 


438 


Winkfield 




426 


Western Prince 




Winnipeg 




538 


360, 


522 


Winterhude 




238 


Westernland . 


362 


Wisconsin 




538 


Westerwald . 


468 


WlSHART . 




646 


Westminster 


645 


Witch 




646 


Westmoreland 




Witell . 




468 


377, 


454 


WlTHERINGTON 




West Virginia 693 


644, 


648 


Weston . 


653 


Witram . 


468 


Whirlwind 


645 


WlVERN . 644, 


648 


Whitehall . 


644 


Wolf Class . 


670 


Whitley 608, 


645 


Wolfhound . 


645 


W T HITSHED 644, 


648 


Wolsey . 646, 


648 


WlCHETA . 


694 


Wolverine 




WlDNES . 


652 


644, 


648 


Wido . . 


506 


Woodcock 


462 


Wiegand 


506 


Woodlark 


462 


Wild Swan 




Woolston 646 


,648 


044 


648 


Woolwich . 


655 


Wilhelmina . 


493' 


Worcester 




William 




310, 644, 


648 


Wilberforce . 


447 


Worcestershire 




WlNCHELSEA 


645 


368, 


420 



738 



Index 



Worthing 


399 


Woyo Maru 


535 


Wren 


644 


Wrestler . 


645 


Wryneck 


645 


Wyneric . 


553 


Wyoming 


538 


X 




X.l 612, 65 


0, 651 


44 X " Class 




(Submarines 


650 



Yakumo Maru 516 
Yalou . . 495 
Yamagata 

Maru . .503 
Yamashiro . 679 
Yang-Tse . 495 
Yashima Maru 516 
Yasukuni 

Maru . 363, 501 
Yay© Maru . 480 



Ydun . . 458 
Yehime Maru 516 
Yngaren . . 535 
Yokohama . 503 
Yoma . 354, 471 
York. . 627, 628 
York Class 627 
Yorkshire 

369, 420 
Yorkshire 

Coast . . 438 
Yubari . . 682 



YURA 

685, 686 
Yuri Maru . 480 



Zacapa . . 548 

Zagreb . . 477 
Zara . 673, 674 

Zealandic . 528 

Zrinski . .479 
Zuiderkerk . 550 

Zweena . . 421 



739 



Notes 



740 



Notes 



741 



Notes 



742 



Notes 



743 



Notes 



744 



Notes 



745 



Notes 



746 



Notes 



747 



Notes 



748 



Notes 



749 



Notes 



750 



Notes 



751 



Notes 



752 



NN 
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